Are You Native? – Native American Haplogroup Origins and Ancestral Origins (2022)

At Family Tree DNA, having Haplogroup Origins and Ancestral Origins indicating Native American ancestry does not necessarilymean you are Native American or have Native American heritage.

This is a very pervasive myth that needs to be dispelled – although it’s easy to see how people draw that erroneous conclusion. Let’s look at why – and how to draw a correct conclusion.

The good news is that more and more people are DNA testing. The bad news is that errors in the system are tending to become more problematic, or said another way, GIGO – Garbage in, Garbage Out.

I want to address this problem in particular having to do with Native American ancestry – or the perception thereof.

At Family Tree DNA, everyone who tests their Y DNA or their mitochondrial DNA have both Haplogroup Origins and Ancestral Origins tabs as two of your 7 information tabs detailing your results.

The goals of these two pages are to provide the testers with locations around the world where their haplogroup is found, and locations where their matches’ ancestors are found – according to their matches.

Did a little neon danger sign start flashing? It should have.

Haplogroup Origins

Haplogroup Origins provides testers with information about the origins of other individuals who match your haplogroup both exactly and nearly. This data base uses the location information from both the Family Tree DNA participant data base and other academic or private databases.

Ancestral Origins

Ancestral Origins is comprised primarily of the results of the “most distant ancestor” country of your matches at Family Tree DNA. This tab is designed to provide you a view into the locations where your closest matches are found at each of the testing levels. After all, that’s where your ancestors are most likely to be from, as well.

Most of the time this works really well, providing valuable information to testers, assuming two things:

1. Participants who are entering the information for their “most distant ancestor” understand that in the case of the Y line DNA – this is the most distant directMALE ancestor who carries that paternal surname. Not his wife or someone else in that line.

Sometimes, people enter the name of the person in that line, in general, who lived to be the oldest – but that’s not what this field is requesting – the most distant – meaning further back in that direct line.

(Video) Origins of the first Americans

For mitochondrial DNA, this is the most distant FEMALE in your mother’s mother’s mother’s mother’s direct line – directly on up that maternal tree until you run out of mothers who have been identified. I can’t tell you how many male names I see listed as the “most distant ancestor” when I do DNA reports for people – and I know immediately that information is incorrect – along with their associated geographic locations.

In this mitochondrialexample, the third match shows a male Indian Chief. The first problem is that this is a mitochondrial DNA test, so the mitochondrial DNA could not havedescended from a male. If you don’t understand how Y and mitochondrial DNA descends from ancestors, click here.

Secondly, there is no known genealogical descent from this chief – but that really doesn’t matter because the mtDNA cannot descend from a male and the batter is out with the first problem, before you ever get to the second issue. However, if you are someone who is “looking for” Native American ancestry, this information is very welcome and even seems to be confirming – but it isn’t. It’s a red herring.

Unfortunately, this may now have perpetuated itself in some fashion, because look at the first and last lines of this next entry – again – another male chief. The second entry with a name is another male too, Domenico. Hmmm….maybe information entered by other participants isn’t always reliable and shouldn’t be taken at face value….

2. This approach works well if people enter only known, verified, proven information, not speculation. Herein lies the problem with Native American heritage. Let’s say that the family oral history says that my mother’s mother’s line is Native American. I decide to DNA test, so for the “Most Distant Ancestor”location I select “United States – Native American.”

The DNA test comes back and shows heritage other than Native, but that previous information that I entered is never changed in the system. Now, we have a non-Native haplogroup showing as a Native American result.

Unfortunately, I see this on an increasingly frequent basis – Native American “location” associated with non-Native haplogroups.

This scenario has been occurring for some time now. Family Tree DNA at one point attempted to help this situation by implementing a system in which you can select “United States” meaning you are brick walled here, and “United States Native American” which means your most distant ancestor in that line is Native American.

Native American Haplogroups

There are a very limited number of major haplogroups that include Native American results. For mitochondrial DNA, they are A, B, C, D, X and possibly M. I maintain a research list of the subgroups which are Native. Each of these base haplogroups also have subgroups which are European and/or Asian. The same holds true for Native American Y haplogroups Q and C.

In the Haplogroup Origins and Ancestral Origins, there are many examples where Non-Native haplogroups are assigned as Native American, such as haplogroup H1a below. Haplogroup H is European..

A big hint as to an incorrect “Native” designation is when most or many of the other exact haplogroups, especially full sequence haplogroups, are not Native. As Bennett Greenspan says, haplogroups and ethnicity are “guilt by genetic association.” You aren’t going to find the same subhaplogroup inCzechoslovakia, Serbia or Englandand as a Native American too.

(Video) Discovering Native American Ancestry through DNA

Haplogroup J is European.

Haplogroup K is European, and so is U2e1, below.

Unfortunately, what ishappening is that someone tests and see that out of several matches, one is Native American. People don’t even notice the rest of their matches, they only see the Native match, like the example above. They then decide that they too must be Native, because they have a Native match,so they change their own “most distant ancestor” location to reflect Native heritage. This happens most often when someone is brick walled in the US.

Another issue is that people see haplogroup X and realize that haplogroup X is one of the 5 mitochondrial haplogroups, A, B, C, D and X. that define Native American DNA. However, those haplogroups have many subgroups and only a few of those subgroups are Native American. Many are Asian or European. Regardless, participants see the main haplogroup designation of X and assume that means their ancestor was Native. They then enter Native American.

In the example above, haplogroup X1c has never been found in a Native American individual or population, although we are still actively looking. Haplogroup X2a is a Native American subgroup.

In some cases, we are finding new subgroups of known Native haplogroups that are Native. I recently wrote about this for haplogroup A4 where different subgroups are Asian, Jewish, Native and European. This is, however, within an already known base haplogroup that includes a Native American subgroup – haplogroup A4.

When testers see these “Native American” results under Haplogroup and Ancestral Origins, they become very encouraged and excited. Unfortunately, there is no way to verify which of your matches entered “Native American,” nor why, unless you have only a few matches and you can contact all of them.

When someone has tested at the full sequence level, remember that their results will show on these pages in the HVR1 section, the HVR2 section and the full sequence section. So while it may look like there are three Native American results, there is only one, listed once in all three locations where it “counts.” In the example below, there aretwo V3a1 full sequence matches that claim Native American. Those were the chiefs shown above. There are those two, plus one more HVR1+HVR2 individuals who has entered Native American as well. However, if the match total was one for the HVR1, HVR2 and coding regions, that would mean there is one person who tested and matched in all 3 categories, not that 3 people tested. In other words, you don’t add the match totals together.

What Does A Native Match Look Like?

Of course, not all matches that indicate Native heritage are incorrect. It’s a matter of looking at all of the available evidence and finding that guilt by genetic association.

In this first confirmed Native example, we see that the haplogroup is a known Native haplogroup, and all of the matches from outside the US are from areas known to have a preponderance of Native Americans in their population. For example, about 80% of the people from Mexico carry Native American mitochondrial DNA.

(Video) The Genetic History of Native Americans

In this second example, we see Native American indicated, plus Mexico and Canada, which it typical. In addition we see Spain. Just like some people assume Native American, some people from Mexico, Central and South America presume that their ancestors are from Spain, so I always take these with a grain of salt. Japan is a legitimate location for haplogroup B as well, especially given that this result is listed at the HVR1 level. If this individual tested at the HVR2 or full sequence level, they might be assigned to a different subgroup, and therefore would no longer be considered a match.

It’s not just what is present that’s important, but what is absent as well. There is no long list of full sequence matches to people whose ancestors come from European countries like the U2 example above. Spain is understandable, given the history of the settlement of the Americas, and that can be overlooked or considered and set aside. Japan makes sense too. But a European haplogroup combined with a long list of primarily European high level matches with only one or two “Native” matches is impossible to justify away.

What Does Native American Mean?

This discussionbegs the question of what Native American means.

It’s certainly possible for someone with a European or Africanhaplogroup to descend from someone who was a proven member of the a tribe. How is that possible? Adoption, slavery and kidnapping. All three were very prevalent practicesin the Native culture.

For example, Mary Jemison is a very well-known frontierswoman adopted by the Seneca with many descendants today. Was she Native? Yes, she was adopted by the tribe. Is her DNA Native? No. Were her ancestors Native? No, they were European. So, are her descendants Native, through her? She married a Native man, so her descendants are clearly Native through him. Whether you consider her descendants Native through her depends on how you define Native. I think the answer would be both yes and no, and both should be a part of the history of Mary Jemison and her descendants.

If a European or African women was kidnapped, enslaved or adopted into the tribe, and bore children, her children were full tribal members. Of course, today her descendants might have be unaware of her European or African roots, prior to her tribal membership. Her mtDNA would, of course, come back as European or African, not Native.

This is a case where the culture of the tribe involved may overshadow the DNA in terms of definition of “Indian.” However, genetically, that ancestor’s roots are still in either Europe or African, not in the Americas.

How Do We Know Which Haplogroups Are Native?

One of the problems we have today is that because there are so many people who carry the oral history of grandmother being “Cherokee,” it has become common to “self-assign” oneself as Native. That’s all fine and good, until one begins to “self-assign” those haplogroups as Native as well – by virtue of that “Native” assignment in the Family Tree DNA data base. That’s a horse of a different color.

Because having a Native American ancestor has become so popular, there are now entities who collect “self-assigned” Native descendants and ancestors and, if you match one of those “self-assigned” Native descendants and theirhaplogroups, voila, you too are magically Native.

I can tell you, beingan administrator for the American Indian, Cherokee, Tuscarora, Lumbee and other Native American DNAprojects – that list of “self-assigned” Native haplogroups would include every European and African haplogroup in existence – so we would one and all be Native – using that yardstick for comparison. How about that!

Bottom line – no matter how unhappy it makes people – that’s just not true.

A great deal of research has been undertaken over the past two decades into Native American genetic heritage – and continues today. The reason I started my Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup list is because it’s difficult to track and keep track of legitimate developments. Any time someone tells me they have “heard” that haplogroup H, for example, is Native, I ask them for a credible source. I’ve yet to see one.

How do we determine whether a haplogroup is Native, or not?

The litmus paper test is whether or not the haplogroup has been found in pre-contact burials. If yes, then it can be considered that the ancestor was living on this continent prior to European contact. Native people arrived from Asia, across Beringia into what is now Alaska, and then scattered over thousands of years across all of North and South America. We see subgroups of these same haplogroups across this entire space.

(Video) Where Did Ancient Native Americans Come From? with Dr. Nathaniel Jeanson

In some locations, the Native people are much less admixed than, for example, the tribes that came into the earliest and closest contact Europeans. These tribes were decimated and many are now extinct. I wrote about this in my paper titled, “Where Have All the Indians Gone.”

The tribes that are less admixed are probably the best barometers of Native heritage today.

We are hoping for new discoveries every day, but for today, we must rely on the information we have that is known and proven.

Interpreting Results Today

Native American haplogroup results today are subsets of Y DNA haplogroups Q and C. If you find a haplogroup O result that might potentially be Native, PLEASE let me know. This is also a possibility, but as yet unproven.

Mitochondrial Native American haplogroups include subgroups of A, B, C, D, X and possibly M.

If anyone tells you otherwise, personally or indirectly via Haplogroup or Ancestral Origins – keep in mind that extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof and data is only as good as its source. Look at all of the information – what is present, what is absent, the testing leveland what kind of documentation your matches have to share.

Finding your haplogroup listed as Native American in the Haplogroup or Ancestral Origins doesn’t make you Native American any more than it would make you an elephant if someone else listed “purpleelephant.”

The only things that make you Native American are either a confirmed Native haplogroup subgroup, preferably with proven Native matches, or a confirmed genealogical paper trail. Best of all scenarios is a combination of a Native haplogroup, matches that suggest or confirm your tribe and aproven paper trail. That combination removes all doubt.

Evidence

Of the various kinds of evidence, some can stand alone, and some cannot.

Evidence TypeEvidence ResultsComments
DNA Y or mitochondrialConfirmed Native American subgroup – can stand alone sometimesWith deep level testing, this can be enough to prove Native ancestry. For Y this generally means advanced SNP testing or matching to other proven Native participants. For mitochondrial DNA, it means full sequence testing.
Proven paper trailProven Native tribal membership, but does not prove ancestral originsNeeds DNA evidence to prove whether the tribal member was admixed.
Matches to Haplogroup or Ancestral OriginsIf Native is indicated, need to evaluate the rest of the information.Level of testing, haplogroup, locations of most distant ancestors of other matches need to be evaluated, plus any paper trail evidence.
Autosomal DNA matchesTo people with Native ancestryUnless you can prove a common ancestor through triangulation, those individuals with Native ancestry could be related to you through any ancestor. Matches to several people with Native ancestry does not indicate or suggest that you have Native ancestry.
Native DNA ethnicity through autosomal testingNative American resultsYou can generally rely on these results, especially if they are over 5%. Unless you have reason to believe that other regions could be providing some interfering results, this is probably a legitimate indication of Native heritage. Locations that sometimes give Native results are Asia and eastern European countries that absorbed Asian invaders, such as the Slavic countries and Germany. I wrote about this here.

If you don’t test, you can’t play. If you think you have Native American ancestry, you can take the Y DNA test (at least to 37 markers) if you are a male, the full sequence testif you are testing mitochondrial DNA, or Family Finder to match family members from all ancestral lines and discover if you show any Native American in your ethnicity estimate provided in myOrigins. Men can take all 3 tests and women can take the mitochondrialDNA and Family Finder tests. Family Tree DNA is the only testing company providing this comprehensive level of testing.

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(Video) Native American Indian and Indigenous Genealogical Research

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FAQs

What is the haplogroup of Native American? ›

Early studies of Native American mtDNA variation have shown that all Native American mtDNAs belong to haplogroups A, B, C, D and X, and that some of these haplogroups are also common along the northern Pacific Rim (Torroni et al.

What percentage of DNA do you need to be Native American? ›

Most tribes require a specific percentage of Native “blood,” called blood quantum, in addition to being able to document which tribal member you descend from. Some tribes require as much as 25% Native heritage, and most require at least 1/16th Native heritage, which is one great-great grandparent.

What is the best DNA test for Native American ancestry? ›

1. AncestryDNA — Best for Connecting With Genetic Relatives. As one of the most popular DNA testing companies, AncestryDNA has the largest genetic database around. This means it's the best DNA test for Native American ancestry if you're hoping to connect with others who share your genetic makeup.

Who are Native Americans most genetically related to? ›

Genetically, Native Americans are most closely related to East Asians. Native American genomes contain genetic signals from Western Eurasia due in part to their descent from a common Siberian population during the Upper Paleolithic period.

Why does my ancestry DNA not show my Native American heritage? ›

This is because you may have inherited genetic markers that AncestryDNA does not use to identify Indigenous American ethnicity. Additionally, some Native American communities are underrepresented in genetics research.

Why do I have Native American DNA? ›

What does it mean to show 1% Native American DNA on results? Showing 1% Native American on DNA results means that 1% of the DNA that you inherited from your mother and/or father matches the Native American region as defined by your DNA testing company.

How accurate are DNA tests for Native American ancestry? ›

Despite advances in genetic tests' capacity to pinpoint ancestral relationships, none of the companies can definitively state that ancestral relationships are aligned with any particular tribe. No genetic tests can determine tribal affiliation, nor can they definitively prove Native American ancestry.

Can DNA testing tell if you are Native American? ›

A DNA test may be able to tell you whether or not you're Indian, but it will not be able to tell you what tribe or nation your family comes from, and DNA testing is not accepted by any tribe or nation as proof of Indian ancestry.

How many generations can claim Indian status? ›

The ability to transfer Indian status to children was created, as well. After two consecutive generations of parents who do not have Indian status (non-Indians), the third generation is no longer entitled to registration.

What does Native American mean on AncestryDNA? ›

Native American tribal members are citizens of their nations. This is a political and cultural identification rather than a genetic identification, similar to being a citizen of any other country. In the United States, there are more than 570 federally recognized tribal nations and over 60 state-recognized tribes.

How do I know if I'm Native American? ›

A DNA test can act as a very helpful tool when looking into your ancestry, in particular, if you have Native American ancestry, but there exist other ways of looking into your ancestral past too. For people researching the potential of a Native American past, you can: Look at available immigration or census records.

How do I find out my Native American percentage? ›

Tribal Blood Quantum Calculator and Requirements
  1. 50 Percent / One-Half Blood Quantum (One Parent)
  2. 25 Percent / One-Fourth Blood Quantum (One Grandparent)
  3. 12.5 Percent / One-Eighth Blood Quantum (One Great-Grandparent)
  4. 6.25 Percent / One-Sixteenth Blood Quantum (One Great-Great-Grandparent)
  5. Lineal Native American Descent.
Jan 8, 2018

What blood type do Native American have? ›

All major ABO blood alleles are found in most populations worldwide, whereas the majority of Native Americans are nearly exclusively in the O group. O allele molecular characterization could aid in elucidating the possible causes of group O predominance in Native American populations.

What are Indians mixed with? ›

Most Indian groups descend from a mixture of two genetically divergent populations: Ancestral North Indians (ANI) related to Central Asians, Middle Easterners, Caucasians, and Europeans; and Ancestral South Indians (ASI) not closely related to groups outside the subcontinent.

Where did natives originally come from? ›

About 25,000 years ago, Native Americans' ancestors split from the people living in Siberia. Later, they moved across a land bridge connecting Siberia and Alaska, making it into the Pacific Northwest between 17,000 and 14,000 years ago.

Can blood test prove Indian heritage? ›

Could A Blood or DNA Test Prove AI/AN Ancestry? Blood tests and DNA tests will not help an individual document his or her descent from a specific Federally recognized tribe or tribal community.

Does Native American DNA show up on 23andMe? ›

Currently 23andMe has several features that can reveal genetic evidence of Indigenous American ancestry, although they are not considered a confirmatory test or proof of such ancestry in a legal context.

Does ancestry show Native American heritage? ›

Ancestry kits can't determine Native American identity. Community relationships, traditions, and shared experiences are more important aspects of identity.

What does it mean to be 1 Native American? ›

Given such a small 1% Native American ethnicity estimate just how many generations would we need to go back to find that 100% Native ancestor? Well, a 1% match indicates that 100% ancestry was likely 6 – 8 generations back. This means they could be as close as your great-great-great-great grandparent.

What are the DNA markers for Native American? ›

On the mitochondrial DNA, there are a total of five different ÒhaplotypesÓ, called A, B, C, D, and X, which areincreasingly called “Native American markers,” and are believed to be a genetic signature of the founding ancestors.

How is Degree of Indian Blood determined? ›

Your degree of Indian blood is computed from lineal ancestors of Indian blood who were enrolled with a federally recognized Indian tribe or whose names appear on the designated base rolls of a federally recognized Indian tribe.

How do you prove Indian ancestry? ›

When establishing descent from an Indian tribe for membership and enrollment purposes, the individual must provide genealogical documentation. The documentation must prove that the individual lineally descends from an ancestor who was a member of the federally recognized tribe from which the individual claims descent.

What was the double mother clause? ›

"Double mother clause"

This clause in Bill C-31 mandated that the greatgrandchildren of Status Indian women who married non-Status men would not be considered Status Indians themselves.

Who qualifies as Indigenous? ›

“Indigenous” describes any group of people native to a specific region. In other words, it refers to people who lived there before colonists or settlers arrived, defined new borders, and began to occupy the land.

What is a 6 2 status Indian? ›

If an individual registered under section 6(1) parents with a non-Indian, their children will be entitled under section 6(2). If an individual registered under section 6(2) parents with a non-Indian, their children will not be entitled to registration.

What are some Native American surnames? ›

Last Name/SurnameTotal1Rank4
SMITH2,442,9771
JOHNSON1,932,8122
BEGAY17,5533
LOCKLEAR19,7164
74 more rows

How do I trace my Indian roots? ›

PIOs who intend to trace their roots in India need to apply in a prescribed Form, through the Indian Mission/Post in the country of their residence. Application Form for this purpose is available on this website.

How do you know your bloodline? ›

Totally Free Genealogy Websites
  1. AccessGenealogy. This grab-bag of free genealogy records keeps growing.
  2. Allen County Public Library. ...
  3. Ancestral Findings. ...
  4. Ancestry Library Edition. ...
  5. Books We Own. ...
  6. Facebook. ...
  7. FamilySearch. ...
  8. Genealogy Bargains.

How much blood do you need for Cherokee? ›

Unlike some tribes, including the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma, the Cherokee Nation does not have a "blood quantum." That means while percentage of Native blood may be listed on a CDIB card, there is no minimum requirement to be a citizen.

What is the oldest blood type? ›

In molecular history, type A appears to be the 'oldest' blood type, in the sense that the mutations that gave rise to types O and B appear to stem from it. Geneticists call this the wild-type or ancestral allele.

What ethnicity is O positive blood? ›

O positive: African-American: 47% Asian: 39% Caucasian: 37%

What ethnicity has type B blood? ›

Distribution of blood types in the United States as of 2021, by ethnicity
CharacteristicO-positiveB-positive
Caucasian37%9%
African American47%18%
Asian39%25%
Latino-American53%9%
Oct 14, 2021

Is Indian an ethnicity or nationality? ›

In India, the term "Indian" refers to nationality, rather than a particular ethnicity or language; the Indian nationality consists of dozens of regional ethnolinguistic groups, reflecting the population's rich and complex history.

What was America called before it was America? ›

On September 9, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted a new name for what had been called the "United Colonies.” The moniker United States of America has remained since then as a symbol of freedom and independence.

Who were the first Native Americans? ›

For decades archaeologists thought the first Americans were the Clovis people, who were said to have reached the New World some 13,000 years ago from northern Asia. But fresh archaeological finds have established that humans reached the Americas thousands of years before that.

Who were the first people to come to America? ›

Five hundred years before Columbus, a daring band of Vikings led by Leif Eriksson set foot in North America and established a settlement. And long before that, some scholars say, the Americas seem to have been visited by seafaring travelers from China, and possibly by visitors from Africa and even Ice Age Europe.

What blood type are Native American? ›

All major ABO blood alleles are found in most populations worldwide, whereas the majority of Native Americans are nearly exclusively in the O group. O allele molecular characterization could aid in elucidating the possible causes of group O predominance in Native American populations.

Can 23andMe detect Native American? ›

While 23andMe can reveal genetic evidence of Native American ancestry, it cannot identify specific tribal affiliations. Want to learn whether you have Native American ancestry? Take a DNA test with 23andMe and get a breakdown of your global ancestry, connect with DNA relatives and more.

What is the Viking haplogroup? ›

Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a1 has been considered as a possible marker for Viking migrations because of its high frequency in peninsular Scandinavia (Norway and Sweden).

How do I find out what Native American tribe I am from? ›

www.bia.gov/bia/ois/tgs/genealogy Publishes a downloadable Guide to Tracing Your Indian Ancestry. Has a vast online library, Tracing Native American Family Roots. www.ncai.org/tribal-directory Provides the online tribal directory where contact information for specific tribes can be found.

What ethnicity is O positive blood? ›

O positive: African-American: 47% Asian: 39% Caucasian: 37%

What blood type is the oldest? ›

In molecular history, type A appears to be the 'oldest' blood type, in the sense that the mutations that gave rise to types O and B appear to stem from it. Geneticists call this the wild-type or ancestral allele.

What ethnicity has type B blood? ›

Distribution of blood types in the United States as of 2021, by ethnicity
CharacteristicO-positiveB-positive
Caucasian37%9%
African American47%18%
Asian39%25%
Latino-American53%9%
Oct 14, 2021

Does Native American blood show up in DNA test? ›

A DNA test may be able to tell you whether or not you're Indian, but it will not be able to tell you what tribe or nation your family comes from, and DNA testing is not accepted by any tribe or nation as proof of Indian ancestry.

Can AncestryDNA tell if you are Native American? ›

Ancestry kits can't determine Native American identity. Community relationships, traditions, and shared experiences are more important aspects of identity.

How accurate are DNA tests for Native American ancestry? ›

Despite advances in genetic tests' capacity to pinpoint ancestral relationships, none of the companies can definitively state that ancestral relationships are aligned with any particular tribe. No genetic tests can determine tribal affiliation, nor can they definitively prove Native American ancestry.

At Family Tree DNA , having Haplogroup Origins and Ancestral Origins indicating Native American ancestry does not necessarily mean you are Native American or have Native American heritage.. Because having a Native American ancestor has become so popular, there are now entities who collect “self-assigned” Native descendants and ancestors and, if you match one of those “self-assigned” Native descendants and their haplogroups, voila, you too are magically Native.. I can tell you, being an administrator for the American Indian, Cherokee, Tuscarora, Lumbee and other Native American DNA projects – that list of “self-assigned” Native haplogroups would include every European and African haplogroup in existence – so we would one and all be Native – using that yardstick for comparison.. For mitochondrial DNA, it means full sequence testing.Proven paper trailProven Native tribal membership, but does not prove ancestral originsNeeds DNA evidence to prove whether the tribal member was admixed.Matches to Haplogroup or Ancestral OriginsIf Native is indicated, need to evaluate the rest of the information.Level of testing, haplogroup, locations of most distant ancestors of other matches need to be evaluated, plus any paper trail evidence.Autosomal DNA matchesTo people with Native ancestryUnless you can prove a common ancestor through triangulation, those individuals with Native ancestry could be related to you through any ancestor.. If you think you have Native American ancestry , you can take the Y DNA test (at least to 37 markers) if you are a male, the full sequence test if you are testing mitochondrial DNA, or Family Finder to match family members from all ancestral lines and discover if you show any Native American in your ethnicity estimate provided in myOrigins.

Having said that, haplogroup X2a and subgroups is very clearly the rarest of the Native American mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and it’s certainly feasible that not enough testing has been performed on living or ancestral people to discover X2 or X2a directly ancestral individuals.. Note on the X2a map above reflecting the oldest known ancestral locations, that no locations appear outside of North America.. This is the reason, not just for X2a, but for other haplogroups as well, that some subgroups exist only in Native people in the New World and not in Asia from whence they came.. Kennewick Man who carries the oldest form of haplogroup X2a yet found in the Americas was dated to be about 9,000 years old and was found in Washington State, so clearly X2a was present in the Native population 9,000 years ago and on the western side of the continent.. Haplogroup X2a was found in Kennewick man who lived 9000 years ago, in Washington State, so X2a in the Americas predates the proposed Hebrew migration by some 6,500 years.. However, the genetic signature of West Eurasian ancestry in Native American people is found equally in all Native American genomes tested to date, and as such, predates the evolution of regional genetic structure within North and South America as reflected in migration patterns.

Therefore, they indicate the genetic lines of people and the regions they come from that are the oldest we’ve been able to identify.. In genetic genealogy, these subgroups are called “subclades.”. Some of the common U subtypes like U3 and U4 can be found in Europe.. Researchers believe that this group after migrating North became the dominant lineage among the foragers who eventually settled in Central and South Asia, becoming the Indo-Iranian groups.. This movement of Eurasia’s ancestors out of Africa supports widely held theories about an African origin for the older haplogroups, such as D and its subclades.. Age: 80,000 years Region: Europe Period: Middle Paleolithic. However, we’ve traced the N group between 60,000 and 80,000 years ago and learned a lot about migrations during the Ice Age.. Haplogroup L is the most ancient ancestral line that can be traced directly back from modern Homo sapiens.. In other words, the mitochondrial lineage or mtDNA of this haplogroup is the most recent common ancestor of all living humans.. These have been found in Neanderthal fossils throughout Africa between 200,000 and 150,000 years ago.. Many people could be assigned the status of Mitochondrial Eve if their mtDNA showed patterns of mutation of greater depth since the mtDNA in question is not the oldest in the world, but just the oldest whose lineage can be traced straight back through only female ancestors.. This early-mid Paleolithic line comes from a group of people co-existing in Africa, Europe, and Asia.

If you don’t want the details, but you know you want to help now….and we have to pay for these tests by the end of the day December 1 to take advantage of the sale price…you can click below to help fund the Big Y testing for Native American haplogroups Q and C. Both the haplogroup Q and C projects need approximately $990.. Since that time, additional markers have been found through the Walk the Y program and other research.. But the good news is that the Big Y, like its predecessor, the WTY, has the ability to find new SNPs.. In the haplogroup Q project, we do have a few people who are testing.. If not, then the coupon can be donated to us, as project administrators, to apply towards the Big Y test of someone else in the group who is testing.

Specifically, the small percentages are often of Native American or results that would suggest Native admixture.. One of the first questions I always ask is whether or not the individual has Germanic or eastern European admixture.. Take a look at this map of the Invasion of the Roman Empire.. Since both the Hungarians and some Germanic people descend from Asian populations, as do Native Americans, albeit thousands of years apart, it’s not unrealistic to expect that, as populations, they share a genetic connection.. Therefore, when people who carry heritage from this region of the world show small amounts of Native or Asian origin, I’m not surprised.. Let’s see what his DNA results say, relative to any Asian or Native heritage, utilizing the testing companies and the free admixture tools at www.gedmatch.com .. Moving to the admixture tools at GedMatch, MDLP is not recommended for Asian or Native ancestry, so I have excluded that tool.. Eurogenes K13 showed 7% West Asian, which makes perfect sense considering his heritage, but it might be counted as “Native” in other circumstances, although I would certainly be very skeptical about counting it as such.. The 12b version does show .52% Siberian and 2.6% Southwest Asian, although I’m not at all sure the Southwest Asian should be included.. Neither Family Tree DNA nor 23andMe find Native ancestry in our German/Hungarian tester, but all 3 of the admixture tools at Gedmatch find either small amounts of Native or Asian ancestry that could certainly be interpreted as Native, such as Siberian or Beringian.. Does this mean this German/Hungarian man has Native American ancestry?. You can read about this type of testing, and how it works, in my article, Proving Native American Ancestry Using DNA .. You can also read about other ways to prove Native ancestry using autosomal DNA, including how to unravel which pedigree line the Native ancestry descends from, utilizing admixture tools, in the article, “ The Autosomal Me .”. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Their remains were discovered a few years ago at a site known today as the Upward Sun River.. This genome gives us a glimpse of the genetic diversity present in Late Pleistocene Beringians, the ancestors of Native Americans, and confirms a decades-old hypothesis for the early peopling of the Americas.. We’ve known for a long time that the indigenous peoples of the Americas are descended from a group of people who crossed a land connection between Asia and North America sometime during the Last Glacial Maximum (26,500 to 19,000 years before present, or YBP).. This model states that the ancient Beringians must have experienced a long period of isolation from all other populations.. During this period they developed the genetic variation uniquely found in Native American populations.. Although we don’t have any direct archaeological evidence of people living in central Beringia during the LGM – because that region is currently underneath the ocean – we do have evidence that people were living year round in western Beringia (present-day Siberia) at the Yana Rhinocerous Horn sites by 30,000 YBP and in eastern Beringia (present-day Yukon, in Canada) by about 20-22,000 YBP at the Bluefish Caves site.. Moreno-Mayar et al.’s nuclear genome results from one of the children (the other didn’t yield enough nuclear DNA for analysis) confirm that she belonged to a group that had remained in Beringia after Native Americans began their migration southward into the Americas.. We know that because this child is equally related to all indigenous populations in the Americas.

That can be great for finding living relatives and ethnicity, but tells you nothing about your ancient past.. For that, you need an mtDNA test or a YDNA test (or both).. The YDNA J1 haplogroup and the mtDNA J1 haplogroup are not the same!. That means that any particular country or region will have certain maternal and paternal haplogroups that are most common, but several other haplogroups will often be present as well.. These trace maternal lines back as far as possible, and can help you link up with other descendants from that maternal ancestor.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is inherited from direct maternal ancestors.. Since we inherit autosomal DNA from all of our ancestors going back about six generations, this means that Carlota likely did not have a substantial amount of African admixture, since Ellen’s results include only 0.1 percent African.. This pattern of inheritance seen on Ellen’s 15th chromosome suggests that the African ancestry was likely inherited from the same ancestor as the Native American DNA.. Now let’s look at Ellen’s mitochondrial DNA haplogroup subclade.. In conclusion, the DNA leaves no doubt that Ellen has African ancestry inherited from her matrilineal second great-grandmother, Carlota, and her mother, Trinidad Gomez, and that they had African ancestry on their direct maternal ancestral line.

Videos

1. Your DNA Portal Native American Origins Update: 3 New Tests
(Kinfolk Chat with Swarthy Daisy)
2. Native American haplogroups European lineage, Douglas Wallace DNA Learning Center
(Haplogroup hx)
3. Origins Ep 2 / DNA - K1a1a / Haplogroup / MtDNA
(Stephen and Yhana - History and Adventure Hunters)
4. A Montana Man Has The Oldest DNA Native To America – And It Alters What We Know About Our Ancestors
(LET ME KNOW)
5. Who Exactly is a “Native American?”
(Masaman)
6. Book of Mormon Evidence Pt.5: Haplogroup X2a DNA In Native Americans
(Michael P)

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