English Vocabulary In Use Upper-intermediate Book With Answers And Enhanced Ebook: Vocabulary Reference And Practice [PDF] [2nd5q9r3ts90] (2022)

University Printing House, Cambridge CB2 8BS, United Kingdom One Liberty Plaza, 20th Floor, New York, NY 10006, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia 4843/24, 2nd Floor, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, Delhi – 110002, India 79 Anson Road, #06–04/06, Singapore 079906 Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge. It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence. www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/elt © Cambridge University Press 2017 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 1994 Fourth Edition 2017 A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 978-131663174-4 Edition with answers and ebook ISBN 978-131663175-1 Edition with answers ISBN 978-131663177-5 ebook Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables, and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter.

Contents Thanks Enhanced ebook Introduction Effective vocabulary learning 1 Learning vocabulary 2 Organising a vocabulary notebook 3 Using your dictionary 4 Guessing and explaining meaning Topics 5 Countries, nationalities and languages

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

The weather Describing people: appearance Describing people: personality Idioms describing people Relationships At home Everyday minor problems Global problems Education Higher education Work Business Sport Art and literature Theatre and cinema Music Food Physical geography Environmental problems Towns The natural world Clothes Health and medicine Medicine and technology Health and lifestyle

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41

Travel Holidays Science and technology Computers Communications and the Internet Social media The press and the media Politics and public institutions Crime Money Describing objects

Feelings and actions 42 Belief and opinion 43 Pleasant and unpleasant feelings 44 Like, dislike and desire 45 Speaking 46 The six senses 47 What your body does 48 Praising and criticising 49 Emotions and moods 50 Commenting on problematic situations

Basic concepts 51 Number, quantity, degree and intensity

52 53 54 55

Numbers and shapes

56 57 58 59

Sound and light

60

Success, failure and difficulty

Time Distances and dimensions Obligation, need, possibility and probability Possession and giving Movement and speed Texture, brightness, weight and density

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

3

Connecting and linking words 61 Time: connecting words and expressions

62 63

Condition Cause, reason, purpose and result

64 65 66 67

Concession and contrast

68 69

Linking words in writing

Addition Referring words Discourse markers in spoken English Talking and communicating

Word formation 70 Suffixes 71 Prefixes 72 Roots 73 Abstract nouns 74 Compound adjectives 75 Compound nouns 1: noun + noun 76 Compound nouns 2: verb + preposition

77 78 79

Binomials Abbreviations and acronyms Multi-word expressions

Words and pronunciation 80 Words commonly mispronounced 81 Onomatopoeic words 82 Homophones and homographs

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English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Counting people and things 83 Uncountable nouns 84 Words that only occur in the plural 85 Countable and uncountable nouns with different meanings

86

Making uncountable nouns countable

87 88

Collective nouns Containers and contents

Phrasal verbs and verb-based expressions 89 Expressions with do and make 90 Expressions with bring and take 91 Expressions with get 92 Expressions with set and put 93 Expressions with come and go 94 Expressions with other common verbs

Varieties and styles 95 Formal and informal words 1 96 Formal and informal words 2 97 Similes 98 Proverbs 99 The language of signs and notices 100 Headline English 101 US English Answer key Phonemic symbols Index Acknowledgements

Thanks Sabina Ostrowska wrote two new units for the Fourth Edition: Unit 15, Higher Education, and Unit 36, Social Media. The publishers would like to thank Sabina for her contribution to this new edition.

Enhanced ebook You can buy this book with or without an ebook. The ebook has the same vocabulary explanations as the book.

Using the ebook You can use your ebook on an iPad, Android tablet, PC or Mac. You can listen to the text on the left-hand page to help you with your listening and pronunciation. Using the ebook, you can: Listen to examples

Make notes

Highlight text

Bookmark pages

How to get your ebook Follow the instructions in the inside front cover of this book. English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

5

Introduction To the student This book has been written to help you learn new vocabulary. You already know a large number of English words, but to express yourself more fully and in a more sophisticated way at the upperintermediate level, you will ideally need about 4,000 words, so increasing your vocabulary is very important for your general progress in English. In this book, there are over 2,500 new words and phrases for you to learn. You will find them on the left-hand page of each unit. Every new word or phrase is used in a sentence, or in a conversation, or is in a table, or has a picture with it, or has some explanation of what it means. On the right-hand page there are exercises and other activities to help you practise using the words and to help you to remember them. The book has been written so that you can use it yourself, without a teacher. You can do the units in any order you like, but we believe it is a good idea if you do Units 1 to 4 first, as they will help you to work with the rest of the book in the best possible way. The Answer key at the end of the book is for you to check your answers to the exercises after you do them. The Answer key sometimes has more than one answer. This is because often there is not just one correct way of saying something. Where you are asked to talk about yourself, in the Over to you exercises, we do not generally provide answers, since this is your opportunity to work completely independently and in a very personal way, so everyone’s answers will be very different. The Index at the end of the book has all the important words and phrases from the left-hand pages. The Index also tells you how to pronounce words. There is a table of phonemic symbols to help you understand the pronunciation on page 258. You should also have a dictionary with you when you use the book. You can use a paper dictionary or an electronic one, or you can go to Cambridge Dictionaries Online at http://dictionary.cambridge.org. Access to a dictionary is useful because sometimes you may want to check the meaning of something, or find a word in your own language to help you remember the English word. Sometimes, you will also need a dictionary for the exercises; we tell you when this is so. To learn a lot of vocabulary, you have to do two things: 1 Study each unit of the book carefully and do all the exercises. Check your answers in the Answer key. Repeat the units after a month, and then again after three months, and see how much you have learnt and how much you have forgotten. 2 Develop ways of your own to study and learn new words and phrases which are not in this book. For example, every time you see or hear an interesting phrase, write it in a notebook, and write who said it or wrote it, and in what situation, as well as what it means. Making notes of the situations words are used in will help you to remember them and to use them at the right moment. We hope you like this book. When you have finished it, you can go to the next book in the series, English Vocabulary in Use Advanced. Along with this book, you can also use the more specialised titles: English Idioms in Use, English Phrasal Verbs in Use and English Collocations in Use, all of which are available at intermediate and advanced levels. Find out more at http://www.cambridge.org/elt

6

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

To the teacher This book can be used in class or as a self-study book. It is intended to take learners from a lower-intermediate level of vocabulary to an upper-intermediate level. The vocabulary has been chosen for its usefulness in everyday situations, and we consulted the Cambridge International Corpus (now known as the Cambridge English Corpus), a written and spoken corpus of presentday English, including a huge learner corpus, to help us decide on the words and phrases to be included for students at B2 (CEFR) level. The new vocabulary (on average 25–30 items per unit) is presented with illustrations and explanations on the left-hand page, and there are exercises and activities on the right-hand page. There is an Answer key and an Index with pronunciation for the target vocabulary. The Answer key at the end of the book is for students to check their answers to the exercises after they do them. The book focuses not just on single words, but on useful phrases and collocations, and the vocabulary is illustrated in natural contexts. The book is organised around everyday topics, but also has units devoted to basic concepts such as time, number and movement, linking words, word formation, multi-word expressions, pronunciation and varieties and style, as well as a set of initial units concerned with ways of learning vocabulary. Typical errors are indicated where appropriate, based on information from the Cambridge Learner Corpus, and the most typical meanings and uses are focused on for each item. The units in the book can be used in any order you like, but we would advise doing the initial units (Units 1 to 4) first, as these lay the foundations for the rest of the book. The right-hand pages offer a variety of different types of activities, with some traditional ones such as gap-filling, but also more open-ended ones and personalised activities which enable learners to talk about their own lives. Although the activities and exercises are designed for selfstudy, they can easily be adapted for pairwork, groupwork or whole-class activities in the usual way. The Answer key sometimes gives alternative answers to the exercises. This is because often there is not just one correct way of saying something. Where students are asked to talk about themselves, in the Over to you exercises, we do not generally provide answers, since these exercises give learners the opportunity to work completely independently and in a very personal way, so everyone’s answers will be very different. When the learners have worked through a group of units, it is a good idea to repeat some of the work (for example, the exercises) and to expand on the meaning and use of key words and phrases by extra discussion in class, and find other examples of the key items in other texts and situations. This can be done at intervals of one to three months after first working on a unit. This is important, since it is usually the case that learners need five to seven exposures to a word or phrase before they can really begin to know it, and no single book can do enough to ensure that words are always learnt first time. When your students have finished all the units in this book, they will be ready to move on to the higher-level books in this series: English Vocabulary in Use Advanced, and the advanced levels of English Idioms in Use, English Phrasal Verbs in Use and English Collocations in Use, by the same authors as this book. Find more resources for teachers at http://www.cambridge.org/elt We hope you enjoy using the book.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

7

Study unit

1

Learning vocabulary

A

What do you need to learn?

B

What does knowing a new word mean?

Did you know that there are over half a million words in English but that the average native speaker only uses about 5,000 in everyday speech? You already know many of those 5,000 words. This book will help you to learn many of those that you do not yet know and it will help you to use them appropriately and accurately.

It is not enough just to know the meaning of a word. You also need to know: – which words it is usually used with; – its grammatical characteristics; – how it is pronounced; – whether it is formal, informal or neutral.

So when you learn a word you should make sure that you: • Learn new words in phrases not in isolation. • Notice how words commonly go together. These are called collocations and include:

adjectives + nouns, e.g. rich vocabulary, classical music, common sense; verbs + nouns, e.g. to express an opinion, to take sides; nouns in phrases, e.g. in touch with, a train set, a sense of humour; words + prepositions, e.g. at a loss for words, in particular. • Notice special grammatical characteristics of new words. For example, note irregular verbs, e.g. undertake, undertook, undertaken; uncountable nouns, e.g. luggage; or nouns that are only used in the plural, e.g. scissors. • Notice any special pronunciation problems with new words. • Check if the word is particularly formal or informal in character, in other words if it has a particular register.

C

How can you help yourself to memorise words? Research suggests that some students find it easier to learn words if they (a) learn them in groups and (b) make use of pictures, as shown here. You can group words in any way you like – topic, grammatical feature, word root, and so on. The unit titles in this book might give you some ideas.

D

How can you help yourself learn more words? This book will help you to learn vocabulary in a systematic way. However, you can also help yourself to learn more words and expressions by reading and listening to as much English as possible. Here are some ideas about things you can read or listen to: YouTube academic or websites audio books professional magazines TV reference material recipes poetry blogs

8

literature

radio, e.g. BBC World Service

films

newspapers songs

fiction tweets

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

(dictionaries, encyclopedias)

podcasts

sports reports

conversations with native speakers

1

Exercises 1.1

Here are some aspects of grammar to be aware of when learning new vocabulary. Give two examples of words that reflect this aspect of grammar. 1 2 3 4

1.2

scissors

a noun only used in the plural an uncountable noun an irregular verb a noun with an irregular plural

What aspect of pronunciation should you notice about the following words? 3 chemistry 4 answer 5 a record / to record

1 subtle the b is silent

(not pronounced)

2 catastrophe

1.3

Study unit

6 photograph / photographer / photographic

Read the text. Use words from the box to complete each ‘collocations fork’. English has a remarkable range of words. Thanks to periods of contact with foreign languages and its readiness to coin new words out of old elements, English has a particularly large vocabulary. For example, as well as kingly (from Anglo- Saxon) we find royal (from French) and regal (from Latin). There are many such sets of words, which make it possible to express subtle shades of meaning.

1.4

coincidence range

difference shade

1 a remarkable

range likeness 2 coincidence

3 a royal

a phrase new words

4 a subtle

4 to alight (from a bus) 5 to feel gutted 6 a felon

7 to bug someone 8 to zone out

king, queen, prince, princess royalty - duke sunshade, shady, shadow, shade, to shadow, shadowy articulate, communicate, convey, express, put across noun, verb, adjective, adverb subtle, comb, lamb, crumb, debt, plumber

Draw a picture to help you remember each of the following vocabulary items. 1 circle

1.7

to coin

palace welcome

A student learnt each of these sets of words as a group. What is the unifying factor for each group? Can you add one more word to each group? 1 2 3 4 5

1.6

likeness a term

Write i by the words that are informal and f by those that are formal. 1 guys i 2 a minor 3 Awesome!

1.5

family suggestion

2 to coin new words

3 screwdriver

4 to drip

Over to you Look at the suggestions in D. Can you think of any other ideas to add to the list? Think about the ways of learning vocabulary that you use now, and think about ways you could use more in the future.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

9

Study unit

2 A

Organising a vocabulary notebook Organising words by meaning Try dividing your notebook into different broad sections, with sections for words for feelings, words to describe places, words for movement, words for thinking, etc. Charts and tables of various kinds can help you organise your vocabulary. Here is an example for words connected with music:

Instruments guitar cello piano B

Types of music

Verbs

Related words

classical (not classic) folk (not folkloric) world

play strum (a guitar) perform

practice (n) practise (vb)

Building networks of meaning A network diagram is useful. It can grow in whatever direction you want it to. sign up unfriend someone

tweet

virus

THE WEB surfing pop-up

homepage

password

security

social networks

link

C

track release (an album)

upload (verbs)

download post

email forward

identity theft

junk mail

spam

Collocations and fixed phrases It is important to know how a word combines with other words (its collocations). Always record the common collocations of a word as you meet them, e.g. win (prize, award, medal) earn (money, a high salary) gain (time, an advantage) Where a word is often used in a fixed phrase, always record the whole phrase, e.g. in a hurry out of touch to and fro now and again

D

Synonyms and antonyms

E

Organising by word class

F

Stress

When you find a synonym (same meaning) or an antonym (opposite meaning) of a word you already have in your book, enter it next to that word with a few notes, e.g. urban ≠ rural stop = cease (cease is very formal)

Make a note of the word class of a new word (whether it is a noun, verb, adjective, etc.). Record words from the same word family together, e.g. produce (verb or noun) product (noun) productive (adjective)

Record where the stress falls on a multi-syllable word, especially if the stress changes between word classes, e.g. produce (verb) produce (noun) productive (adjective)

Language help Note any typical errors you make or which your teacher has mentioned.

10

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

2

Exercises 2.1

Study unit

Organise the words into the topics below. Use a dictionary if necessary. tabloid stress hang out with sb exhaustion podcast overwork upload a video burnt out blogosphere journalist snowed under with work casual acquaintance blog be close to sb count on sb be under pressure topic

words

working too much / too hard

stress

friendship media

2.2

Here is a list of words a learner of English made in a vocabulary notebook in class. Organise them in a more efficient way, using the chart. rush oversleep latecomer out of breath heavy sleeper exhausted nouns

verbs

alarm clock set a clock deep sleep fast asleep in a hurry breathless nightmare dash yawn

adjectives

collocations

fixed phrases

latecomer

2.3

Change the sentences using a synonym (S) or antonym (A) of the words in bold using words from the box. glad

spicy

deprive sb of sth

shot

dissatisfied

chilly

1 I was pleased glad to hear you’d passed your exam. (S) 2 I got some excellent photos of the Grand Canyon on my trip to the US. (S) 3 She was happy with the conditions they offered her in the new job. (A) 4 The prisoners were supplied with food and medical care. (A) 5 I don’t like mild curries. (A) 6 It’s a cold day today. (S)

2.4

Fill in the missing word forms. Then mark the word stress for each item. noun

verb

adjective

person

perfection

perfect

perfect

perfectionist

information

inform

politics economics

*

* Give two adjectives.

2.5

Over to you Think about your own learning style and which ways of organising vocabulary would work best for you.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

11

Study unit

3 A

Using your dictionary What a good dictionary tells you: the basics A good learners’ dictionary ( in book form or online) can tell you about: • Pronunciation: this may mean learning some symbols which are different from the letters of

the English alphabet.

T

th in thick

ð

th in then

ʧ

ch in church

S

sh in she

ʤ

j in jam

ʒ

s in pleasure

ŋ

ng in ring

æ

a in bad

ɒ

o in top

O:

or in form

ʊ

u in put

@

a in about

ʌ

u in up

ɜː

ir in bird

• Word stress: often shown by a mark before the syllable to be stressed or by underlining or

bold type, e.g. /əd'venʧə/, /westən/, complicated. • Usage: how a word is used and any special grammatical pattern that goes with it, e.g. suggest + clause (not an infinitive) – I suggest you ring her right away. (NOT I suggest you to ring her right away.)

B

Additional information • Synonyms (words of similar meaning) and antonyms (opposites), e.g. mislay and misplace (synonyms), friend ≠ enemy/foe (antonyms). • Collocations (how words go together), e.g. the adjective firm is often used in these •

collocations: firm commitment, firm grip, firm believer. Whether a verb is transitive or intransitive: catch is transitive and must have an object, e.g. He caught the ball and threw it back to me; laugh is intransitive and does not need an object, e.g. She laughed when I told her the news. Whether a word is used for people and/or things. In this entry for the adjective hurtful in the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary online, hurtful /ˈhɜːtfəl/ adjective we can see that hurtful can be used about what someone says or about someone: causing emotional pain: That was a very hurtful remark! Word class (often as abbreviations n noun, adj How can you be so hurtful? adjective, etc.), and whether a noun is countable or uncountable. Information about how words are related to one another through meaning. The Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary online allows you to see a visual display of the networks of meaning for a word, as in this display for the adjective fascinating. The Visual Thesaurus shows related adjectives. enchanting enthralling

captivating

entrancing The adjectives are grouped according to meaning. This can be very useful when you are writing. If you want to vary your use of adjectives, you can look up the related adjectives to see which one(s) most closely express(es) the meaning you need.

12

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

bewitching

fascinating absorbing engrossing

riveting gripping

3

Exercises 3.1

Pronunciation. What English words are these? 1 /edjʊˈkeɪʃən/ 2 /ˈpɑːspɔːt/

3.2

education

3 /ˈliːnɪŋ/ 4 /ˈlɪbəti/

5 /rəˈvɪʒən/ 6 /ˈbrʌðə/

Underline the stressed syllable of these words. Check your answers in your dictionary. 1 unique 2 elegant

3.3

Study unit

3 urgently 4 eyebrow

5 record ( verb) 6 thermometer

7 extract ( noun) 8 lifestyle

Look at the grammar patterns which the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary gives for these words and then correct the sentences that follow. 1

supply /səˈplaɪ/ ▸ verb [T] to provide something that is wanted or needed, often in large quantities and over a long period of time: Electrical power is supplied by underground cables. Ο Three people have been arrested for supplying arms to the terrorists. Ο The company has supplied the royal family (= provided them with something they need) for years. Ο At the beginning of term, students are supplied with a list of books that they are expected to read.

Brazil supplies coffee to many countries.

Brazil supplies coffee at many countries. The officer supplied each soldier a map. 2

deny /dɪˈnaɪ/ verb [T] NOT TRUE 1 to say that something is not true: He will not confirm or deny the allegations. Ο [+ that] Neil denies that he broke the window, but I’m sure he did. Ο [+ -ing verb] Neil denies breaking the window.

The Minister denied to have received any money from the oil company. (two answers)

3.4

Put a tick (✓) if these adjectives can be used about a person, or a thing (which could be an event, an object, a fact, an idea, etc.) or both. Use your dictionary if necessary. person sad

3.5

person

thing

damp

lucky

awkward

content

compulsory

A typical dictionary abbreviation for a noun is (n) and for an adjective (adj). What do you think these abbreviations mean? (adv) adverb (prep) verb [T]

3.6

thing

(pron) UK noun [U]

(conj) noun [C] verb [I or T]

Over to you Go to Cambridge Dictionaries Online at http://dictionary.cambridge.org, select the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary and look up the adjective damp. Click on the Visual Thesaurus. How many of the words do you know? Choose four words you don’t know and look them up. Record them in your notebook.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

13

Study unit

4 A

Guessing and explaining meaning Working out meaning from context There are a number of clues you can use to help you understand the meaning of an unfamiliar word. The context in which the word is used • Visual clues: for example, a picture in a book or film footage in a TV news broadcast. • Your own background knowledge about a situation: for example, if you already know that

there has just been an earthquake in a big city, then you will find it easy to understand the word ‘earthquake’ when you hear a news broadcast about it. • The words around the unfamiliar word: for example, ‘Tara picked one tall yellow gladiolus to put in her new vase.’ Even if you have never seen or heard the word ‘gladiolus’, it is clear from the context that it is a type of flower. • Grammatical clues: for example, it is clear that ‘superstitious’ must be an adjective in the sentence ‘Alejandro is very superstitious and would never walk under a ladder’, or that ‘gingerly’ is an adverb in ‘Mike came gingerly down the stairs, trying to avoid all the broken glass.’

Similarity to other words you already know in English A large number of words in English are made up of combinations of other words. You may never have seen the word ‘headscarf’, for example, but it is easy to work out that it is a scarf worn on the head. Units 74–76 will help you improve your skills in understanding how English uses everyday words to build up new concepts. Structure A prefix or suffix may give you a clue: for example, Units 70–72 focus on different aspects of word formation in English and should help you use those clues to make sense of unfamiliar words. Similarity to a word you know in your own (or some other) language If your first language is of Latin or of Germanic origin, you will come across many words in English that resemble words in your own language. However, English has taken many words from many other languages too. So make use of any other languages you know. But remember that some words are false friends – they sound as if they mean the same but in fact they have a different meaning. For example, gift in English means a present but in German Gift means poison.

B

14

Explaining unknown words The following expressions are useful when you are trying to explain what a word or expression means: It’s probably something (a bit) like (a chair) … It’s got to be something you use for (painting pictures / cleaning the kitchen floor) … It’s a kind of (bird / musical instrument / building) … I think it must / could mean …

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

4

Exercises 4.1

Study unit

Look at the following text. Before you read it, see if you know what the underlined words mean.

A tortoise is a shelled reptile famed for its slowness and longevity. The Giant Tortoise of the Galapagos may attain over 1.5 metres in length and have a lifespan of more than 150 years. Smaller tortoises from Southern Europe and North Africa make popular pets. They need to be tended carefully in cool climates and must have a warm place in which they can hibernate. Which of the underlined words can you guess from the context or using any other clues? First make a guess and then check your guesses in the Answer key.

4.2

Use the context to work out what the underlined words mean. Explain them using one or other of the expressions in B on the opposite page. 1 Above the trees at the edge of the meadow, a buzzard hangs for a moment on the wind before soaring towards the hills. I think a buzzard must be a kind of bird. 2 According to some sources, the water vole is one of the most rapidly declining creatures in Britain and a new survey is now being carried out to determine how serious the threat of extinction really is. 3 Using a large chisel and a hammer, Jack managed to knock down the old garden wall. 4 Kate carried in a delicious chicken and noodle soup in a large tureen and we enjoyed several bowls each. 5 We often used to walk up to the cliff top where we would clamber over the farmer’s gate and go right to the edge where the view was better. 6 Some people get really ratty when they haven’t had enough sleep.

4.3

Use your knowledge of other basic English words to help you work out the meanings of the underlined words and expressions. Rewrite them using simpler words or explanations for the underlined words and phrases. 1 2 3 4 5 6

4.4

It says on the can that this drink is sugar-free. this drink doesn't contain sugar I find Caitlin a very warm-hearted person. I’ve been up to my eyes in work ever since I got back from holiday. We walked down a tree-lined street towards the station. The little boys were fascinated by the cement-mixer. More and more shops now have their own special store cards and offer you a discount if you use one of them.

Use your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes to suggest what these phrases mean. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

to redirect a letter to send it to a different address uncontrollable anger pre-dinner drinks bi-monthly report my ex-boss anti-tourist feelings to disconnect the telephone undelivered letters

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

15

5

Countries, nationalities and languages

A

Using ‘the’

B

Adjectives referring to people, countries and languages

C

Nationalities

D

World regions

Most names of countries are used without ‘the’, but some countries and other names have ‘the’ before them, e.g. the United States / the US(A), the United Kingdom / the UK, the Netherlands, the Philippines, the United Arab Emirates / the UAE, the European Union / the EU, the Commonwealth.

With -ish: British Irish Flemish Polish Danish Turkish Spanish With -(i) an: Canadian Brazilian Latvian Korean Russian Australian With -ese: Japanese Chinese Vietnamese Portuguese Maltese Taiwanese With -i: Israeli Iraqi Kuwaiti Pakistani Yemeni Bangladeshi With -ic: Icelandic Arabic Slavonic Some adjectives are worth learning separately, e.g. Swiss, Thai, Greek, Dutch, Cypriot. Some nationalities and cultural identities have nouns for referring to people, e.g. a Finn, a Swede, a Turk, a Spaniard, a Dane, a Briton, an Arab, a Pole. For most nationalities we can use the adjective as a noun, e.g. a German, an Italian, a Belgian, a Catalan, a Greek, an African, a European. Some need woman/ man/ person added to them (you can’t say ‘a Dutch’), so if in doubt, use them, e.g. a Dutch man, a French woman, an Irish person, an Icelandic man.

The Arctic Scandinavia Asia

North America

Central America

Europe The Mediterranean North Africa

The Caribbean

The Middle East

The Atlantic South America

The Far East East Asia The Pacic

The Indian Ocean

Southern Africa

Australia

The Antarctic Antarctica

E

Regional groups and ethnic groups People belong to ethnic groups and regional groups such as African-Caribbean, Asian, Latin American, North African, Scandinavian, Southern African, European, Arabic. These can be used as countable nouns or as adjectives. Many Europeans enjoy travelling to the Far East to experience Asian cultures. Arabic culture extends across a vast region of North Africa and the Middle East. People speak dialects as well as languages. Everyone has a native language or first language (sometimes called mother tongue); many have second and third languages. Some people are expert in more than one language and are bilingual or multilingual. People who only know one language are monolingual.

16

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 5.1

Write the related adjectives in the correct columns. Ireland Turkey

Iceland Thailand Latvia Israel Switzerland Arabia Brazil the Netherlands Korea Denmark

-(i) an

-ic

-ish

Latvian

5.2

Pakistan

-ese

(other)

Irish

Match the countries with their world regions. 1 2 3 4 5 6

5.3

-i

China

Sweden Cambodia Nicaragua Tunisia Saudi Arabia Botswana

c

a b c d e f

the Middle East Southern Africa Scandinavia East Asia Central America North Africa

Correct the mistakes in these newspaper headlines. 1

New James Bond to be played by a Swedish!

2

BRITAIN’S HAVE HIGHEST TAX RATE IN EUROPE

3

MALTISH PRIME MINISTER VISITS WASHINGTON

Swede 4

5.4

Police arrest Danish on smuggling charge

5

Iraqian delegation meets Pakistanian President

Famous names. Can you name a famous … 1 Argentinian sportsman or woman? Lionel Messi 2 Spanish actor? 3 South African political leader? 4 Australian singer?

5.5

5 Italian opera singer? 6 Irish rock-music band? 7 American golfer?

Over to you Complete the sentences so that they are true for you. 1 I am

. (nationality)

2 My first language is 3 I speak

. (number) language(s) fluently, so I am

.

4 My ethnic/ regional group is

.

5 I have visited these countries:

.

6 I would like to travel to

.

7 One language I would like to learn is

.

8 I’ve never been to these two countries:

and English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

. 17

6 A

The weather Cold weather In Northern Europe, daytime1 temperatures are often quite mild, even in late2 autumn. The days are often misty3, foggy and damp4. Soon, winter arrives, with frost5, icy roads and severe6 weather, including heavy snow. As people expect the weather to be bad, they try and keep warm so they don’t freeze! Freezing weather may continue in the far north until May or even June, when the ground starts to thaw /θɔː/7 and the ice melts8 again. 1

2 3 during the day towards the end of a period of time with clouds of small drops of water in the air, 4 making it difficult to see things in the distance slightly wet, and not pleasant or comfortable 5 6 thin, white layer of ice on surfaces when the weather is very cold extremely bad 7 change from hard, 8 change from solid to liquid under heat frozen state to softer state

B

Warm/ hot weather In a tropical1 climate, the weather is often stifling2, muggy3 and humid4. In other hot climates, there may be boiling5 hot days, and heatwaves6 may be common. 1

C

very hot, as in countries near the Equator 2 hot, uncomfortable, you can hardly breathe 3 very warm and a little damp 4 hot and damp, makes you sweat a lot 5 extremely hot 6 very hot, dry periods

Wet weather

shower

heavy rain

pour down

torrential rain

flood

This wet weather scale gets stronger from left to right. shower (noun) → heavy rain → pour down (verb) / downpour (noun) → torrential rain → flood (noun and verb) This rain won’t last long; it’s only a shower. [short period of rain] There was quite heavy rain during the night. / It rained heavily during the night. It was absolutely pouring down yesterday. / There was a real downpour. In Malaysia there is usually torrential rain most days, and the roads sometimes get flooded. / There are sometimes floods on the roads. The sky’s a bit overcast; I think it’s going to rain. [very cloudy] We had a drought /draʊt/ last summer. It didn’t rain for six weeks.

D

Wind There was a gentle breeze on the beach, just enough to cool us. There was a very strong/high wind and my umbrella blew away. There was a gale that day, so we didn’t go sailing. [very high wind] People stayed indoors because there was a hurricane on the way. [extremely high, dangerous wind]

Common mistakes The noun weather is uncountable. We say: We had bad weather that day. (NOT We had a bad weather.) 18

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 6.1

Answer the questions about the words in A opposite. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

6.2

damp

What types of weather do these pictures suggest?

1

6.3

Which adjective could you use to describe something that is wet, but not very wet? Which adjective would you use before ‘summer’ to refer to the end part of it? Which verb means the temperature has gone up and there is no longer frost or ice? Which word can be used to describe something that happens in the day? What happens to ice cream on a very hot day? If you see a thin, white covering on everything on a cold day, what is it? If you can’t see things in the distance, what is the weather probably like? Which two adjectives could you use to describe a wind that blows very hard? Which adjective can you use to describe very bad weather?

hurricane

2

3

4

Rewrite the words in bold using words from B opposite. I think it would be interesting to live in a hot tropical climate. However, I don’t like weather that is hot and damp and makes you sweat . I even dislike the days that are slightly warm and damp which we get in the UK. Some people love extremely hot days, and I don’t mind very hot, dry periods occasionally, but when it’s hot and uncomfortable and you can hardly breathe it’s just impossible. Maybe I should stay at home and forget about moving to a hot climate!

6.4

What kinds of weather do you think caused the following to happen? Write a sentence which could go before each of these. Use words from the opposite page. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

6.5

,

The weather was stifling .

We had to use the air-conditioning every afternoon. The sweat was pouring out of us. It just cooled us nicely on the hot beach. Cars were sliding everywhere out of control. The postman had to use a boat to get around. You couldn’t really see the trees in the distance. The earth became rock hard and a lot of plants died. It blew the newspaper right out of my hands. My hair and clothes got soaking wet. It looked as if it would rain at any minute.

Over to you This chart shows anyone who wants to visit the West of Ireland what weather they can expect at different times of the year. Make a similar chart for your country or home region. Dec–Mar

April–June

coldest months; usually generally cool, often wet; heavy rain; snow on wet and windy but high ground getting warmer

July–Aug

Sept–Nov

warmest months; sunny, with showers; cool sea breezes

often mild, becoming cold; damp, misty and foggy, often overcast

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

19

7 A

Describing people: appearance Hair, face, skin and complexion /kəmˈplekʃən/

She’s got straight hair She’s got long, wavy hair She’s got curly hair and she’s thin-faced/ and she’s round-faced/ and is black. she’s got a thin face. she’s got a round face.

He’s got a crew-cut. He’s white.

He’s bald /bɔːld/ and has freckles.

He used to have black hair but now it’s gone grey, almost white.

He’s got a beard and moustache /mʊsˈtɑːʃ/ and has a chubby face.

He’s got receding hair and a few wrinkles /ˈrɪŋkəlz/.

What sort of person would you find attractive? Blonde, fair, dark or ginger-haired / red-haired? She has such beautiful auburn hair. /ˈɔːbən/ [red-brown] Fair and dark can be used for hair, complexion or skin. Some people like getting a tan in summer [exposing their skin to the sun so that it goes darker], although the risks of getting sunburnt are well known.

B

Height and build Fat may sound impolite. Instead we can say that someone is rather plump or stout, or a bit overweight. If someone is broad and solid, we can say they are stocky. A person with good muscles can be well-built or muscular. [generally said about men] Someone who is very fat can be described as obese /əʊˈbiːs/, especially when talking in a medical context. Someone who is thin can be described as slim [positive] or skinny [negative]. If someone has a nice figure, they have an attractive shape. [generally said about women]

C

General appearance She’s a very smart and elegant woman, always well-dressed; her husband is quite the opposite, very scruffy and untidy-looking / messy-looking. Chloe looked stunning in her red dress. [very attractive] He’s very good-looking, but his friend’s rather unattractive. [opp attractive] Her eyes are her best feature. [the most attractive part of her face]

Do you think beautiful women are always attracted to handsome men? I don’t. I think personality matters most. First impressions are always important. [your first reaction to someone]

20

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Language help The suffix -ish is useful for describing people (see Unit 70). She’s tallish. He has brownish hair. He must be thirtyish / in his thirties.

Exercises 7.1

Choose a word from the opposite page to complete these sentences. 1 I wish I could get a tan like yours but my skin just goes red in the sun. 2 My cousin used to have a lovely but she’s put on weight in all the wrong places since she stopped taking much exercise. 3 Thomas’s eyes are his best – they’re so large and sparkly and such a deep brown. 4 Jess is in her thirties but she still has the same lovely fresh as her young daughter has. 5 Staff at the bank were told to dress smartly for work so they would always create a good on customers. 6 I’d call her rather than ginger-haired – her hair’s dark brown with just a tinge of red in it. 7 George says that the round his eyes just show that he has smiled a lot in his life. 8 Even in jeans Alina manages to look . 9 Carla looks beautiful in old clothes and without any make-up but when she’s dressed up for an evening out she’s absolutely .

7.2

Answer these remarks with the opposite description. 1 A: I thought you said he was the short, chubby one. B: No, no, no, not at all, he’s the tall, thin-faced one. 2 A: Was that his brother, the one with wavy hair? B: No, completely the opposite, his brother’s 3 A: She’s always quite well-dressed, so I’ve heard. B: What! Who told you that? Every time I see her, she’s 4 A: So Charlene’s that rather plump, fair-haired woman, is she? B: No, you’re looking at the wrong one. Charlene’s 5 A: So, tell us about the new boss; good-looking? B: No, I’m afraid not; rather 6 A: I don’t know why, but I expected the tour guide to be fiftyish or rather plump. B: No, apparently she’s only

7.3

WANTED! MISSING! Complete the gaps in these police posters with your own ideas.

WANTED

WANTED FOR ARMED ROBBERY

MISSING

Ian Prowse White, height 6ft, ............................. -faced, ................................. hair, ................................. skin

Sandra King White, height 5ft 4, .............................. hair, ............................. build, ............................ -faced

Jasmin Kaur, Age 7, Asian, height 4ft, thin-.............................. ....................................... , ................................. hair

FOR MURDER

7.4

WANTED DEAD OR ALIVE

Jack ‘Dagger’ Flagstone White, height 6ft, ............................. , with ................ and ............... ; ............................... build.

Over to you Write a description of each of these people, giving information about their hair and face, their height and build and general appearance: 1 you yourself 2 your best friend 3 a neighbour 4 your ideal of a handsome man / a beautiful woman English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

21

8 A

B

Describing people: personality Intellectual ability lots of ability

intelligent bright clever sharp shrewd able gifted talented brainy (informal)

lacking ability

stupid foolish simple silly brainless daft dumb dim thick (the last five are predominantly informal words, and they can all be offensive)

clever, in a negative way, using brains to trick or deceive

cunning

crafty

sly

Attitudes towards life Amal is pessimistic while Nia is optimistic – he always expects the worst to happen while she looks on the bright side. It is strange that one of the twins is so extroverted while the other is so introverted – Ben loves being the focus of attention while Jake prefers to be alone with his thoughts. I feel very tense (or wound up / stressed out**) after a very busy day at work but, after a hot bath, I’ll soon feel relaxed. Eva is very sensible – she’d never do anything stupid. In other words, she’s very practical and down-to-earth. Roberto is very sensitive – he gets very upset (or worked-up, more informal), if he feels people are criticising him.

C

Attitude towards other people Enjoying others’ company:

sociable

gregarious*

Disagreeing with others: quarrelsome argumentative Taking pleasure in others’ pain: cruel sadistic easy-going even-tempered Relaxed in attitude to self and others:

laid-back**

Not polite to others: impolite rude ill-mannered discourteous* Telling the truth to others: honest trustworthy reliable sincere jealous envious Unhappy if others have what you do not have yourself:

D

One person’s meat is another person’s poison Some characteristics can be either positive or negative depending on your point of view. The words in the right-hand column mean roughly the same as the words in the left-hand column except that they have negative rather than positive connotations. positive associations determined thrifty economical self-assured confident unconventional original frank direct open broad-minded enquiring* generous innocent ambitious assertive

negative associations obstinate stubborn pig-headed stingy mean tight-fisted miserly* self-important arrogant full of yourself** eccentric odd peculiar weird** blunt abrupt brusque curt unprincipled permissive inquisitive nosy** extravagant naive pushy** aggressive bossy**

* These words are much more common in written than in spoken English. ** These words are much more common in spoken than in written English. 22

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 8.1

Match the words on the left with their opposites on the right. 1 clever 2 extroverted 3 rude

a introverted b tight-fisted c courteous

f

4 cruel 5 generous 6 unsociable

8.2

Do you think that the speaker likes or dislikes the people in these sentences? Reword each sentence to give the opposite impression (negative rather than positive or vice versa). 1 2 3 4

8.3

d gregarious e kind-hearted f dim

5 6 7 8

Carmen’s very thrifty. Likes - Carmen's very stingy. Molly’s usually frank. Grace is quite broad-minded. Sam can be aggressive.

Nico’s quite bossy. I find Marcus self-important. Don’t you think James is nosy? Freya is very original.

Pair the words that have similar meanings.

brainless - silly brainless brusque crafty cunning

8.4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

8.6

gifted honest impolite miserly

rude sensible silly talented

tense tight-fisted trustworthy wound up

Magazines often publish questionnaires which are supposed to analyse aspects of your personality. Look at the words below and match them to the corresponding question. pessimistic extravagant

8.5

curt direct down-to-earth frank

argumentative assertive

sensitive inquisitive

sociable reliable

If you arrange to meet at 7 pm, do you arrive at 7 pm? reliable When you have a problem, do you think the worst will happen? Do you find it easy to tell your boss if you feel he or she has treated you badly? Do you always look out of the window if you hear a car draw up? Do you often buy your friends presents for no particular reason? Do you frequently disagree with what other people say? Do you lie awake at night if someone has said something unkind to you? Do you prefer to be in the company of other people?

What questions like those in 8.4 could you ask to find out if a person is the following? 1 thrifty Do you use up leftover food? 2 blunt 4 intelligent

6 original

3 sensible

7 obstinate

5 even-tempered

8 stressed out

Over to you Choose two people who are important in your life. Describe them using adjectives in this unit and give reasons why you chose each adjective. EXAMPLE My brother is sociable because he loves being with other people. English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

23

9 A

Idioms describing people Positive and negative qualities positive She has a heart of gold. [very kind, generous] He’s as good as gold. [helpful, well-behaved; used generally for children]

negative She’s as hard as nails. [no sympathy for others] He’s a nasty piece of work. [unpleasant]

Note also: Her heart’s in the right place. [is a good and kind person even though they do not always seem so] He’s such an awkward customer. [difficult person to deal with] She’s a pain in the neck. Nobody likes her. [nuisance, difficult] He gets on everyone’s nerves. [irritates everybody]

B

Idioms based on ‘head’ You can learn idioms by associating them with a key word or words. Two of the idioms in A, for example, are based on gold and two on heart. Here is a set of idioms describing people based on the word head.

to have

your head screwed on [be sensible, informal] a head for heights [not suffer from vertigo] a head like a sieve [bad memory] a good head for figures [be good at maths] your head in the clouds [unaware of reality]

to be head and shoulders above someone [much better than] to bury your head in the sand [refuse to think about a difficult situation in the hope you won’t have to deal with it]

to keep your head [stay calm in a difficult situation]

C

How people relate to the social norm She’s a bit of an odd-ball. [peculiar, strange] He’s really over the top. [very exaggerated in behaviour] He’s (gone) round the bend, if you ask me. [absolutely crazy/mad] My politics are very middle- of- the- road. [very normal; no radical ideas; neither left- nor right-wing]

D

Who’s who in the class? Idioms for people in the classroom Sam’s teacher’s pet. [teacher’s favourite] Laura’s top of the class. Harry is a real know-all. [thinks he knows everything] Ali’s a bit of a big-head. [has a high opinion of him/herself] Anna’s a lazy-bones. The last three idioms are used of people outside the classroom situation too.

24

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 9.1

Try to complete these idioms from memory if possible. 1 2 3 4 5 6

9.2

What do we call … 1 2 3 4 5

9.3

She does a lot of voluntary work; she has a heart … of gold. Don’t expect any sympathy from the boss; she’s as hard … I’m sure Ahmed will help you; he’s as good … Although Florian sometimes seems a bit bad-tempered his heart is … I don’t think you’ll like him; he’s a nasty … I try to avoid having much to do with Liam. He’s rather an …

an irritating person who knows everything? a know-all the person who is the teacher’s favourite? someone who thinks they are the best and says so? the one who gets the best marks? a person who is very lazy?

Complete the sentences using an idiom from B. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

I’d better write it in my notebook. I have … a head like a sieve. Ask Martha to check those sums. She has … Don’t ask me to go up that tower. I’m afraid I don’t … She’s very sensible and knows what she’s doing. She … He’s quite out of touch with reality. He really … The problem won’t go away so there’s no point … Max is top of the class, … Even when others around him are panicking Raul always …

9.4

Which part of the body might a difficult person (a) get on (b) be a pain in?

9.5

Which of the idioms opposite do you think these pictures represent?

1

9.6

an odd-ball

2

3

everyone else.

4

Over to you Choose five idioms from this unit that you could use to describe people that you know.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

25

10 A

Relationships Types of relationship ANITA: LUCY: ANITA: LUCY: ANITA: LUCY: ANITA: LUCY:

Are you and Holly best friends? She’s a good friend – she’s not my best friend. But she’s more than just a casual acquaintance1, right? Oh, yes. We were housemates2 at university. Really? So how did you first meet her? I met her through my ex3, Kallum. She wasn’t in a steady4 relationship with anyone at the time, and she was looking for someone to share a room. Uh- huh. Is that Kallum who’s now Olivia’s partner5? Yeah, that’s the one. They’re not just partners, they’re married and they’re colleagues too. They’re saving to buy a house now, so Kallum’s living with his parents-in-law6 at the moment.

1 a person you have met but you don’t know well

2

mate [friend; infml] is used in compound nouns to describe a person you share something with, e.g. classmate, roommate, workmate, flatmate, housemate. Workmate is common in non-professional or informal contexts; colleague is common among professional 3 people, and sounds more formal. ex-can be used without (informally) or with another word: ex-girlfriend, 4 5 ex-husband, etc. fixed and not changing suddenly partner is used for someone you live with but are not 6 married to, or for a business relationship where you share the ownership or running of a company his wife’s parents (his mother-in-law and father-in-law)

B

Internet relationships

MyBook

Home Profile Friends Inbox

If you join a social network, you can acquire friends (people you share personal information with) and build up your list of contacts. You can invite people to become your friends, and you can choose to accept new friends who invite you. You can interact with your friends by exchanging messages or posting comments on their page. You can also share photos and tag your friends (name them in photos that you post). If you want to fi nish a relationship, you can unfriend/ defriend that person.

C

Liking and not liking someone core verb like respect attract be attracted to

positive (stronger) love adore idolise look up to admire fancy (infml)

negative loathe /ləʊð/ dislike can’t stand look down on despise leave someone cold

She doesn’t just like Ben, she idolises him. I can’t stand him. I really fancy Charlotte, but her friend just leaves me cold / doesn’t do anything for me.

D

Phrases and idioms for relationships and dating Lily and I get on well (with each other). [have a good relationship] Jack and Amelia don’t see eye to eye. [often argue/disagree] I’ve fallen out with my parents again. [had arguments] Carl is having an affair with his boss. [a sexual relationship, usually secret] Let’s try and make it up. [be friends again after a row/quarrel] He’s dating a Spanish girl. They’ve been seeing each other for a couple of months. [meeting and spending time together] They met at a party and got together soon after. [started a romantic relationship]

Common mistakes We say: People make friends. (NOT get friends or find friends) It’s often difficult to make new friends when you move to another city. (NOT It’s often difficult to get friends ...)

26

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 10.1

Use words with the suffix -mate to rewrite these sentences. 1 2 3 4 5

10.2

This is Jack. He and I share a flat. This is Jack. He and I are flatmates. Mike was the person I shared a room with at university. We were in the same class together in 2006, weren’t we? She’s not really a friend; she’s just someone I work with. Abbie is always arguing with the people she shares a house with.

How many sentences can you write about the relationships between the people in the pictures, using words from the opposite page? EXAMPLE Jon and Erica are colleagues. 1

10.3

2

3

Complete the text messages with the correct form of words from B opposite. Have you checked your social media this morning? Sam has photo and 2 it with everyone! My grandma has just3 4 or not.

1

you in a really funny

me to be her friend online! Don’t know if I should

I’m going to 5

10.4

4

Emma if she keeps posting nasty

6

about me online.

What do you think the relationships between the people below would be? Use the verbs, phrases and idioms opposite. 1 a teenage music fan: (a) parents He/ She might like/ dislike his/ her parents. (b) pop star (c) strict teacher (d) mate 2 a personal assistant: (a) another personal assistant (b) the boss (c) a very attractive workmate 3 a 45-year-old: (a) teenagers (b) ex-husband/wife who was cruel

10.5

Correct the mistakes in these sentences. There may be more than one mistake. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

10.6

see

Rosie and Matt don’t get on eye to eye. I fell up with my parents last night. It wasn’t my fault. We had a quarrel but now we’ve made it well. Do you think Josh and Nuala are making an affair? I do. I see very well with all my colleagues at work. Jo’s attractive, but her mate just makes me cold completely. Maria seems to find it difficult to get friends among her classmates. I met my boyfriend at a party and we became together soon after.

Over to you Complete the sentences so they are true for you. is a good friend of mine. Someone I look up to is Someone I once fancied was

is just a casual acquaintance. . A famous person I loathe is . Someone I adore is English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

. . 27

11 A

At home Types of houses/places people live in

detached house not joined to any other house

terraced house joined to several houses to form a row

bungalow a house with only one storey (no upstairs)

semi-detached house semi-(infml): joined to one other house

self-contained flat: does not share facilities with any other cottage: a small house in the country or in a village studio flat: a small apartment for one or two people, usually with one large room for sleeping and living in, a bathroom and sometimes a separate kitchen villa: a large house with big gardens or a rented house in a holiday resort / tourist area

B

Places in the home You probably already know the names of most rooms and locations in a typical home. Here are some less common ones and what they are for. master/main bedroom: the largest, most important bedroom utility room: usually just for the washing machine, freezer, etc. shed: small building separated from the house usually for storing garden tools attic/loft: space in the roof of a house used for storing things; it can also be converted into an extra living space with stairs leading up to it (attic/loft conversion) cellar: room below ground level, no windows, used for storing things basement: room below ground level, with windows, for living/working studio: a room in which a painter or photographer works landing: flat area at the top of a staircase hall/hallway: open area as you come into a house porch: covered area before an entrance door terrace or patio: paved area between house and garden for sitting and eating, etc. drive: a short road leading from the street to the house or garage; you can drive/park on it

C

Everyday objects in the home

remote (control)

corkscrew

chopping board

(coat) hanger

dustpan and brush 28

phone charger

grater

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

ironing board /ˈaɪənɪŋ bɔːd/

table mat

toilet roll

peeler

socket

Common mistakes You do housework, do the ironing, do the hoovering, do the washing-up. (NOT make housework)

Exercises 11.1

Where in a typical house would you look for the following things? 1 2 3 4

11.2

garden tools a toilet roll table mats a hanger

in the shed

5 6 7 8

the remote an ironing board a socket a porch

9 a grater 10 old empty boxes

Label the places in the house. 1

2

3

11.3

5

4

Fill the gaps with a suitable word. The old house had a big cellar underneath it, where the family used to keep wine. I’ll prepare the potatoes and then you can do the cooking. Where’s the ? Put a under the coffee pot in case you mark that table. It’s an antique. Let’s open this bottle. Do you know where the is? We keep our skis up in the . They’re out of the way up there. You’ll find the garden chairs in the at the bottom of the garden. Bring them up and we’ll have a drink on the and watch the sunset. 7 The light switch for the stairs is on the just by your bedroom door. 8 Grandma’s moved to a now she can’t manage the stairs any more at her age. 9 Leave your car in the , just in front of the garage. It’ll be safe there. 1 2 3 4 5 6

11.4

Answer these questions about everyday objects. 1 2 3 4 5 6

11.5

How can you make very small pieces of cheese to sprinkle on a dish? Use a grater Whatmightyoufetchifsomeonedroppedacupanditbrokeintosmallpiecesonthefloor? What do you need if your phone battery is flat? How can you switch off the TV without leaving your chair? How can you cut vegetables without marking the kitchen work surface? What might you offer a visitor if they want to take off their jacket?

.

Over to you Answer these questions about yourself. 1 Is your house detached? What sort is it if not? 2 Would you like to live in a studio flat? Why (not)? 3 Which of these household jobs do you most enjoy and which do you least enjoy – doing the washing-up / the washing / the ironing / the gardening / the hoovering / the dusting / the cooking? English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

29

12 A

Everyday minor problems Things that go wrong in houses and flats

This pipe’s leaking. He kicked the football too hard and it smashed a window. This pot is cracked. The batteries in this torch have run out / are dead. I’ll have to get some more. I’m sorry, your cup’s chipped. Let me get you another one. The lights aren’t working – there’s been a power cut. The door handle’s come off / fallen off. The washing machine broke down the other day. I’m sorry, the biscuits were at the bottom of my bag and they got crushed by the potatoes! My computer keeps crashing today!

B

Everyday minor injuries

She twisted her ankle coming down the stairs. I bumped/banged my head against the cupboard door and got a bruise. [/bruːz/ dark area on your skin where you have hurt yourself] Kelly tripped and fell down and grazed her knee this morning. [if you trip you almost fall down because you hit your foot against something; if you graze something, it becomes red with broken skin, but no blood]

C

Other everyday minor problems I’ve mislaid my memory stick. Have you seen it anywhere? [put it somewhere and can’t find it] She spilt some coffee on the carpet. I hope it doesn’t leave a stain. [permanent mark] The sink is blocked. [the water will not run away] I’m afraid I’ve dented your car. I’m really sorry. I’ll pay for the repairs. [bent the metal a little bit by hitting something]

My mouse has stopped working; it could be a software problem. I’ve locked myself out. Can I use your phone to ring my wife? The car won’t start. I hope it’s nothing serious. Perhaps the battery’s flat. The kitchen clock’s slow/fast/stopped. What time d’you make it?

Language help Words often belong to more than one word class. In this unit, the following words can be used as verbs or as countable nouns: flood

crack

chip

bump

bang

bruise

graze

dent

stain

lock

Always make a special note of any word that belongs to more than one word class. 30

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 12.1

What do you think happened to make these people do/ say what they did? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

12.2

We had to send for a plumber. Maybe a pipe was leaking. I had to call out a local mechanic. Our neighbours let us use their washing machine. Don’t worry, the handle often does that – I’ll fix it back on. Luckily, that was all it was; the skin was broken a bit, but there was no blood. What type of batteries does it take? I’ll get some for you. I don’t know where you’ve put them. Try the bedside table. I left it in the oven too long. It’s all black on the top now! I lost all my work – I know I should have saved it more often!

Odd one out. Which of the three words is the odd one out in each case? 1 spill, flood, chip chip - the other two involve liquids 2 stain, graze, bruise 4 leak, smash, chip 3 run out, bump, flat 5 leak, dent, flood

12.3

Here is a matrix with the names of things and things that can go wrong with them. Put a tick (✓) for things that typically go together. car

vase

elbow

banged ruined cracked broken down dented stopped blocked

clock

printer

sink

a meal

Write five sentences using combinations of words where you wrote a tick. EXAMPLE This clock has stopped - perhaps it needs new batteries.

12.4

Complete these sentences using words and phrases from the opposite page. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

12.5

We had to use candles because there was a power cut. I didn’t look where I was going as I walked through the low doorway and The wind blew the door shut and I realised I’d I would ring her but I’m afraid I’ve I can’t take a photo, my camera’s I tried to run over the rocks but I I accidentally sat on my bag of crisps and they

Over to you What would you do if … 1 you mislaid your credit card?

4 your mobile phone stopped working?

2 you noticed your guest’s glass was chipped?

5 you bruised your forehead?

3 one of your coat buttons came off?

6 your watch was slow?

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

31

13 A

Global problems Disasters/tragedies

earthquake flood [theearthmoves/trembles] [too much rain]

drought /draUt/ [no rain]

volcano /vɒlˈkeɪnəʊ/ [hot liquid rock and gases pour from a mountain]

famine /'f{mIn/ [no food] landslide [rocks and earth moving suddenly down a slope] epidemic [disease affecting large numbers of people] explosion (e.g. a bomb) major accident / incident (e.g. a plane crash) hurricane / tornado /tO:'[emailprotected]/ Language help typhoon / tropical storm [violent wind / storm] Injure /'[emailprotected]/ is used about people. war / civil war [civil war is war between people of the same country]

Damage /'d{mIdZ/ is used about things.

Disasters not caused by human beings can be called natural disasters.

200 people were injured. Many buildings were damaged.

Verbs connected with these words A volcano has erupted in Indonesia. Hundreds are feared dead. The flu epidemic spread rapidly throughout the country. Millions are starving as a result of the famine. A big earthquake shook the city at noon today. The area is suffering its worst drought for many years. Civil war has broken out in the north of the country. A tornado swept through the islands yesterday.

B

Words for people involved in disasters/ tragedies The explosion resulted in 300 casualties. /'k{[emailprotected]:z/ [dead and injured people] The real victims of civil war are children left without parents. [those who suffer the results] There were only three survivors /[emailprotected]'[emailprotected]/. All the other passengers were reported dead. [people who live through a disaster]

Thousands of refugees /refjU'dZi:z/ have crossed the border looking for food and shelter. [people who have escaped from their own country because of a war or other disaster] Millions of migrants enter the country each year, looking for a better life. [people who travel from one country to another, often in order to find work]

During the battle, the dead and wounded /'wu:ndId/ were flown out in helicopters. [wounded: injured in a battle / by a weapon]

C

Diseases/ epidemics Here are some headlines from newspapers all connected with diseases and epidemics. Explanations are given. /'reIbi:z/ disease can be caused by bite from a dog, fox, etc., very serious

Rabies out of control in many parts of Asia

/[emailprotected]'[emailprotected]@/ usually caught because of mosquito bites

32

laria a m New ested t drug

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

New AIDS unit to be opened this month Cholera and typhoid injections not needed says Tourism Minister

acquired immune deficiency syndrome; often caused by sexual contact or contact with contaminated blood

/ˈkɒlərə/ /ˈtaɪfɔɪd/ diseases causing sickness, diarrhoea, etc., caused often by infected food and water

Exercises 13.1

What type of disaster from the list in A opposite are these sentences about? Why? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

13.2

The lava flow destroyed three villages. Volcano - lava is the hot liquid rock from the mountain The aft ershock struck at 3.35 pm local time. People had boarded up shops and houses during the day before, and stayed indoors. Gunfire could be heard all over the town. Witnesses said they saw a fireball fall out of the sky. People had to stay on the upper floors and sometimes on the roofs of their homes. The earth is cracked and vegetation has dried up. They quite often happen in this area of the mountains and it can take some time for the roads to be cleared, especially if trees have been brought down too.

Complete the missing items in this word-class table, using a dictionary if necessary. Where the space is shaded, you do not need to write anything. verb

noun: thing or idea

explode

explosion

noun: person survivor

injure starve erupt

13.3

In these headlines, say whether the situation seems to be getting worse or better, or whether a disaster has happened or has been avoided/prevented. 1

3

Poison gas cloud spreads

5 All survive plane’s emergency landing

OIL SLICK RECEDES

getting worse 2 POLICE DEFUSE TERRORIST BOMB

13.4

Experts warn of cholera time bomb

6

Flood warnings not heeded in time

Fill the gaps with a suitable word from B opposite. Try to work from memory. 1 2 3 4 5 6

13.5

4

Another 50 people died today, all victims of the famine. Over 5 million have fled the war and are seeking shelter in neighbouring countries. It was the worst road accident the country has ever seen, with over 120 . A: Were there any when the ship sank? B: I’m afraid not. The and were left lying on the battlefield; it was a disgrace. The number of economic entering the country each year has increased sharply.

Which diseases are these? Try to do this from memory. 1 2 3 4

One that can be caused by a mosquito bite. malaria One you can get by drinking infected water. One you can get from an animal bite. One caused by a virus which destroys the body’s immune system.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

33

14

Education

A

Stages in a person’s education (UK system)

The youngest children start their education in a crèche /kreʃ/, where they mostly play but also do some early learning activities. After that, they may go to a nursery school. Between the ages of five and 11, children attend primary school, where they learn the basics of reading, writing, arithmetic, etc. For most children, secondary education begins when they enter a comprehensive school or a more traditional grammar school (to which they gain admission by sitting an exam). The famous UK public schools are

in fact private, fee-paying schools. Between the ages of 11 and 18, young people take a wide range of subjects in arts, sciences and technical areas. In the UK, pupils can leave school at the age of 16, although many young people choose to remain in full-time education until the age of 18. (In England it is compulsory for young people to continue with some form of education or training until they are 18 [they must do it], even if they also have a job.) From 16 to 18 young people may study at secondary school or at a sixth-form college, aft er which they may go on to higher education.

B

Exams and qualifications You take/do/sit an exam or resit1 an exam. At schools and sixth-form colleges in the UK, students have to take formal end-of-year exams. At 18, a lot of students sit their university entrance exams, commonly referred to as ‘A levels’. Students are usually given marks (e.g. 75%) or grades (e.g. A, B+, C). If you pass and do well, you get a high grade. If you fail, you don’t get the minimum grade. If you skip classes2, you’ll probably do badly in the exam. 1 2

C

take it again if you did badly first time miss deliberately; infml

Technology With an LMS or a VLE1, students can work online and do more distance2 learning or blended3 learning. Teachers can monitor4 students’ activities and progress5; students can choose courses and/or modules6, submit7 work, write blogs, access wikis and leave voice messages.

Common mistakes We say: pass an exam, e.g. I passed all my exams and graduated in 2010. (NOT I succeeded at/in all my exams.)

1

Learning Management System or Virtual Learning Environment: computer system that controls all aspects of 2 3 teaching and learning without attending classes, e.g. from home using a mix of classroom and online 4 5 6 learning check regularly note: progress is uncountable individual elements or parts of a course 7 send/ give their work to the teacher

D

Talking about education: common questions What’s the school-leaving age? It’s 18 in a lot of countries. At what age does compulsory education begin? [which you must do, by law]

34

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 14.1

Fill the gaps in this life story of a British woman.

primary school at the age of five. The year before that she Amy first went to her local 1 attended a 2 , but her parents didn’t send her to a 3 when she was very small. When Amy was ready to go on to secondary school, she passed a special exam and so gained 4 to her local 5 school. Her friends didn’t do that exam. Like most 6 children, they went to a school. Only a few children from very rich families go to 7 famous schools and Amy only knew one girl from her class at primary school who did. At the age of 16, Amy went on to 8 , where she is currently 9 studying English, History and Maths. Her ambition is to go on to and become a teacher. 14.2

Rewrite the words in bold in this conversation using words from B opposite. ALMUT: JOE: ALMUT: JOE: ALMUT:

14.3

Correct the mistakes in these sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

14.4

sixth-form college

In the UK, students between 16 and 18 can go to a nursery school. The school-ending age is 18 in many countries. I’m glad you succeeded at your exam. She has to sit on a Biology exam next week. Is school compulsive till 18 in your country? Do we have to admit our work to the teacher by Friday? I’ve made a lot of progresses in my English recently. Thanks to the LMS, teachers can mentor their students’ activities.

What do we call …? 1 2 3 4

14.5

I’ve got one more exam tomorrow. I hope I get the minimum grade pass . I’m worried. Really? What makes you think you won’t get a high grade? Well, I’ve missed a couple of classes this term. Hm. If you get below the minimum grade, are you allowed to take the exam again? Yes, but I don’t want to. Next year I want to go to university, not sit my university entrance exams again!

learning that mixes classes and online work? blended learning schools which require students to take an exam to gain admission? private schools where parents pay fees? learning you can do at home, without going to class?

Over to you Make a chart in English for the education system in your country. Is it the same as the UK or are there differences? Compare with someone else if possible.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

35

15 A

Higher education University studies Students who attend university in the UK start with undergraduate studies, which are usually the studies towards a bachelor’s degree [a first degree at university]. They follow a programme of different modules [parts of the university course]. They usually have to complete a certain number of credits each year. For example, if the students need 180 credits, they might take two modules of 60 credits each, and their dissertation [long piece of writing] might be worth another 60 credits. When they have graduated [completed their bachelor’s degree], students become graduates. If they want to continue their university education, students can begin postgraduate studies. The first stage of this would be a master’s degree, and aft er that they can do a PhD (doctor of philosophy) [the highest university degree]. Postgraduate studies require students to specialise in a particular field,

and they often do research. They usually have to write another dissertation (for a master’s degree) or a thesis (for a PhD).

B

People, places, and types of classes

A university campus

A lecture theatre

If you visit a university campus, you’ll see a lecture theatre (or a lecture hall). During lectures, students listen to a lecturer and take notes. Some modules have seminars where smaller groups discuss the subject in detail. The academic staff [people who teach] might also include tutors, who teach students individually or in small groups, in sessions called tutorials. Many students live on campus in halls of residence (or halls).

C

Language help An undergraduate (student) or undergrad is a student studying for their bachelor’s degree. A postgraduate (student) or postgrad is a student studying for their master’s or a PhD. Notice that postgraduate and undergraduate can be used as nouns or adjectives.

Student services

Admissions1 To apply for one of our postgraduate programmes, check the entry requirements2 on the programme page. Then click here to submit your application.

Funding3 Tuition fees4 should be paid at the beginning of the academic year. To apply for a student loan5 or a scholarship6 click here.

1 a university department that deals with new applications and new students 2 qualifications that are needed to enter a programme 3 money that students can receive 4 money that students have to pay for their course 36

A tutorial

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Student Union Visit our student union7 page to find out more about student societies and clubs.

5 money that a student borrows to pay for their course 6 money that is given to a student to pay for a course (usually for students who are doing well at school) 7 an organization that deals with student issues and student life on campus, and a place where students can meet

Exercises 15.1

What do we call …? 1 2 3 4 5 6

15.2

A first degree at college or university bachelor’s degree The lower level of postgraduate degree The highest university degree A person who is studying for their first degree A person who has completed their first degree A person who is studying for a master’s or PhD

Choose the correct option to complete each sentence. 1 2 3 4 5

This undergraduate credit / programme / field lasts four years. To complete the year students need 180 lectures / credits / modules. 60 of these are for the thesis. After three years, you will research / credit / graduate with a bachelor’s degree. My master’s field / credit / dissertation on modern English literature was 120 pages long. Dr Lewis has been doing research / thesis / field into dolphin behaviour and has made a very important discovery. 6 Lucy is an expert in the field / programme / research of ancient history and has just completed her PhD on Greek art.

15.3

Fill the gaps with words from B opposite. 1 A campus is a place where the university buildings are located. 2 Student accommodation is called . 3 Academic staff, such as professors, tutors and , have offices at the university. 4 are meetings (one-to-one or in small groups) with a tutor. 5 Students listen to talks in a . 6 Some are attended by two hundred students.

15.4

Correct the mistakes in these sentences.

finance

1 There are two types of student unions: student loans and scholarships. 2 You must pay your entry requirements by 17th September. 3 A great way of meeting new people on campus is to join some of the student scholarships and clubs. 4 The admissions office helps current students with their problems and life on campus. 5 Before you submit your application, read the student loan thoroughly.

15.5

Over to you Is the system of university studies similar in your country? Make a list of similarities and differences.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

37

16 A

Work Jobs in a workplace director [member of the board of a company] executive /Ig'zekjUtIv/ [important person who makes big decisions] administrator [person who runs the office day-to-day] skilled worker [trained to do specific tasks, e.g. building a computer] unskilled worker [doing a job that needs no training] receptionist [visitors must check in with them] public relations officer [gives information about the company to the media] union representative [looks after the staff’s interests] researcher [investigates and develops new products] supervisor [makes sure workers are doing their job properly]

Common mistakes The best way of getting to work (NOT job) depends on where you live. Wish me luck in my new job (NOT work). Job refers to a particular role or position. Jack’s got a new job as a researcher. Work refers to activities that you do. Jack’s work is very demanding.

B

Trades and professions civil servant [person who works for a government department putting policies into action]

scientist physiotherapist /[emailprotected]'[emailprotected]/ [person who treats muscle injury by rubbing and moving injured areas]

judge

designer

[person who takes decisions in legal cases]

PROFESSIONS

lecturer [university teacher]

[jobs that require considerable training and/or qualifications]

ambassador [chief diplomat or person representing his/ her government abroad]

economist [expert in financial matters]

banker carpenter

designer

[person skilled at making things with wood]

firefighter

TRADES

childminder [person looking after others’ children in her own home while their parents are at work]

C

[skilled manual jobs requiring on-the-job and other training]

plumber [person who works with the supply and connection of water pipes]

Collocations of words connected with work It’s not easy to get/find work round these parts. I’ve been offered work / a job in Paris. What d’you do for a living? I’m in publishing/banking, etc. It’s hard to make a living as a freelance writer. [earn enough money to live comfortably] She’s not prepared to take on that job. [suggests ‘having personal responsibility’] hours of work

to do shiftwork or to work shifts [nights one week, days the next week] to be on flexi-time [flexible working hours]

not working

to go/be on strike [industrial dispute]

to work nine-to-five [regular day work]

to get the sack [thrown out of your job]

to be fired (more formal than ‘get the sack’; often used in direct speech: ‘You’re fired!’) to be made redundant [thrown out, no longer needed] to be laid off (more informal to be on / take maternity (woman) or paternity (man) leave than ‘made redundant’) [before/after the birth of a baby] to be on / take sick leave [illness] to take early retirement [retire at 55] other useful expressions 38

to be a workaholic [love work too much] to apply for a job [fill in forms, etc.]

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

to be promoted [get a higher position]

Exercises 16.1

Which of the job titles in A opposite would best describe the following? 1 The person who represents the workers’ interests in disputes with the management in a factory.

union representative

2 A person who has a high position in a company and whose job it is to make important decisions. 3 An important person in a company who sits on the board. 4 A worker whose job requires no special training, for example, an office cleaner. 5 A person generally in charge of the day-to-day organisation of a company/department. 6 A person whose job it is to keep an eye on the day-to-day work of other workers.

16.2

Choose job or work to complete these sentences. 1 2 3 4 5

16.3

Using the expressions in C opposite, say what you think has happened / is happening. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

16.4

I’ll pay for the plumbing work when it’s finished. I’d like to apply for a in your office. You should delegate more to your personal assistant. Let’s stop for a coffee on our way home from . A in a museum wouldn’t be as tiring as one in a restaurant. I’m not working now; the baby’s due in three weeks. She’s on maternity leave. He’s enjoying life on a pension, although he’s only 58. One week it’s six-to-two, the next it’s nights. They’ve made her General Manager as from next month! I was late so often, I lost my job. I get in at nine o’clock and go home at five. Your trouble is you are obsessed with work!

Which jobs do these people have? Would you call the following a trade, a profession or an unskilled job?

1

physiotherapist -profession

4

16.5

3

5

6

Fill in the collocations. I’d love to 1 get/ have I have to earn a 2 I’ve been 4 5 it

16.6

2

a job in journalism, but it’s not easy without qualifications. Since somehow, I’ll have to get 3 wherever I can find it. some part-time work editing a new book, but I’m not sure I want to .

Over to you Think of five people you know who work for a living. Can you name their jobs in English? If you can’t, look them up in a good bilingual dictionary. English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

39

17 A

Business Starting a business Ryan Archer had an idea for a business. He had a computer but it was never just right for all his personal needs, so he went to his bank manager and put forward1 a business plan2 to sell custom- built3 computers on the Internet. He launched4 his business a year later, offering an individual service making desktop and laptop computers, and two years later rolled out5 an expanded6 range, including tablets and other hand- held devices. His firm7 now manufactures8 around 200 machines a year and delivers to 26 countries around the world. Ryan said, ‘It’s all about personal service and customer care9. This was our priority10 from the start. We didn’t really do any proper market research 11 and we weren’t sure if such machines would sell, especially during a recession12. But I felt there were enough potential13 customers to make it worth the risk14. I was right. Soon, designers, scientists, academics and other professional people were requesting personalised machines and our order books15 were full.’ Going forward16, Archer plans to expand the business further, and a new range of machines will launch next year. 1

2 3 offered for people to consider a plan of how the business will operate specially made for a particular 4 5 person or thing started, perhaps with a special event to mark the beginning make a new product 6 7 8 available for the first time made bigger company produces goods in large numbers, usually in 9 10 a factory looking aft er the customer’s needs something very important which must be dealt with 11 12 first (uncountable) finding out beforehand what people want or need period of low economic activity 13 14 and bad conditions for business possible when the conditions are right possibility of something bad 15 16 happening the list of orders waiting to be completed going into the future

Language help In business English, some verbs which usually need an object can often be used without an object or with the real object acting as the subject.

B

with object

real object as subject

We sold 200 instruments last year. They are launching a new range. They are rolling out a new range.

We didn’t know if the instruments would sell. The new range launches next year. The new range will roll out next year.

Common business English phrases and collocations The CEO1 of a big corporation2 gave us these tips for success in business: Do business in the markets you know best before trying to enter new ones. It may be difficult to access new markets3. Build contacts; that’s the secret. You may not make a profit immediately. Be patient. You will probably face stiff competition4, so make sure your product is the best. Get regular feedback 5 from your employees and customers. They know best.

1

Chief Executive Officer 2 a large company or group of companies that is controlled together as a single organisation 3 reach and do business with new groups of customers or parts of the world where something might 4 be sold (uncountable) other companies trying hard to be more successful than you 5 (uncountable) information/opinions about what people think of a product or service

Common mistakes Business can be countable or uncountable. We hope to do more business in Asia next year. (uncountable = the activity. NOT We hope to do more businesses...) New businesses are launched on the Internet every day. (countable = enterprises/companies) 40

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 17.1

Fill the gaps in the questions with words from A opposite, then complete the answers. 1 What did Ryan Archer put forward to his bank manager? He presented a . 2 What is special about the computers his makes? They are . 3 When did he his business? A . 4 What did he out two years later? An of computers. 5 How many computers does his firm now? About a . 6 What was Ryan Archer’s from the start? Personal service and . 7 Why didn’t he do any research? He felt there were enough customers. 8 Why was he not sure if the machines would ? There was a at the time. 9 Was it all worth the ? Yes. His firm’s were soon full. 10 forward, what are his plans? He’s planning a new range of computers, which will next year. If possible, practise asking and answering the questions with someone else.

17.2

Rewrite the words in bold using words and phrases from A and B opposite. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

17.3

Correct the mistakes in these sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

17.4

The new service will be available for the first time over the whole country next year. roll out The business didn’t make money in its first year. There are a lot of possible customers for this product. Their list of orders waiting to be completed was full last month. It is sometimes difficult to get into new markets if you don’t have contacts. We should pay attention to the opinions and reactions our clients post on our website. Customer care is a most important issue for our company. We need to make our business bigger in Latin America. It’s important to create relationships with local people before you enter a new country.

CEO

She’s the COE of a huge corporation. The new range of products will launch itself next month. We hope it will be sold! The firm specialises in customer-built laptops for business travellers. Bringing forward, we expect to increase our sales in Japan and China. It’s important to get a feedback from our clients. We’re facing competitions from American firms. We hope to do more businesses in North Africa in the future.

Match the words on the left with the words on the right to make typical collocations. Then write a sentence using each one. customer

order

market

custom

stiff

built

competition

research

care

books

EXAMPLE Customer care should be a priority in any kind of business.

17.5

Over to you If you could start a business, what would it be? What would you need to do to make it a success? Write a paragraph outlining your ideas. Use words and phrases from this unit.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

41

18 A

Sport Some sports whose names you may not know

hang-gliding

snowboarding

B

(ten-pin) bowling

scuba diving

fencing

showjumping

snooker/pool/ billiards /ˈbɪljədz/

windsurfing

motor racing

archery

Equipment – what you hold in your hand golf – club squash/tennis/badminton – racket darts – dart archery – bow cricket / table tennis / baseball – bat ice hockey / field hockey – stick snooker/pool/billiards – cue canoeing – paddle rowing – oar fishing – rod/line

C

Athletics

discus (throw)

javelin /ˈjævlɪn/

high jump

long jump

gymnastics

pole vault

She’s a great sprinter. [fast over short distances] He’s a great long-distance runner. (e.g. 5,000 metres) He’s doing a marathon next month.

D

Competition in sport She set a new Olympic record last year. He holds the record for the 100 metres breaststroke. England qualified for the World Cup but got knocked out in the third round. [achieved the necessary standard but lost at the third stage and were then excluded from the competition] Our team made it to / reached the semi-final but then we were beaten. [won every stage of the competition except the last but one, and so did not enter the final match/event] Most sports are very competitive these days. [involve a strong desire to win and be better than other people] She felt proud as she held the trophy in her hands. [cup or other object that shows she has won] Players who disagree with the referee set a bad example to the spectators and to their fans. [people who are present at a sporting event to watch it]

E

People who do particular sports -er can be used for many sports, e.g. footballer, swimmer, etc. Player is often necessary, e.g. tennis player, squash player. Some names must be learnt separately, e.g. canoeist, mountaineer, jockey, archer (NOT archerer), gymnast.

Common mistakes In British English, the noun sport is used in the plural when it describes another noun (e.g. equipment, facilities, club). The shop sells sports equipment. (NOT sport equipment) However, you will hear the singular sport used before another noun in American English. 42

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 18.1

Which of the sports opposite are these people probably talking about? 1 The ball doesn’t roll in a straight line on the ground. You have to aim away from the centre of the pins.

(ten-pin) bowling

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

18.2

Provided it’s not too windy at the top of the hill, there’s no problem. It is incredibly noisy, fast and dangerous, but it’s really exciting to watch. The horse has to get over a series of jumps without knocking the posts off. It’s all a matter of balance. But sometimes you can’t help falling in the water. You need a good eye and concentration, especially to hit the centre of the board. The different ball colours are worth different numbers of points. It’s a fantastic feeling when the snow flies up into the air around you.

Name a piece of equipment necessary to do these sports apart from the item given. 1 golf: ball, club 2 archery: arrow, 3 tennis: ball,

18.3

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

long-distance runner. She won a medal last year for the 1,500 metres. She’s won a lot of

in the last five years and has them all in a glass cabinet at her house. Were many new records at the last Olympics? He’s doing a next week - running 42 kilometres! That’s 26 miles! Who the world record for the 1,000 metres these days? Is it a Russian? His national team failed to for the World Cup so he’s supporting Brazil instead. Last year, our team the final for the first time in 10 years but we lost. (two answers) My team got in the second of the competition. We were very disappointed it happened at such an early stage. All Olympic sports are highly ; everyone has one ambition - to win gold. Thousands of protested loudly at the decision of the to give their team captain a red card. The world’s best can run 100 metres in less than 10 seconds.

Correct the mistakes in these sentences. There may be more than one mistake. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

18.5

7 canoeing: canoe, 8 snooker: balls, 9 rowing: boat,

Fill the gaps with suitable words. 1 She’s a

18.4

4 field hockey: ball, 5 baseball: ball, 6 darts: dartboard,

gymnast

She was a champion gymnastic when she was a teenager. Are you a good tenniser? We’re trying to get a local team together. My brother is an expert canoist. He’s won medals. My father is a good golfist. He’s also an expert mountainer. Is there a shop near here that sells sport equipment? I need a fishing rode. I’d love to be a good archerer, but my eyesight isn’t very good. Are you a sprinter or a long-distant runner? My favourite Olympic sports are fence and the height jump.

Which sport …? 1 covers a long distance in one jump? long jump 2 throws a heavy disc a long way? 3 throws a pole with a sharp point?

18.6

Over to you Make a list of (a) sports you have done and (b) sports you would like to do. Then list the equipment you needed / would need for each one. Write sentences about what you liked or disliked about sports you have tried, using vocabulary from this unit. English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

43

19 A

Art and literature Art and the arts novels short stories drama

biographies LITERATURE poetry

theatre

dance

PERFORMING ARTS

cinema ballet opera, concerts: classical/rock/ FINE ART(S) country and western

sculpture painting

architecture

ceramics /sɪˈræmɪks/ (making pots, bowls, etc.)

The arts (plural) covers everything in the diagram above. Art (singular, uncountable) usually means fine art, but can also refer to technique and creativity. Have you read the arts page in the paper today? [that part of the newspaper that deals with all the things in the diagram] She’s a great art lover. [loves painting and sculpture] Shakespeare was skilled in the art of poetry. [creative ability] Ask Sara to help you decorate your room - she’s very artistic. [shows skill and imagination in creating things] A work of art (plural = works of art) is an object made by a skilled artist - typically a painting, drawing or statue. The phrase arts and crafts is used to refer to the skills of making objects such as decorations, jewellery and furniture by hand.

B

Types of art and artists This is a sculptor – he’s creating a statue – his type of art is called sculpture. This is a potter – she’s throwing a pot – her type of art is called pottery. Henry is an architect – he’s designing a building – his type of art is called architecture. An abstract painting involves shapes and colours rather than images of real people or things. A portrait is a painting of a person. A landscape is a painting of a scene in the countryside. A still life is a painting of a set of objects that do not move, usually fruit or flowers. An original painting is one produced by the painter him/herself rather than a copy or reproduction.

C

Literature Lisa O’Donnell is one of the country’s most popular novelists1. She has written a series2 of romantic novels all with a historical setting3. These have all been bestsellers4 although the critics5 complain that her plots6 are predictable and her characters7 are not very realistic. Her cousin, Lucy Smith, is a more literary8 writer and her books tend to get better reviews9 although they do not sell so well. Both writers have a novel which will be ready for publication10 later this year; they will also be available to download as ebooks11. We have received advance copies of both novels and it is interesting to compare the opening passage12 from Smith’s latest book with an extract13 from the first chapter of O’Donnell’s. 1 people who write long stories about imaginary people and events (remember a novel is typically at

2 set of books featuring the same characters least 150 pages long; anything shorter is a short story) 3 background for a story or film 4 very popular books that sell in large numbers 5 people whose job it is 6 stories 7 people in a book or film to give their opinion of something, typically books, films or music 8 serious rather than popular 9 what the critics write 10 making something available in a printed form 11 electronic book 12 short piece of text 13 part of a book chosen to be used in an article or for discussion

44

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 19.1

Which branch of the arts do you think these people are talking about? 1 He’s created some beautiful vases but I’m not so keen on his other pieces.

2 It doesn’t have to rhyme to be good.

pottery

3 Oils to me don’t have the delicacy of watercolours.

19.2

portrait

2

3

4

Choose the correct option to complete each sentence. 1 2 3 4 5

19.4

5 The first chapter was boring but it got better later.

What type of painting is each of these?

1

19.3

4 Her design for the new city hall won an award.

A sculpture / sculptor is someone who makes statues. The Dutch artist Rembrandt was a master of art / the art of portrait painting. On Saturdays there’s a market in the city square where they sell all sorts of art / arts and craft / crafts. Which would you rather be good at - art / the art or music / the music? I saw some interesting abstract works of art / work of arts at the City Gallery.

Find the missing words to complete the crossword. Across

1

2 The have generally been very positive about Kelly’s latest novel. 3 Do you like this picture? It’s only a . I could never afford an original. 5 The author began his talk by reading a short from his latest book. 6 I usually prefer to read books with a modern rather than ones about some unfamiliar period. 8 I’ve loved all the books in this detective . I hope they’ll publish another one soon. 9 Max is, of course, hoping that his first novel will become a . 10 Have you read any of the novel we’ve got to read for our English class?

2

3

C

R

I

T

I

C

S

4

5

6 7 8

9

10

Down 1 Maria’s first novel is due for this summer. 2 You know from the first page that the two main in the novel are going to fall in love with each other. 4 The novel has a very interesting with some unexpected twists in it. 7 Leo’s short story is going to be published in the country’s leading magazine. English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

45

20 A

Theatre and cinema At the theatre

We went to see a new production of Hamlet last night. The sets1 were incredibly realistic and the costumes2 were wonderful. It was a good cast3 and I thought the direction4 was excellent. Toby Cartwright gave a marvellous performance5. .It got rave reviews6 in the papers today. 1 scenery, buildings, furniture on the stage or in a studio

2 clothes the

3 all the actors in the performance 4 the way actors wear on stage 5+6 note these typical the director had organised the performance 6 got very enthusiastic comments collocations

Dance usually refers to modern artistic dance forms; ballet /ˈbæleɪ/ usually has a more traditional feel, unless we say modern ballet. A comedian is a person who entertains people by telling jokes. They may have a show of their own or they may feature in a show with lots of different entertainers. [people whose job it is to entertain others] The people who watch a show are the audience. Viewer is only used about someone watching a TV programme.

Language help When we refer to a performing art in general, we can leave out the definite article, e.g. Are you interested in (the) cinema/ballet/opera/theatre? But: Would you like to come to the cinema/ ballet/opera/theatre with us next week? [particular performance]

B

At the cinema ANNA: BETH: ANNA: BETH: ANNA: BETH:

Our local cinema’s showing Spectre again next week. Do you fancy going to see it? Yes, that’d be great. I love the opening scene1 at the carnival in Mexico City. The James Bond films are always set2 in great locations. Yes, and I think the film really captures3 the human side of James Bond. That’s right. A lot of work went into the script4 for this, and the dialogue5’s particularly good, I think. Do you know who the director6 was? Sam Mendes, I think. He didn’t write the screenplay7, though. I’m not sure who wrote that. The score8 is by Thomas Newman. He also wrote the music for Skyfall.

1 part of a play or film where the action happens in one place 4 the words of a play or film

a play or film

C

2 take place

5 conversation written for a book, play or film

3 represents very accurately

6 person in charge of making

7 text for a film including instructions for actors and camera operators

8 music for a film

Other words connected with events in the arts The Opera Society are doing a performance of Don Giovanni. The National Theatre has a very large and versatile stage. [area above ground level where actors perform] What’s on at the cinema/theatre, etc. next week? (note the two prepositions) Sometimes they use our school hall as a venue for concerts - it’s a little small but is otherwise quite good. There was an actor on TV last night promoting an interesting new play he’s appearing in at The Globe. [providing publicity for; noun = promotion][acting; noun = appearance]

46

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 20.1

Fill the gaps with the correct form of the word in brackets. 1 2 3 4 5 6

20.2

Definite article or not? Fill the gap with the if necessary. 1 2 3 4 5

20.3

I thought all the cast gave an excellent performance in the play last night. (perform) I don’t find that particularly funny. (comedy) It’s unusual for a film to have two but this one did. (direct) Paolo Tomassi is one of the best I’ve seen for a long time. (entertain) It was one of the best of a Shakespeare play I’ve ever seen. (produce) My favourite actor makes only a brief in the film. (appear)

— The government doesn’t give enough money to ballet. She’s got a diploma in dance from the Performing Arts Academy. I’ve got some tickets for opera. Interested? Shall we go to cinema this evening? There are several good things on. I much prefer theatre to ballet, don’t you?

Choose the correct word from the box to fill each gap in this online review. There are some extra words in the box which you do not need. audience cast reviews scenes

costumes critics entertainers performances productions screenplay script sets stage venue words

Theatre Review Last night actors at the Central Theatre put on a new play by Martha Collins. I spoke to several other members of the 1 audience and they all loved it. They commented afterwards on the quality of her 2______________ . They were impressed by the 3______________ the actors wore. They also found the 4______________ original and visually interesting. Most importantly of all, the 5______________ was felt to be first class, with particularly strong 6______________ from the two leading actors. There were also positive comments on the 7______________ , which has been recently refurbished and has a large revolving 8______________ . The people I spoke to all hope that the 9______________ in the national press will write rave 10______________ about the show.

20.4

Ask questions for which these remarks would be suitable answers. 1 2 3 4 5

20.5

Yes, it got rave reviews. Was the play a success? No, I’m not really a concert-goer, but thanks anyway. Oh, romantic comedies, I think. The cast were all good, but the direction was weak. A new Hungarian film; fancy going to see it?

Over to you Choose a film and answer these questions about it. • Who do you think gives the best performance in it? • Who’s the director? • Where was it set? • What is your favourite scene in it? • What’s the score like? • Are there any particularly memorable lines in the dialogue?

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

47

21 A

Music Downloading and managing your music Downloading music as MP31 files is easy.

• You can download a whole album or individual tracks2 onto your phone or computer. • You can save your favourite albums and tracks in playlists so you can find them easily. • You can sync3 (or, more formal, synchronise) the music files on your computer with your phone. • You can also stream4 music from the Internet or from your computer to other rooms in your

home if you have the right equipment. 1 a popular type of audio file - you can listen to the files on a computer or mobile device

3 have exactly the same files and data on more than one device of music from an album real time from one source to another

B

2 one song or piece 4 play music in

A typical rock band She’s lead singer in a rock band. One of her brothers plays lead guitar and her other brother is a keyboard player, so it’s a real family band. What would you rather play in a band, drums or bass? I could never be a drummer but I think I could become a fairly good bass guitarist.

C

Types of music

bass /beɪs/

keyboard

drums guitar

singer

My family all have different tastes in music. My sister Niki loves classical music, my uncle Ben’s a folk fan and my father loves jazz. I like R&B1 and hip-hop2. I even compose a bit of rap3 myself! My older brother is into4 The Beatles and other 60s music5. My mother loves film soundtracks6 but I just find them uninteresting. One type of music I can’t stand is the canned music7 you get in supermarkets and airports – it drives me crazy! 1 Rhythm and Blues, originally a black American form of blues music with a strong rhythm 2 a style of popular music where the words are spoken rather than sung

3 the words spoken in

4 interested in and enthusiastic about

5 music from the 1960s hip-hop music (can also be a verb) 6 music from a film or TV show 7 artificial or recorded music played in the background

D

Collocations for musical activities She plays the guitar but she doesn’t read music. She plays by ear. She’s got a good ear*. She can pick out* a tune on almost any instrument. She’s a very talented musician. You can make music in lots of ways. You don’t need to be a trained musician to enjoy music to the full. * informal

Common mistakes We say: classical music. (NOT classic) She loves classical music. (NOT classic music) Music is uncountable. They played fantastic music for an hour. (NOT fantastic musics)

48

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 21.1

Fill the gaps in the conversation. I’ve been listening to some songs from the new album by the Hoods. It’s great. I downloaded them to my on my phone, so I’ve got them in both places. I just got six , not the whole thing. ANNA: Oh, right. I download music files but then forget to them with my phone, so I don’t have them when I travel! But I can them from the computer in my study to the audio system in the living room, so I do get to listen to them. I’ve made some good with my favourite tracks.

HENRY:

21.2

In a typical rock band … 1 2 3 4 5

21.3

… who usually sings the songs? the lead singer … who keeps the rhythm using two sticks? … who plays the lowest musical notes? … who plays an electric piano or organ? … who plays the highest notes on the guitar?

Read the comments and then answer the questions.

Ross

Emma

Lauren

Natalie

‘I must be the only person who actually likes the music in supermarkets.’

‘I listen to the traditional songs of my country and try to learn them.’

‘I just love the way they can speak the words so fast - it’s so clever.’

1 Who likes soundtracks? 2 Who likes hip-hop? 3 Who likes 60s music?

21.4

James

James

‘I love the film and I’m going to buy the music from it. I often buy film music.’

Liam

‘I’ve always loved the blues and I like music with a strong rhythm.’

4 Who is a folk music fan? 5 Who likes R&B? 6 Who likes canned music?

Complete the missing words in this advertisement. You are sometimes given the first letter(s).

HELP WANTED

21.5

‘I love the old original tracks by groups like The Beatles and the Rolling Stones.’

Do you have a good _____________ ear for music? Do you play a musical instrument _____________ ear? Can you p_____________ out a tune on an instrument you’ve never played before? We are looking for volunteers to take part in an experiment to investigate people’s natural musical abilities. You don’t need to be a tr_____________ musician and you don’t need to be able to r_____________ music. If you just _____________ music at home or with friends for fun, whatever kinds of m_____________ you are i_____________, whether it’s cl_____________ music, j_____________, pop, we want to hear from you. We believe there are many ta_____________ musicians out there and we want to learn more about how you do it. CALL 01255 7561447

Over to you Write answers that are true for you. 1 2 3 4 5

Can you remember the name of the first album you ever bought? Who was it by? How often do you download tracks or whole albums? Which do you prefer to do? Which kinds of music mentioned on the opposite page do you particularly like/dislike? Can you play any musical instruments and how well do you play them? What instrument and what kind of music would you like to be able to play well and why? English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

49

22 A

Food Talking about flavours and tastes - adjectives and some opposites (≠) hot, spicy (e.g. curry) ≠ mild bland [very little flavour; rather negative] salty [a lot of salt] sugary [a lot of sugar] sickly [too much sugar] savoury /ˈseɪvəri/ [pleasant, slightly salty or with herbs] sour [sharp, often unpleasant taste, like a lemon, and not sweet] bitter [with an unpleasantly sharp taste] tasty [has a good taste/flavour] ≠ tasteless [no flavour at all] moreish [having a pleasant taste, so you want to eat more] I love spicy food, especially curries - the hotter the better! My sister prefers mild curries. Those cakes are too sugary for me. They have a sickly taste. They had some delicious savoury snacks at the party. They were very moreish. The breakfast buffet was very poor quality: the coffee tasted bitter and the fruit juice was sour. The food on the plane was bland and tasteless - it was like eating cardboard!

B

Appearance, presentation and quality of food This meat is overcooked/overdone / undercooked/underdone. I’m afraid this mango is a bit unripe. They’re not really in season at the moment. [not ready to eat; opp = ripe] [being produced and ready and available] This butter has gone off. I think we should throw it out. [not good to eat because it is too old] I don’t feel like anything heavy. I just want something light; a salad would be fine. British cooking can be very stodgy. /ˈstɒdʒi/ [heavy, hard to digest] Zoe will only buy organic fruit and vegetables. [grown without artificial chemicals] We should try to have a balanced diet, without too much or too little of any particular thing. A diet of junk food can cause long-term health problems. [food that is unhealthy but easy and quick to eat] Processed food in general is not good for you. [that has been treated with chemicals to preserve it or give it extra colour or taste]

C

Eating out At most good restaurants, you usually have to book a table / make a reservation beforehand. If something happens, or you are ill, you may need to cancel the booking/reservation. In the UK a meal in a restaurant is typically three courses: a starter1, a main course, then a dessert. You can often order side dishes2. Some restaurants may have a set menu [a selection of dishes at a fixed price], or you can order individual dishes (called ordering à-la-carte). Restaurants often have specials3 advertised on a board. They often cater for vegetarians, nonmeat-eaters4 and vegans5. 1 light snack / appetiser

2 a smaller dish alongside the main course (e.g. an extra vegetable)

3 dishes only available on that day

4 people who don’t eat meat but who are not vegetarians

5 people who don’t eat or use any animal products, such as meat, fish, eggs, cheese or leather

D

Eating at home HOST:1

GUEST: HOST: GUEST: HOST: GUEST: HOST: GUEST:

50

Right, there’s more soup. Who wants seconds2? Oh, yes, please. It was absolutely delicious. There’s bread here. Just help yourself3. Thanks. Be sure to keep a bit of room for some pudding4. Can I re-fill your glass? Ah, yes, thank you. Say when. When! That’s fine. Thanks.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

1 the person who has invited the guests 2 a second serving of something 3 serve yourself

4 desserts are often called pudding

(uncountable), a sweet (countable) or afters (plural) at home

Exercises 22.1

Which taste and flavour words opposite could you use to describe the following? 1 a strong Indian curry spicy / hot 2 a pizza with cheese and herbs 3 sea water

22.2

Using words from B opposite, what could you say to the person/people with you in a restaurant if … 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

22.3

4 an unripe apple 5 a cup of tea with five spoonfuls of sugar 6 extremely strong black coffee with no sugar

you had ordered a mild curry but got the opposite? This curry is too hot / too spicy for me. the fish you ordered had obviously been cooked too much / too long? you ordered melon and it was very hard? your dish seemed to have no flavours at all? there was too much salt in your soup? someone at your table recommended a big steak but you just wanted a salad? the dish you ordered was very heavy and difficult to digest? a piece of chicken you ordered had not been cooked enough? you wonder if the vegetables have been grown without artificial chemicals?

Read the comments and then complete the sentences with words and phrases from the opposite page. 1 Chris: ‘I had to call the waiter to bring me a knife and fork.’ Chris needed (some) cutlery . 2 Emma: ‘If you want a dish not on the menu there’s usually a blackboard with other dishes.’ The restaurant usually has some . 3 Oscar: ‘The peanuts were free and I just couldn’t stop eating them.’ Oscar thought the peanuts were . 4 Tina: ‘I needed one because I didn’t want to spill food on my new dress.’ Tina needed . 5 Jordi: ‘I’m not a vegetarian; I just don’t eat meat.’ Jordi is a . 6 Okas: ‘I didn’t like the set menu. I ordered individual dishes.’ Okas ordered . 7 Phoebe: ‘It’s a big student restaurant. You don’t need to phone beforehand.’ Phoebe said you don’t need to / . (two answers) 8 Krishnan: ‘With my main course I ordered an extra bowl of chips and some mushrooms.’ Krishnan ordered a couple of . 9 Emily: ‘Everybody had colds so we phoned the restaurant and said we weren’t coming.’ Emily and her friends cancelled / . (two answers) 10 Hannah: ‘I had some prawns before the main course.’ Hannah had .

22.4

If you were the host at a dinner party, what could you say to your guests if … 1 you offered them another serving of something? Who wants seconds ? 2 you wanted them to serve themselves? Please . 3 you started to re-fill their glass? . What could the guest say when you had poured enough? ! 4 you offered them something sweet after the main course? Would you like / / / ? (four possible answers)

22.5

Over to you Write sentences that are true for you. 1 Which words from A and B opposite could you use to describe the food of your country or culture? Give some examples of dishes. Which fruit or vegetables are in season at different times of the year? 2 Describe your favourite dish, what is in it, how it is prepared, what flavours it has, etc. 3 How often do you eat junk food or processed food? Why? Do you have a balanced diet? In what ways? English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

51

23 A

Physical geography Geographical features You have to be careful about the use of ‘the’ with geographical features. use with ‘the’?

example

countries

no

France

countries which are in a plural form

yes

the USA, the Philippines

individual mountains

no

Mount Everest

mountains in the Bernese Oberland

yes

the Jungfrau /ˈjʊŋfraʊ/

mountain chains

yes

the Himalayas /hɪməˈleɪjəz/

islands

no

Sicily

groups of islands

yes

the West Indies

rivers

yes

the Volga

oceans

yes

the Pacific

seas

yes

the Mediterranean /medɪtəˈreɪniən/

gulfs, bays and straits

yes

the Gulf of Mexico, the Bay of Biscay, the Strait of Malacca

lakes

no

Lake Erie

currents

yes

the Gulf Stream

Language help Although most countries do not take ‘the’, they do need the definite article when they are followed by a phrase limiting the meaning, e.g. the Japan of today, the France we know from paintings, the South America of the past.

B

Geographical features in Iceland Iceland An island republic in the North Atlantic. The landscape consists largely of barren plains1 and mountains, with large ice fields particularly in the south west. The island has active volcanoes2 and is known for its thermal3 springs and geysers4. With less than 1% of the land suitable for growing crops5, the nation’s economy is based on fishing, and fish products account for 80% of the exports. Area: 103,000 km2. Population: 318,000. Capital: Reykjavik. 1 flat land where little grows 3 hot

steam

C

2 volcanoes that still erupt

4 hole in the ground that sends out hot water and 5 food that is grown

The sea, rivers and mountains Where land meets sea: coast, shore, beach Words connected with rivers: valley, gorge [valley with very steep sides], stream [small river] Words connected with mountains: foot, ridge, peak, summit, glacier [river of ice]

52

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 23.1

Find words on the opposite page that match the definitions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

23.2

current a movement of water in a particular direction the wide part of a river at its mouth the top of a mountain (two words) the place where a river starts the land along the edge of a sea or lake a narrow stretch of sea between two areas of land a long piece of land sticking out into the sea or a lake a long narrow high part of a mountain

In the paragraph below all the instances of the have been omitted. Insert them wherever they are necessary.

River Amazon

the

Brazil is ∧fifth largest country in world. In north, densely forested basin of River Amazon covers half country. In east, country is washed by Atlantic. Highest mountain chain in South America, Andes, does not lie in Brazil. Brazil’s most famous city is Rio de Janeiro, former capital. Today capital of Brazil is Brasilia.

23.3

Brazil

Rio de Janeiro

Can you answer the following general knowledge geography quiz? 1 2 3 4 5 6

Mount Kilimanjaro What is the highest mountain in Africa? What is the longest river in Europe? Where is the highest waterfall in the world? Name another country, apart from Iceland, which has geysers and hot springs. What is a delta and which famous river has one? Where are the Straits of Gibraltar and the Cape of Good Hope?

23.4

Find 17 more words for geographical features. Words go horizontally or vertically but not diagonally.

23.5

Give two nouns from the opposite page to go with the adjectives below. Try not to repeat any of the nouns you choose. 1 sandy 2 steep 3 shallow

23.6

Brasilia

beach

4 rocky 5 turbulent 6 dangerous

Over to you Draw a map of a country or area that interests you. Write the English names of its main geographical features on it. Write a paragraph about the geography of the area. English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

53

24 A

Environmental problems The problems and their causes A variety of environmental problems now affect our entire world. As globalisation1 continues, local issues become international ones, so today there are few places in the world that do not suffer from environmental problems. Some of the major problems now affecting the world are acid rain2, air pollution3, global warming4, hazardous5 waste, ozone depletion6, smog7, water pollution, overpopulation, and rainforest destruction8. People are also worried about the greenhouse effect, where an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide [CO2] and other gases9 in the Earth’s atmosphere10 causes a gradual warming of the surface of the Earth. This global warming is leading to the thawing of the polar ice caps11 and all this is causing concern about climate change. Both human behaviour and climate change have led to many animal and plant species12 becoming endangered13 or even extinct14.

1 increasing business, cultural and other contacts between countries

2 rain which contains harmful chemicals

as a result of burning substances such as oil and coal [acid = a type of liquid that reacts chemically with other 3 damage caused to the air by harmful substances or waste materials, sometimes dissolving them] 4 rise in the world’s temperature 5 dangerous 6 reduction in the ozone layer [layer of air above the Earth containing ozone which prevents harmful ultraviolet light from the sun from reaching Earth] 7 air pollution found in cities caused by a mixture of smoke, gases and chemicals (the word has been formed 8 destroying (cutting down) forest in a tropical area which receives a lot of rain from smoke + fog) 9 substance in a form that is neither solid nor liquid 10 the mixture of gases around the Earth 11 ice covering the areas at the North and South Poles 12 types 13 very few in number, at risk of 14 not existing any longer becoming extinct

Language help The prefix over- means too much. Overfishing means that people have fished so much that it is having a serious effect on fish populations. Overpopulated means there are so many people living in an area that life is difficult there.

B

Dealing with the problems Worldwide efforts are being made to improve the situation. Green parties and green or ecological policies are mainly concerned with protecting the environment. Conservation organisations are developing nature reserves where plants and animals are protected. Some farmers produce organic food, which avoids the use of harmful chemicals. More companies try to behave in a way that is environmentally friendly or ecologically sound. Societies attempt to dispose of waste in a more responsible way, by, for example, recycling as much as possible. People aim to reduce their carbon footprint by using cars less so that they cut down on their use of fossil fuels, for example.

C

Word families noun

verb

adjective

adverb

globalisation

globalise

global

globally

environmental

environmentally

environment, environmentalist

54

pollution, pollutant

pollute

polluting

destruction

destroy

destructive

disposal

dispose

disposable

reduction

reduce

reduced

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

destructively

Exercises 24.1

Answer each question, using a word or expression from the box. acid rain carbon dioxide endangered species extinct global warming globalisation hazardous waste ozone layer polar ice caps destruction of rainforests smog water pollution 1 What happened to dinosaurs about 65 million years ago? They became extinct. 2 What is the name for a special layer in the Earth’s atmosphere which helps protect our planet? 3 What word can be used to describe the increasing contact between countries that has a major impact on life today? 4 What causes problems because it is difficult to dispose of safely? 5 What have scientists shown to be melting worryingly fast at the North and South Poles? 6 What does the chemical symbol CO2 represent? 7 What has been happening in the Amazon area and in other tropical areas like Indonesia and Malaysia? 8 What problem is a type of air pollution? 9 What can cause harm to plant or other life when it falls on the land or sea? 10 What is the Siberian tiger an example of? 11 What has caused much plant and animal life in rivers in industrial areas to die out? 12 What is the term for the phenomenon describing the rise in the Earth’s average temperature?

24.2

Match words to form compound nouns. 1 2 3 4 5

24.3

acid carbon climate fossil green

fuel change party footprint rain

acid rain

6 7 8 9 10

greenhouse nature organic ozone waste

disposal reserve depletion effect food

Choose a word from the opposite page to complete each sentence. 1 An environmentalist is a person who does what they can to help protect the environment. 2 items like plastic cups and paper plates are labour-saving but have a harmful effect on the environment. 3 The government says it is aiming for a significant in this country’s use of fossil fuels over the next ten years. 4 The company plans to part of a nature reserve in order to build its new warehouses. 5 Carbon monoxide (CO) is an example of an air . 6 The melting of the polar ice caps will have a impact on the environment. 7 Staff can of all recyclable items in these green bins. 8 Air pollution may the lives of people with respiratory illnesses. 9 This company is proud of its friendly policies.

24.4

Over to you Answer these questions. 1 Which of the environmental problems in A exist in your country? 2 Do you think climate change is having any impact in your country? 3 How much support do green parties have in your country? 4 What could power cars instead of petrol or diesel? 5 Suggest three things people can do to reduce their carbon footprint.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

55

25

Towns

A

Describing a city The words city and town are sometimes used interchangeably but a city is generally large with a wider range of facilities. This is a description of Cork, one of Ireland’s main cities. Which words or phrases might be useful for describing your own or another town?

Cork city is the major metropolis of the south; indeed, with a population of about 119,500, it is the second largest city in the Republic. The main business and shopping centre of the town lies on the island created by two channels of the River Lee, with many of the suburbs within walking distance of the centre. The buses tend to be overcrowded and the one-way traffic system is extremely complicated. In the hilly area of the city is the famous Shandon Steeple, the bell-tower of St Anne’s Church, built on the site of a church destroyed when the city was besieged by the English in 1690. Back across the River Lee lies the city’s cathedral, an imposing 19th-century building in the French Gothic style. Cork has two markets. Neither caters specifically for tourists but those who enjoy the lively atmosphere of a real working market will appreciate their charm. The town has good sports and arts facilities. The Crawford Art Gallery is well worth a visit. It regularly puts on adventurous exhibitions by contemporary artists. The fashionable residential districts of Cork city overlook the picturesque harbour. There are other residential areas on the outskirts.

B

Facilities Sports: swimming pool sports centre golf course tennis courts football pitch skating rink Culture: theatre opera house concert hall radio station art gallery Education: school college university library adult education centre museum Catering, accommodation and night-life: restaurant take-away hotel B&B (bed and breakfast) youth hostel club Transport: bus service taxi rank car hire car park parking meters Other: health centre law courts registry office citizens’ advice bureau job centre department store chemist’s garden centre police station Town/City Hall estate agent housing estate industrial estate

C

D

Problems in cities problem

effect

cause

traffic jams

traffic very slow; commuters get very stressed

too much traffic, especially in the rush hour

slums

housing in a bad condition

poverty - people don’t have money to spend on housing

vandalism

pointless destruction of property

poverty; lack of hope

overcrowding

difficult living conditions

too many people living in one place

pollution

deterioration in health

traffic and industrial

Adjectives to describe a city picturesque [very pretty and attractive], historic, spacious [with plenty of space], elegant, magnificent, lively, deserted [no one on the streets, e.g. at night], bustling [with lots of movement], packed [very crowded], filthy [very dirty], run-down [in a very bad condition]

Common mistakes There are a lot of open spaces in the centre of London. (NOT There are a lot of open places in …)

56

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 25.1

Check that you understand the text about Cork by answering the following questions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

25.2

Where is Cork? Cork is in the south of the Republic of Ireland. Where is the shopping and business centre of Cork? What is Cork’s traffic system like? What is special about the site of St Anne’s Church? In what style is the architecture of Cork Cathedral? Can you buy souvenirs at the markets? Why is the Crawford Gallery worth visiting? Where do Cork people live?

Fill in the gaps in this description of a town. Use words from the text about Cork. Cambridge has the 1 second oldest university in 2 England (after Oxford). It has a of around 108,900, many of whom are students. The main tourist 3 of the town lies in the city centre, around the university colleges. A number of the old university 4 buildings are built on the of former monasteries or convents. Most of the more picturesque colleges 5 the River Cam. Most of the main hotels in the town are within walking 6 of the centre. The town 7 8 centre has a lively fruit and vegetable and it to be very crowded on 9 Saturdays. The Fitzwilliam Museum is well visiting as is an art gallery called Kettle’s 10 Yard which regularly puts on quite varied by a range of artists. The town also has plenty of sports 11 catering for both young and old. An interesting new Science Park has been built on the 12 of the town, about two kilometres from the city centre.

25.3

Look at the facilities listed in B. Think of a town and tick all those facilities which the town has.

25.4

Suggest three words which would collocate well with the nouns below. The words do not have to be on the left-hand page. 1 2 3

25.5

history

/ science / /

/ museum / centre / college

4 5 6

/ / /

/ / /

/ court / club / agency

4 get married? 5 buy a house? 6 see an exhibition?

7 borrow a book? 8 buy a meal to eat at home? 9 do an evening class?

What are the problems in C for these suggested solutions? 1 2 3 4 5

25.7

folk

Which of the facilities in B might you go to in order to: 1 dance? a club 2 play tennis? 3 find a taxi?

25.6

/ / /

They should provide good-quality state housing. slums There should be stricter laws about traffic emissions. They should restrict the number of people living in any one area. People who destroy public property should be made to do community service. We need a much better public transport system.

Over to you Write a description of the town where you live or another town you know well, using as much of the vocabulary from this unit as possible. English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

57

26 A

The natural world Birds and animals beak

wing

horns

mane

whiskers tail

fur eggs nest

hoof

feather

B

paw

Flowers and trees petals

bud

leaves

pollen

thorn

branch bark trunk

bough

leaf

twig

stem

C

claws

roots

Specific animals Here are the English names of some creatures that you may not know.

frog

owl

D

shark

whale

fox

snail

crab

bat

worm

pigeon

peacock

Some verbs and collocations for talking about processes in nature Our apple tree flowers / blossoms in April. Let’s pick some flowers. These birds lay their eggs on the ground. Bees collect pollen from flowers to make honey. Some verbs can be intransitive (no object) or transitive (with an object): These flowers grow very quickly. We grew some tomatoes in our garden last year. These animals breed in the spring. My neighbour breeds Burmese cats and sells them.

Common mistakes Remember, we pick flowers / fruit; we don’t say pick up. We picked some flowers and put them in a vase. (NOT picked up) We pick something up when it has fallen from its normal position or someone drops it. A woman dropped her purse so I picked it up and gave it back to her. 58

deer (singular and plural)

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

seal

Exercises 26.1

Answer the questions about the animals and plants on the opposite page. 1 Where does a bird lay its eggs? in a nest 2 What do bees help to move from one flower to another as they collect nectar to make honey? 3 What do we call the hairs that stick out from a cat’s face? 4 Which part of a flower usually has the brightest colour(s)? 5 What do we call a horse’s foot?

26.2

Put these words into two groups: ‘animal words’ or ‘plant words’. mane petal oak willow fox worm thorn horn bark stem claw owl animal words

plant words

mane

26.3

Fill in the blanks in the sentences below using words from the opposite page. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

26.4

Match the sentence beginnings on the left with the endings on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6

26.5

A large bough fell We picked up The scientists grew The peacock opened A frog jumped We picked

d

a some herbs to put on our pizza. b its feathers. It was beautiful. c into the stream and swam away. d from the tree during the storm. e some apples that had dropped from the tree. f a new type of tomato that was very big.

Answer the questions. 1 2 3 4 5 6

26.6

A tree’s roots go a long way underground. A cat can sharpen its against the of a tree. Most fruit trees in spring. Plants will not unless they get enough water and light. Flowers last longer in a vase if you crush the end of their . A flower that is just about to open is called a . Take care not to prick yourself. That plant has sharp . If we pick up those , we can use them to start the fire. use a kind of radar to find their way around. move very, very slowly.

Which moves fastest and which moves slowest: a worm, a snail, or a deer? a deer, a snail Which is the odd one out: a seal, a whale, or a crab? Which of these animals has paws: a frog, a bat, a cat, a pigeon? Which is correct? The bird lay / laid / lied three eggs. Which is correct: (a), (b), or both? (a) He breeds horses. (b) Rabbits breed very quickly. Which is a bird: a bat, a pigeon or both?

Over to you A tulip is the national emblem of the Netherlands and a maple leaf represents Canada. What flower or animal is used as the national emblem of your country? Find out what other plants or animals are national emblems of other countries.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

59

27 A

Clothes Some items of clothing At this level you probably already know most of the everyday words for clothes. Here are some items of clothing or parts of them which are perhaps less familiar. hoodie hood bikini collar

cuff zip

pyjamas

sleeve hem

badge

laces belt

buckle

bra

sole

heel

helmet

slippers

Language help Most items of clothing covering the legs are plural words only. If you wish to count them, you need to say, e.g. Six pairs of trousers/shorts/tights/jeans/underpants or Jamie’s football shorts are too small for him now. I need to get him a new pair.

B

Verbs associated with clothing Can I try on these grey shoes in the window? I love dressing up for parties as I normally wear jeans. The skirt is too tight and too short - it needs letting out and letting down. The dress is too loose and too long - it needs taking in and taking up. He changed out of his weekend clothes into his uniform. Red usually doesn’t suit people with ginger hair. Her black bag matches her shoes. Those shoes don’t fit my son any more. He’s grown out of them.

C

Adjectives for describing people’s clothing How things fit: baggy [loose] close-fitting [tight] Style: long-sleeved sleeveless V-neck round-neck Materials: denim [jeans are usually made of this] woollen [made of wool] suede [a kind of leather that isn’t shiny]

plain

D

striped

checked

pinstriped

flowery

spotted

tartan

Other words and expressions useful for talking about clothing Anna always looks very elegant even when she’s dressed casually. [in a casual or informal way] I don’t think it’s worth spending money on designer sunglasses. [made by a famous or fashionable designer] Does your country have a special national costume? Alessandra’s put her top on inside out - I can see the label! The burglars wore masks and hoods as a disguise in the hope that no one would be able to recognise them on CCTV.

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English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 27.1

Which words illustrated in A opposite fit best in the following sentences? 1 I’ve eaten too much - I’ll have to loosen my belt. 2 I must get my black shoes repaired. One is broken and both the have holes in them. 3 Do up your or you’ll fall over. 4 It’s not very warm today. You should wear a over your shirt. 5 Put your on - this floor is very cold. 6 I’ve almost finished making my dress for the party but I’ve still got to take up the and sew on some . 7 It’s starting to rain - why don’t you put your up so you don’t get wet. 8 Come on, children. It’s time for bed. Go and put your on. 9 You must wear a when you ride a motorbike. 10 Maya went on holiday last week. She packed her beach towel but forgot her so she couldn’t go swimming.

27.2

Complete these sentences with any appropriate word. Use pair where it is necessary. 1 2 3 4 5

27.3

Josh badly needs to buy a new pair of jeans.. Blue are a kind of international uniform for young people. It’s too cold for . Put your trousers on. Dad needs some new underpants. Can you buy him three today? I’ve got a hole in my tights. I’ll have to change into a new .

Write two items of clothing that collocate with these adjectives. 1 close-fitting 2 baggy 3 checked

27.4

top, jeans

Which words and expressions from D do these pictures illustrate?

1 Natasha always looks elegant..

4

27.5

2 Japanese

3

5 He's turned his pockets

Put the right verb, match, suit or fit, into each of these sentences. 1 2 3 4

27.6

4 woollen 5 suede 6 denim

The blue dress fits her perfectly now she’s had it taken in. The blue of her dress the blue of her eyes. That blue dress the girl with the blonde hair. I can lend you a pair of slippers if you like. I think these ones should

.

Over to you Describe in as much detail as you can how you are dressed. Use as many words as you can from this unit.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

61

28 A

Health and medicine What are your symptoms?

rash

bruise

lump

spots

a black eye

All these noun phrases can be used with the verb have (got). I’ve got … … a sore throat / a temperature [a higher temperature than normal] / high/low blood pressure / chest pains / backache / earache / a pain in my side / a rash on my chest / a bruise on my leg (e.g. after playing football) / a black eye (e.g. after being hit in the eye) / a lump on my arm / indigestion (after eating too fast) / sickness and diarrhoea /daɪəˈrɪə/ [an upset stomach which makes you vomit and need to go to the toilet frequently] / sunburn / a virus. Verbs: My back is aching. I shouldn’t have lifted all those heavy boxes. My leg is itching - I think I’ve been bitten by an insect. [you want to scratch it all the time] My hands are trembling after the shock of falling down. [shaking slightly] I had a headache and started shivering. I knew it was the flu. [shake because you are cold] My foot hurts from where I knocked it against the table. I had a cold and it took me two weeks to get over it. [to get better; more formal = to recover from it] Adjectives: I feel sick / breathless / dizzy. [my head is spinning] I am depressed / exhausted / stressed. Other expressions: I’ve lost my appetite / voice. I think I’ve picked up a bug somewhere. [infml = caught a virus or infection] I’ve broken my wrist / sprained my ankle / dislocated my shoulder. She died of a heart attack. He contracted AIDS. [infml = ‘got’] My uncle suffered a stroke. [sudden change in the blood supply to a part of the brain, which can cause a loss of the ability to move particular parts of the body; infml = ‘had’]

B

What does the doctor prescribe? Take a teaspoonful of medicine last thing at night. We’ll get the nurse to put a bandage on your wrist. You’ll need to have some injections before you go to the Amazon. I’m afraid you’re going to need an operation. You’ll have to have your leg put in plaster until the break mends. I’m going to give you some tablets - take one in the morning and one at night.

Common mistakes A surgeon operates on a patient. They decided to operate on her and remove the tumour. (NOT They decided to operate her.)

62

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 28.1

What problems from A opposite might result if someone …? 1 2 3 4 5 6

28.2

eats too fast indigestion kicks someone’s leg while playing football hits someone in the eye eats bad, rotten food lies too long in the hot sun runs much too fast to catch a bus

Read the remarks and answer the questions. Casper ‘I must have picked up a bug when I was travelling.’

Seth ‘It’s an unpleasant pain. I hope I haven’t got an ear infection.’

Dalma ‘My hand is covered in little red spots from where I touched that strange plant.’

Zoe ‘The doctor said there’s a risk I might suffer from heart disease if it continues.’

Write the people’s names. Who has …? 1 a rash?

Dalma

2 earache?

3 a virus?

4 high blood pressure?

28.3

Match the sentences on the left with the ones on the right. d a I’ve been working too much. 1 My shoulder is itching. 2 My head hurts. b I feel so cold. 3 I’m shivering. c I think I need to see a psychiatrist. 4 I’m trembling. d I can’t stop scratching it. 5 I’m really stressed and exhausted. e I banged it as I walked through the low doorway. 6 I’m depressed. f I feel very nervous and scared.

28.4

Match the pictures with the sentences. A

B

C

D

E

F

1 They put a bandage on my ankle. 2 I had to have some injections. 3 My arm was in plaster for weeks. 4 I had to take two teaspoonfuls every night. 5 They operated me immediately. 6 I have to take two tablets every night at bedtime. One of the sentences above contains a mistake. Correct it.

28.5

E

Answer the questions. 1 Which is correct? My aunt died (a) with (b) of a heart attack. 2 What is a more formal way of saying these? (a) He got AIDS in 2001. (b) She had a stroke. 3 What is an informal way of saying this? I had an infection but I recovered from it.

28.6

Over to you Make a list of any of the problems mentioned in this unit that you yourself have had. What were the symptoms? What did you do to solve the problem(s)? English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

63

29 A

Medicine and technology A history of health technology Ancient Egypt

The earliest crutches were in use.

Middle Ages

Spectacles1, probably invented by Arab scientists, were used to correct vision2.

1500-1600

The first wheelchairs were developed.

1800-1900

1804: the first general anaesthetic3 was used in an operation in Japan. 1896: X-rays4 were first used in medicine. The first contact lenses5 were manufactured6.

1960-1970

1 a more formal word for glasses

2 the ability to see

3 something used to make

you unconscious when you have an operation, so that you do not feel any pain 4 a type of radiation that makes possible photographs (also called ‘X-rays’) of hidden 5 a small piece of transparent objects such as bones and organs in the body 6 made in plastic which is worn on the surface of your eye to improve your sight large numbers, usually in a factory

B

The present day

Medical technology has made rapid1 advances2 in recent decades3. Nowadays, a vast4 range of devices5 is available: people with hearing difficulties wear sophisticated6 hearing aids7; people with heart problems wear tiny pacemakers8. Artificial9 hips10 and knees are common, and are highly11 efficient. People who have lost an arm or a leg can have a prosthetic12 leg or a modern robotic13 arm and hand, which they can use to pick things up like a natural hand. Eyesight problems can be corrected by laser surgery14. 1 very fast

2 improvements or developments

3 a period of 10 years

4 very

wide 5 object or machine made for a particular purpose 6 clever in a complicated way and able to do complicated tasks 7 a small device put inside someone’s ear to help them hear better 8 a small device put inside someone’s chest to help their heart beat correctly 9 not natural, a copy made by humans 10 the joint which connects the leg to the upper part of the body 11 very (more formal) 12 made to replace a missing arm or leg 13 able to be controlled and moved by the user 14 medical operations using powerful narrow beams of light

C

The future A recent TV documentary predicted the following developments in medical technology. • Scanners which can identify health problems at an early stage1 will become more and more sophisticated. • Diagnosing2 illnesses from a distance. Patients will sit at their home computers, describe their symptoms and send information automatically to their doctor (for example, their blood pressure3 or body temperature) using instruments such as thermometers connected to their computer. • Computers and huge databases will provide doctors with more and more information and the tools4 to treat diseases. • Keyhole surgery5 will become more common. It will not be necessary to cut open a person’s body to operate on them. 1 during the first period of development

2 name the exact character of a disease or a problem, by examining it 3 measure of the strength at which the blood flows through the body 4

something that helps you do something

5 medical operations in which a very small hole is made in a person’s body to reach the organ or tissue inside

64

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 29.1

Look at A opposite and answer the questions about medical technology. 1 What did Arab scientists probably invent? glasses (two answers, one more formal) 2 What began to be used in 1896 to enable doctors to take photographs of the inside of people’s bodies? 3 How did the ancient Egyptians help disabled people to walk? 4 What alternative to glasses became popular in the 1960s and 1970s? 5 How could disabled people move around as early as 1500 to 1600?

29.2

Rewrite the words in bold using words from A and B opposite. 1 Medical scanners are made manufactured at this factory. 2 Glasses were invented to correct problems with eyesight . 3 Technology for medicine has made very fast progress in the last ten years . 4 There is now a large number of things that make life better for people with medical problems. 5 Copies of natural hips are very efficient. 6 Some disabled athletes can run as fast as able-bodied ones using legs. 7 Scientists are working on arms that can be controlled directly by the person’s brain.

29.3

Using words from the opposite page, say what each object is for.

1 a device for people with

2

3

4

5

6

hearing difficulties

29.4

Complete the missing words. You are given the first letter(s). A preposition is missing in sentence 3. Add it. 1 Doctors will be able to i dentify diseases at an early s in the future using sophisticated sc . 2 Doctors will be able to d a patient’s illness from a distance. Patients will send information a to their doctor. 3 K s means doctors no longer need to open a patient’s body when they operate them. 4 Information on large computer d will help doctors t diseases and give them new t to cure illnesses.

29.5

Over to you Have you used or experienced any of the examples of medical technology mentioned in this unit? How? When? Write true sentences.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

65

30 A

Health and lifestyle Diet

Some types of food are considered to be good for our health. Others can cause long-term1 health problems if they are consumed2 in large quantities. Here are some examples. healthy ...

not so healthy ...

oily fish (e.g. salmon)

sugary foods (e.g. fizzy3 drinks)

fruit and nuts4

food with a high fat or high salt content5

wholemeal6 bread

processed7 food

1 lasting a long time into the future

hard shell

2 eaten (fml)

5 amount that is in the food

3 with a lot of bubbles

4 dry fruits of some trees with a

6 containing all the grain, with nothing taken out

7 treated with

chemicals to preserve the food or to add taste or colour

Some foods are considered to be superfoods - foods that may prevent diseases and improve mental1 as well as physical2 health. Foods that are often listed as superfoods include: • Blueberries: may improve short-term3 memory and slow4

the ageing process5. • Apples: a good source6 of vitamin C; they can also lower7 cholesterol. • Spinach: high in vitamin A; it can boost8 the immune system. • Vegetable juice (especially tomato): can reduce the risk9 of heart disease. 1 of the mind

2 of the body

3 lasting a short time

5 the changes to our body and mind by which we grow old 7 reduce/take the level down

B

8 improve or increase

4 make it happen more slowly 6 the place it comes from

9 make less likely that it will happen

Lifestyle Read the magazine extracts about lifestyle issues. Note the use of the adjective and noun forms of the same word. There has been a sharp rise1 in the number of children who are obese2. Childhood obesity is now a major3 problem. Children often take too little exercise. People often do not realise how stressful their jobs are. Stress can cause high blood pressure, increased risk of heart attacks and depression4. 1 an increase that is sudden and quick

2 extremely fat

Keeping fit need not be difficult. You can maintain5 a good level of fitness with a simple routine of daily exercise. Start exercising now! Bad habits can cause serious harm6 to the body. Alcohol and tobacco are particularly harmful if consumed in large quantities over a long period. 3 very big and serious

someone is extremely unhappy and anxious for a long period

5 keep (fml)

4 a mental illness when

6 injury or damage

Language help The nouns food and fruit can be both uncountable and countable. When we refer to food and fruit in general we use the uncountable form (e.g. That restaurant serves good food / I love fruit). The plural forms, foods/fruits, are used to refer to individual types or examples of food (e.g. fatty foods, citrus fruits). We always use fish in the singular.

66

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 30.1

Rewrite the words in bold using words from A opposite. 1 If people eat these foods in big amounts large quantities , it may be dangerous. 2 Certain foods are thought by scientists to have a positive effect on our bodies. 3 Foods with a lot of fat in them may cause health problems. 4 Some foods may cause health problems that last long into the future.

30.2

Match the adjectives and nouns to make five collocations to fill the gaps in the sentences below. adjectives

oily

1 2

nouns

processed

wholemeal

Wholemeal bread

mental

fizzy

drinks

bread

fish

health

foods

is usually considered to be healthy because it contains the complete grain, with

nothing taken out.

may taste good when you’re very thirsty, but they often have a high

sugar content. 3 Types of include salmon. 4 often contain artificial colours to make them look more attractive. 5 Some foods can be good for our as well as our bodies.

30.3

Verb-noun collocations. Match the sentence beginnings on the left with the endings on the right. 1 2 3 4

30.4

Certain foods can slow Some foods can boost Some foods can lower Other foods can reduce

2 vegetable juice

3 apples

4 blueberries

Blueberries can improve short-time memory. term Many fruits are a good sauce of vitamin C and provide mayor health benefits. Oily fishes should form part of a healthy diet. Which do you prefer to eat as a snack if you’re hungry, fruits or nuts? A: There’s a new Chinese restaurant in town. B: Good! I love Chinese foods. There has been a sharp raise in the number of people suffering from depresion.

Complete the two versions of each sentence. Use related word forms, as in the example. 1 2 3 4

30.7

c

Correct the mistakes in these sentences. There may be more than one. 1 2 3 4 5 6

30.6

a cholesterol. b the risk of heart disease. c the immune system. d the ageing process.

Can you remember which positive effect each of these foods may have? Choose your answers from 30.3 (a-d). 1 spinach

30.5

d

Tobacco and alcohol can cause a lot of harm / can be Children who are / who suffer from Her job is very / causes her a lot of How can we keep / maintain a good level of get regular / to regularly.

harmful

to our health. need to exercise more. and is very tiring. ? The answer is to

Over to you List the foods that you eat most regularly. How many are (a) healthy (b) not so healthy? Do you consume any superfoods? Why? Why not? English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

67

31 A

B

Travel Here is some basic vocabulary for different kinds of travel transport

kinds of vehicle

parts of vehicle

people working with it

associated words

road

car, bus, coach, tram, van, lorry

boot, steering wheel

driver, motorist, mechanic, chauffeur

petrol station, break down, breakdown service

rail

high-speed train, express

sleeping car, buffet, coach

ticket collector, conductor

platform, seat reservation

sea

liner, ferry, yacht

deck, bridge, gangway

captain, steward(ess)

port, cabin, cruise

air

aircraft, jumbo jet, helicopter

cockpit, wings, aisle /aɪjəl/

ground staff, cabin crew, air traffic controller

duty-free shop, terminal, runway, security

Journey, trip, travel, voyage A trip is usually shorter than a journey. We had a long journey by coach from the north to the south of the country. We usually say business trip (NOT business journey). We took a trip / went on a trip to the beach last weekend. (Go on a trip suggests an organised short excursion, whereas take a trip or have a trip could be something you do yourselves in your own car.) Travel is a general word. It is an uncountable noun and a verb. Travel broadens the mind. How did you travel round Australia? We hitch-hiked. Voyage means a long journey usually by sea, though this use is quite formal. It is often used in other contexts with ‘discovery’. Learning English is a voyage of discovery!

C

Collocations and expressions connected with travel

‘My flight from New York to Tokyo was severely delayed1 because of bad weather, then later it was cancelled and I was stuck at2 the airport. The airline put me up3 in a hotel overnight, and they put me on standby4 for the early morning flight the next day. Luckily, I managed to get a seat and the flight left on time5 at 7.00 am. There was quite a lot of turbulence6 during the flight, which was scary at times. When we finally got to Tokyo, the weather was bad and we had a bumpy landing7. Luckily, I don’t get airsick8 but I had terrible jetlag9 for days afterwards.’ ELENA:

1 delayed for a very long time

2 unable to move from

3 paid for me to stay

4 promised me a seat if one

5 punctually 6 strong, sudden movements while the plane was in the air 7 we landed became available 8 feel sick because of the movement of the plane; more formal = suffer from in a way that was not smooth 9 had a feeling of tiredness caused by moving quickly from one time zone to another airsickness

Pieter: ‘I’d always wanted to sail across the Mediterranean, though I was worried I might get seasick. Anyway, I volunteered to work as a crew member on board a yacht and it was an amazing experience. Everything ran very smoothly, even when the sea was rough1, and I never suffered from seasickness2.’ 1 opp = a calm sea

2 less formal = I never got seasick

Common mistakes We don’t say ‘a travel’. Travel is an uncountable noun. After we left the airport, we had a long journey by car. (NOT we had a long travel) Remember, we say on time, not in time when we mean ‘punctually’. The train arrived on time and I picked her up at the station. (NOT The train arrived in time)

68

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 31.1

Match the sentence beginnings on the left with the endings on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6

31.2

The customs officer stopped the car The car broke down The air traffic controllers went on strike The buffet was closed The ferry was full The liner was very modern

a and they couldn’t get a cabin. b and they had nothing to eat. c and they had a wonderful cruise. d and the driver had to open the boot. e and a mechanic came to help them. f and their flight was cancelled.

d

Sort the words according to the type of transport. One of the words fits in two places. Which is it? jumbo jet port express steering wheel coach helicopter gangway runway tram wing chauffeur platform ground staff van cockpit lorry liner deck road

rail

air

sea

steering wheel 31.3

Choose the best word flight, journey, trip, travel or voyage to fit these gaps. 1 2 3 4 5 6

31.4

I would love to travel round the world in a balloon. The liner Titanic sank on its very first . How long does the from New York to Rio take? She says her hobbies are reading, golf and . When they were in Cairo they took a to see the Pyramids. Getting from London to the north of Scotland involves a long overnight train

Read these travel blogs and fill the gaps with words from the opposite page.

Erik's Blog (24 June)

Mona's Blog (5 July)

The flight from Huascal to Puerto Amlugo was s delayed (six hours!). I was worried I’d get s at the airport (and hoped that the airline would p me u in a nice hotel ) but anyway the flight wasn’t c and we finally took off. The weather was awful, and we experienced a lot of t . In fact, the flight was so b that I got a (very unpleasant!). But the c c were very friendly and helpful, which made me feel better. The l was not so bad and soon we were at the t collecting our baggage. I slept well last night - I think I’ve got over the j I had after my 12-hour flight from Europe.

31.5

.

I didn’t have a reservation for the Eurostar train from Paris to London, but they put me on s and I got a s on a later train. It was a good journey, everything ran s and it arrived time. In London, I enquired if there was a s c on the train to Scotland so I could travel overnight. The alternative was a hotel and the e______________ m train at 6.30 am (too early for me!). When I get to Scotland I want to go to some of the islands. I hope the sea is c______________. I hate r______________ seas I always get s______________!

Over to you Give answers that are true for you, and reasons. 1 How often do you travel by train? Have you ever been on a high-speed train? 2 Which do you prefer on a plane, a window or an aisle seat? Why? Do you usually visit the duty-free shop? What do you look for? What do you do before going through security? English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

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32 A

Holidays Places to stay and types of holiday campsite: a place where you can pitch a tent or park a caravan self-catering flat/apartment: a flat which you rent; you cook for yourself guesthouse: accommodation like a hotel but cheaper and with fewer services youth hostel: cheap accommodation, mainly for young people, with, perhaps, ten or more people sleeping in bunk beds in one room package holiday: a holiday in which you pay for travel, accommodation and food (even occasionally excursions) in advance cruise: a holiday spent touring (or cruising) on a boat, stopping off to go sightseeing at different ports an adventure holiday: a holiday involving unusual, exciting and possibly dangerous activities suitable for adventurous people

B

Holiday messages Reply

Forward

Dear Zara Having a wonderful holiday. It’s so nice to get away1. We’re staying at an amazing campsite up in the mountains. It’s very remote2 and we had to drive up an unbelievably winding3 road to get here. But once we made it, the views over the surrounding4 countryside made the terrifying5 drive worthwhile. I'm sending a photo of our camping spot.

1 go somewhere different 2 far from other places

3 with lots of bends, not at 4 all around all straight 5 very frightening

Love, Sami

Reply

Dear Nico This is turning out to be probably the most memorable1 holiday I’ve ever had. The town is absolutely fascinating2 with lots of very impressive3 buildings. Our hotel is delightful4 - if a little inconvenient5 from the transport point of view - and the food in this area is exceptional6. These are some of the old buildings in the town. Wish you were here too!

Forward

1 one that will always be

remembered (a memorable holiday is a strong collocation) 2 extremely interesting 3 grand, making an impact 4 charming 5 hard to get to 6 unusually good

Francesca

C

Holiday brochures These are often written in quite exaggerated language. Here are some typical adjectives with nouns that they collocate with. breathtaking views / scenery / pistes (ski slopes) [breathtaking (like stunning) suggests that something is so magnificent that it takes your breath away] exclusive access / club / shops [only the most special people can use the facilities] exhilarating feeling / ride / walk [makes you feel excited and full of energy] exotic beauty / charm / location [unusual and more exciting than your everyday reality] glamorous surroundings / film star / hotel [especially exciting and attractive] luxurious cruise ship / accommodation / lifestyle [provides great comfort] picturesque streets / villages / cottage [very pretty; attractive to look at - as pretty as a picture] unspoilt charm / village / woodland [still in a beautiful and natural state] unique opportunity / charm / facilities [so special it does not exist anywhere else]

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English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 32.1

Complete this table. Use a dictionary to help you, if necessary. adjective

noun

fascinating

fascination

verb

delightful exhilarating glamorous luxurious

32.2

Fill in the gaps in this holiday message with appropriate adjectives from the opposite page. Reply

Forward

Hi,

fascinating . The Am having a wonderful holiday here. The town here is very old and quite 1 guidebook says it is remarkable for its 2 charm and it is right! It is surrounded by 3 magnificent mountains and yesterday I went for an climb. Even though it isn’t too expensive, the hotel is quite 4 and the view from my balcony is 5 . Wish you were here! Love, P

32.3

Complete these sentences with a word from the opposite page. At the youth hostel Anya insisted on sleeping in the top bunk . As soon as we got to the campsite we our tent. Visitors to our hotel have access to our own private beach. It’s often cheaper to go on a holiday, where everything is paid for in advance. I’d love to hire a boat and spend a month round the Mediterranean, wouldn’t you? I wouldn’t recommend that hotel. It’s extremely ; it’s seven miles to the nearest beach and ten miles to the town. 7 Our trip to South Africa was undoubtedly the most holiday I’ve ever had. 8 A narrow road led up the mountain to the cottage we’d rented. 1 2 3 4 5 6

32.4

Which of the adjectives from C could describe each of these? 1 2 3 4 5 6

32.5

a club which only a select group of members can go to an exclusive club a hotel with very expensive facilities and very attentive staff a village with very pretty buildings and lots of flowers a view from the top of a mountain over a magnificent landscape the opportunity to go on a once-in-a-lifetime holiday a walk along a windswept beach

Over to you Answer these questions. Write sentences. 1 Which of the holiday places and types of holiday in A have you or your friends experienced? 2 Which would you prefer and why - a holiday in the centre of a historic city or one in a remote village with spectacular surrounding countryside? 3 What’s the most memorable holiday you’ve ever had? 4 Which would you say is the most impressive city you’ve visited? 5 What would you say is the most fascinating place you’ve been to? 6 Have you ever had a holiday experience you’d describe as terrifying? English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

71

33 A

Science and technology New sciences You are probably familiar with the traditional branches of science, e.g. chemistry, physics, botany and zoology. But what about these more recently established fields? field

definition / applications

genetic engineering

Works with genetic material (DNA) of living things to alter1 features2. GM foods (genetically modified foods) are grown in some parts of the world.

ergonomics

Studies the design of physical working spaces and how people interact3 with them.

molecular biology

The study of the structure4 and function5 of the molecules6 associated7 with living things. Technology which enables8 machines to interpret9 speech, e.g. voice-to-text software.

voice technology stem cell research

The study of the use of human cells10 to treat diseases and injury and to repair the body.

cloning

The creation11 of exact copies of plants or animals with the same genes as the original plants or animals.

hydroponics

The science of growing plants without using soil12.

1 change, usually slightly

2 typical qualities or important parts

4 the way that parts of a system are organised 7 connected in our mind

8 makes possible

5 purpose

3 communicate with or react to

6 the basic chemical units / groups of atoms

9 decide the intended meaning of

11 making something new that did not exist before of a plant or animal surface, in which plants grow

B

12 the top layer of the earth’s

Everyday technology

smartphone

C

10 smallest basic part

tablet

3D TV

high-definition (HD) camcorder

satnav/GPS [satellite

digital photo frame

navigation / Global Positioning System]

Verbs used in science and technology Note the collocations in bold. He experimented with different materials before utilising1 the most suitable one. The technician pressed a button and lights started flashing. When she pulled the large lever2, the wheel began to rotate3. . The zoologist dissected4 the animal and extracted5 its organs. When they were combined, the two chemicals reacted violently with each other. After analysing the problem, she concluded that there was a flaw6 in the theory. Insert7 the disk into the DVD drive to install8 the software or visit the website to download it. 1 use (fml technical/scientific) 3 turn (fml technical/scientific)

technical/scientific)

72

2 bar or handle that moves in order to control something (e.g. a machine) 4 cut open (usually a dead body or plant) to study its parts

6 fault, mistake or weakness

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

7 put in (fml technical/scientific)

5 took out (fml

8 make it ready to use

Exercises 33.1

Fill the gaps with words from A. Then say what branch of science each person is probably talking about. 1 We grow the plants in liquids, without using s oil . Science: hydroponics 2 The software i your speech and e you to turn it into text. Science: 3 We’re interested in workplaces and how people i with their working environment. Science: 4 People are often worried. They feel that the c of an exact copy of an animal is not morally right. Science: 5 We study how human c can be used to rebuild our bodies and to repair them when they are injured. Science: 6 My work is concerned with the s and f of the organic molecules a with living organisms. Science: 7 Many people refuse to eat g m foods. They consider GM foods to be unnatural. Science: 8 By manipulating DNA, we can a hereditary f . Science:

33.2

What item do you think each person needs from B? 1

4

33.3

‘I keep losing my way and I’m not good at reading maps.’ a satnav

‘My old camcorder doesn’t produce really sharp movies.’

5

3

‘I’d love to be able to look at my photos any time I want to.’

‘My phone is so old I can’t take any videos with it.’

6 ‘It was a fantastic film. I didn’t mind wearing the special glasses. It was so realistic. I’d love to be able to do that at home.’

‘I want something like a laptop with a touch screen that I can watch films on or read ebooks.’

Match the sentence beginnings on the left with the endings on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

33.4

2

These chemicals If you pull The zoologist extracted When you press They experimented I believe there is a flaw They had to dissect A red light started

c

a b c d e f g h

that button, it turns the printer on. to flash after a few seconds. react with each other. in the theory. that lever, it starts the machine. the animal to see why it died. the organs from the animal. with different liquids.

Use technical/scientific words from C instead of the words in bold. 1 2 3 4 5

The wheel began to turn rotate very quickly. Put in the disk to get the software ready to work We can put these chemicals together You should use the strongest material. We looked into the problem and decided

.

.

that it was a computer virus.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

73

34 A

Computers Hardware [computer equipment or machinery] personal computer / PC / desktop computer: a computer that fits on a desk, used by individuals at work or at home laptop (computer): a lightweight portable computer that usually fits in a briefcase tablet: a portable personal computer operated by a touch screen hard disk: a device [piece of equipment] inside a computer that stores large amounts of information disk drive: a device that allows information to be read from a disk scanner: device for transferring pictures and texts into a computer memory stick: a small device that lets you carry computer data anywhere conveniently; you can then plug the stick into any machine RAM (random access memory / memory): the memory available on a computer to store and use information temporarily; can be measured in gigabytes (micro) chip: a very small piece of semiconductor, especially in a computer, that contains extremely small electronic circuits and devices, and can perform particular operations network: when a number of computers, for example in one office, are connected together (or networked) so that they can share information

B

Software [computer programs that you install] An application is a piece of software designed for a specific purpose. This is often shortened to app. You can get mobile phone apps for all sorts of things these days. word-processing: writing and storing printed text on a computer spreadsheet (program): a program, or the grid you create with it, to perform mathematical operations database: a large amount of information stored in a computer system in such a way that it can be easily looked at or changed (computer) graphics: pictures, images and symbols that you can form on a computer virus: hidden instructions in a program designed to destroy information display: what you see on the screen of an electronic device A computer shows a range of icons on its display. You put the cursor on the one you want to use and click on it to open it.

C

Some computing verbs You probably store a lot of important information on your computer. So, it’s sensible to back up all your files on a regular basis. Then it’ll be less of a problem if you delete something accidentally or if your computer crashes. A particularly useful feature of most applications is the one that allows you to undo what you have just done – just click on Undo and it’s quick and easy to correct anything that you have keyed in by mistake. After a few years you may want to upgrade your computer as they are always developing machines which are faster and more powerful. If you don’t do this you may not be able to run all the software you need. You can usually just download upgrades to your computer’s operating system or to your applications from company websites.

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English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 34.1

Match the words in the box to the pictures below. laptop cursor

1 scanner

desktop computer spreadsheet

icon

2

6

34.2

tablet

scanner

memory stick

3

4

7

8

microchip

5

9

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words from the opposite page. 1 It’s so easy to use a scanner when you want to send a handwritten document to someone by email. It’s just like using a photocopier. 2 I’ve lost a lot of data. I wonder if my computer has a . 3 A lot of people carry their on aeroplanes and work on them during the flight. 4 I’ve got such a lot of photos, music and videos stored on my computer that my is almost full. 5 That computer game you gave me has got amazing - the people just look so realistic! 6 One of my most important tasks at work is to keep the up to date so that customers’ contact details are always accurate. 7 If you put the in the middle of a paragraph of text and double click, you select the whole paragraph. 8 I downloaded a fantastic the other day - it tells me where the nearest cash machine is to wherever I am in the world. 9 programs make it very easy to write text and to format it. 10 It’s miraculous how much data can be stored on that tiny little computer inside your mobile phone.

34.3

Answer the questions using a verb from C opposite. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

34.4

What do you do when you want to add new information to, for example, a database? You key it in. If you don’t want to lose computer data, what must you do? If you notice you’ve repeated a paragraph in an essay, what can you do? You want to open your spreadsheet program, so what should you do? If your computer is old and working very slowly, what might you consider doing? If you accidentally delete some text you’ve just been working on, what can you do? What can you do to immediately get hold of music or a film from an internet store? If you buy new software when you have an old operating system, what may you find?

Over to you Answer these questions. 1 Do you use a desktop, a laptop or a tablet? 2 How much RAM do you have? 3 Which apps do you use most frequently?

4 How often do you back up your data? 5 Has your computer ever crashed? 6 Have you ever accidentally deleted anything? English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

75

35 A

Communications and the Internet The Internet The Internet / the net is a network connecting millions of computer users worldwide. The World Wide Web / the Web is a huge portion of the Internet containing linked documents, called pages. If you have a broadband connection then your access to the Internet should be fast. Many cafés and other public places now offer people a wi-fi /waɪfaɪ/ connection to the Internet - this means that you can access the Internet through a wireless network, i.e. without needing a cable of any kind. When you browse, you look for information on the Internet. The software that helps you do this can be called a browser (e.g. Internet Explorer® or Firefox®). You use a search engine to help you locate what you want. Google® is one of the best known search engines and people now talk about googling someone or something. You can easily spend a lot of time surfing the net / the Web. [navigating around the Internet, sometimes aimlessly] A website is a document on the Web giving information about a particular subject, person or institution. The introductory page is called the home page. From this there are links to other pages. Good websites are easy to navigate or find your way around. One option on many websites is an FAQ page. This stands for ‘frequently asked questions’, a list of common questions and helpful answers. You can bookmark websites that you log on1 to frequently. If a website gets a lot of hits, that means that it has been visited by a lot of people. Sometimes you need to subscribe to a site, which means you become a member of it. This may involve having a special username and choosing a password. You will only be able to log in2 to the site if you enter this information correctly. You can store your data on your computer or phone, or you can store it in the cloud3. . 1 opp

= log off 2 opp = log out from any device

B

3

a network of servers on the Internet where data can be stored and viewed

Online communication You can communicate with others by email. With an email you can include an attachment. You can attach a photo, for example. You can also send someone an e-card. A server is a powerful central computer from which other computers get information. If your (ISP) internet service provider’s server is down [not functioning], you may not be able to send emails. You can use your computer to Skype friends and family - the software allows you to make phone calls using your computer and the Internet, and you can see which people on your contact list are online at the same time. If you each have a webcam, you can see each other as you talk. Many modern online programs can be called interactive, i.e. they allow users to become involved in the exchange of information. For example, social networking sites like Facebook are a popular way for people to keep in touch with their friends. A wiki is a website which allows users to add, delete and edit its contents. Wikipedia is perhaps the world’s largest wiki. Blogs are also interactive as they are a kind of online diary that readers can add comments to. Many people are involved in online gaming, playing with people who they have never met. Often these games make use of virtual reality. [a set of images and sounds produced by a computer, which represent a place or a situation that the gamer can take part in]

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English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 35.1

Which word from the box matches each definition? attachment bookmark browser password search engine server

contact list cloud

navigate

internet service provider

1 email addresses, phone numbers, etc. for the people you know contact list 2 something that you send with an email 3 an individual combination of letters and digits that you use to log in to a website 4 a way of accessing a favourite website quickly 5 software that allows you to surf the web 6 a company that enables you to use the web 7 software that helps you to locate the websites that you need 8 a large computer that holds information that can be accessed by smaller computers 9 to find your way around a website or between websites 10 a network of servers where you can store your data on the Internet

35.2

Choose a word from the opposite page to complete each sentence. 1 WWW stands for World Wide Web . 2 I read that journalist’s every day - he’s always got something interesting to say and often readers add some very interesting comments. 3 I couldn’t the Internet last night. The server must have been . 4 It’s wonderful being able to my cousins who live in Australia - I love seeing them as well as talking to them. 5 I’ve decided to to my favourite newspaper’s website. It doesn’t cost much and it has lots of interesting stuff there. 6 I like this website because it has lots of very useful to all sorts of other sites that interest me. 7 My brother loves online gaming, particularly reality games. 8 An website is one which allows users to add comments to it or edit its content in some way.

35.3

35.4

Are these statements true or false? If they are not true, correct them. 1 Google® is the name of a browser. False - Google is the name of a search engine. 2 FAQ stands for Fast Answers to Questions. 3 If a café says that it has wi-fi access, you can get online with your laptop there. 4 A wiki is a kind of computer device. 5 When you want to use some websites you may be asked to enter a password. 6 If you send someone an e-card they will receive it in the post. 7 When you want to stop using the net, you log on. 8 A website’s home page is the one where you will find key information about the site and links to its other pages.

Over to you Answer these questions about yourself. 1 What do you mainly use the Internet for?

4 How often do you use social networking sites?

2 What is your search engine of choice? 3 Which websites have you bookmarked?

5 Do you write a blog or read anyone else’s blog? 6 Do you enjoy online gaming?

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

77

36

Social media

A Social media verbs My friend posted a video of her baby and it was shared over a thousand times!

Send me a friend request, and then you can see the pictures I took.

B

A social media app

Here’s our round-up of the latest apps. This month we loved CatNapp, a new social media app that allows users to share information about their favourite pets. We found it very easy to use. You create a profile of your cat, upload a favourite photo and include some basic information about it (age, colour, favourite food). You can then post updates about what your cat has been doing, share links1 to things you find interesting or comment on other cats’ profiles. You can rate videos of other cats’ adventures (from one to five stars) or see how many views2 or likes3 your post got. The most popular post each month wins a prize!

I probably update my status about twice a week. I like telling people what I’m doing.

Over 100,000 people subscribe to his video channel and follow him on Twitter.

Language help Many of the words in this unit are used as both nouns and verbs. For example:

24 people liked my post. My post got 24 likes. I commented on her status. I wrote a comment on her status. 1 connections to other websites 2 times people have watched it

3 times people have clicked ‘like’ 4 messages to tell you when

something has happened

We found it a little annoying that you can’t turn off

notifications4 when a friend writes something new, but overall cat lovers will adore it. Highly recommended.

C

Online privacy

Top tips for staying safe online On social media, it’s important to think about who can see your personal information: • If you have to give personal information (e.g. date of birth, address) when you create an account, make sure that it’s kept private. It’s better not to give this information if you don’t have to. • Always check your privacy settings [choices on your account about what people see on your profile] regularly and make sure you understand who can see what you post. For example, often your profile picture is public, but you can usually make posts on your timeline [collection of photos and other posts on your profile] private. • Remember that if you are tagged [your name and a link to your profile is added] in someone else’s post, it might be seen by a lot of people you don’t know. You can ask people to remove the tag if necessary. • Use direct messages [messages that only the people in the conversation can see] for private conversations, especially if you discuss where you live, paying for things, etc. • Delete old accounts on sites that you are not using any more. You might forget what information they contain, or the default [what happens automatically if you don’t change it] privacy settings might change. 78

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 36.1

Fill in the gaps with the words below. follow 1 2 3 4 5 6

36.2

share

subscribe

status

share If you liked this video, please it with your friends. I hate it when people hundreds of photos from their holiday. Do you know Monica Coto? She’s just sent me a friend on Facebook. I just updated my to tell people we’ve arrived safely at the hotel. You can to our channel, and we’ll email you when a new video comes out. Mo likes to chefs and food writers on Twitter. I’ve just uploaded comments / photos of Saturday’s football match to the team Facebook page. Yi Ling posts / views a lot of updates about her training for the 10k run. Jo posted a really interesting article about Formula 1 racing, but it didn’t get any likes / rates. To enter the competition, share / view this picture on your timeline before 8 pm on Friday. Did you rate / upload that restaurant we went to? I’d give it one star! Elena made a video for the animal charity she works for and it got 3,000 views / uploads. An old friend commented / viewed on one of my photos, asking where I was living now.

What do we call…? 1 2 3 4 5

36.4

post

Circle the correct word. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

36.3

request

The page with information about the user of social media: The photo of the user: The page where a person’s photos and posts appear: The message a person receives when something new happens: Part of a private conversation:

profile

Fill the gaps with words from C opposite. 1 I’m a teacher, so I make sure everything in my profile is p rivate . I don’t want my students to see it. 2 To find your p settings, click on the ‘lock’ icon at the top of the screen 3 If you want everyone to be able to see that post, make sure that it’s p . 4 Please don’t t me in any of those photos - I look terrible! 5 If you want to buy the skirt, please send me a d message. 6 To create an a , you have to give your email address and a password. 7 The d setting for new posts on this site is Friends Only, but it’s easy to change if you want to share something publicly.

36.5

Over to you Answer these questions about yourself. 1 What was the last thing you posted on social media? 2 How many views and/or likes did it get? 3 How often do you comment on other people’s posts? 4 Have you checked your privacy settings recently? Is your profile public or private?

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

79

37 A

The press and the media Radio and television Read these extracts from TV listings. 4.00 pm 5.00 pm 5.30 pm 6.00 pm 6.30 pm

Jessica: talk show1 with Jessica Brown; today’s guest, Rona Fredale Cartoons2: crazy fun for kids of all ages Golden Chance: game show3 with Bob Langley News and weather forecast Didbury Street: the nation’s favourite soap4

7.00 pm 8.00 pm 9.00 pm 10.00 pm 10.30 pm

Documentary: Are we killing our kids? Investigating5 the junk food industry The Happy Couple: sitcom6 about a pair of newly-weds Roundup: sports programme with all the day’s top action - tonight: rugby final The Day in Politics: current affairs7 programme. Presenter8: James Hill Wikdal: detective drama set in Norway. Episode9 3: A second body is found

1 usually has a host and famous people who answer questions about themselves

2 film where the characters

3 show where people compete to win prizes 4 short for soap opera - a series are drawn rather than real of TV/radio programmes about the lives of a particular group of characters, continuing over a long period and 5 trying to find out the facts/truth about something 6 funny TV/ broadcast (several times) every week 7 news about political events radio show where the same characters appear in a different story each week 8 person who introduces the show 9 one of the parts into which a story is divided happening now

B

Other expressions connected with TV and radio The (mass) media refers to TV, radio, newspapers and the Internet, i.e. means of communication which reach very large numbers of people. Subtitles enable people to read what the characters are saying (maybe in translation). If a film is dubbed, you hear the speech in your own language. To receive a lot of TV channels, you may need a satellite dish on the roof or wall of your house. Many channels depend on (TV) commercials to make money. You may be able to stream radio and TV broadcasts from the Internet and you may be Language help able to watch catch-up TV, or TV on demand, which allow you to watch programmes whenever The noun means (a way of doing something) you like. A lot of radio and TV stations offer free always ends in s, even in the singular. The Internet podcasts which you can download. is an important means of communication.

C

Newspapers

A popular or tabloid newspaper usually focuses on1 sensation2 rather than real news, whereas a quality newspaper is usually more interested in serious news. A tabloid often has stories about celebrities, sport, scandals3 and crime, while a quality paper focuses more on serious journalism4 with in-depth5 articles. To read newspapers on the Internet, you may have to subscribe / pay a subscription6. 1 emphasises / pays attention to

2 very exciting or interesting events

3 events which shock people in a moral

way 4 the work of collecting, writing and publishing or broadcasting news and articles 5 done carefully and in great detail, explaining the reasons for events 6 pay a sum of money regularly (e.g. once a year)

D

Verbs connected with the media The BBC World Service broadcasts throughout the world. [transmits TV/radio programmes] They’re televising the opening of Parliament tomorrow. (or, less formal: showing) The film was shot / made on location in Australia. [filmed in a real place, not in a studio] The series is set in London in the 1980s. [place/time where the drama happens] Within minutes of the event, people were tweeting about it. [posting very short messages on the Internet]

Common mistakes Remember that the noun news is uncountable and takes a singular verb. I have some news for you. (NOT I have a news.) The news is on TV at 7 pm. (NOT The news are on TV.)

80

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 37.1

What sort of TV programmes from A opposite are these people talking about?

1 ‘It investigated how the banks had wasted billions of euros in bad loans.’

2 ‘Walt Disney made a lot of them. Mickey Mouse was probably his most famous.’

3 ‘The Minister of Education was on it, discussing the new schools policy.’

4 ‘It’s so funny, especially when the old uncle appears. We can’t stop laughing.’

7 ‘They always solve the murder in the end, but it’s very exciting.’

8 ‘He interviewed that young star who just won an Oscar, oh, what’s her name?’

documentary 5 ‘My mum watches it every day. She knows all the characters as if they were real.’

6 ‘We wanted to find out if it was going to rain tomorrow.’

9 ‘The prize is £500,000 this week. That’s a lot of money!’

10 ‘They showed a repeat of the Manchester United versus Valencia match.’

37.2

Fill the gaps with words from B opposite. 1 Which do you prefer if a film is in a foreign language, to read subtitles or to have the film d ? 2 I downloaded a great p about bees. I listened to it on my MP3 player in bed last night. 3 I hate it when c interrupt a good film. I usually go and make a cup of tea while they’re on. 4 We’ve got a new s d on our roof. We can r hundreds of channels now. 5 I’d like a job in the m , perhaps in TV or radio. 6 A lot of people use social networking sites as their main m of communication with their friends. 7 People often download b from the Internet so they don’t need to watch them on the day they are transmitted. 8 With a fast broadband connection, you can s TV shows directly from the Internet.

37.3

Sort these words into two categories: ‘tabloid’ and ‘quality’ newspaper. celebrity news complex political debate scandals in-depth reviews of books competitions and prizes sensational crimes long articles huge headlines tabloid

quality

celebrity news 37.4

Rewrite the words in bold using verbs from the opposite page. 1 The documentary looked into investigated the food industry and emphasised school meals. 2 The programme was filmed / in Northern Finland. (two answers) 3 CNN sends news programmes around the world. 4 They’re showing the cup final next week. (give a more formal verb) 5 The drama takes place in Paris in the 1880s. 6 Do you ever send those short messages over the Internet about news events?

37.5

Over to you Which types of media do you use most? Give your reasons. English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

81

38 A

Politics and public institutions Types of government republic: a state governed by representatives and, usually, a president (e.g. USA, France) monarchy: a state ruled by a king or queen (e.g. UK, Sweden) federation: a union of political units (e.g. provinces) under a central government (e.g. USA) democracy: government of, by and for the people dictatorship: system of government run by a dictator independence: freedom from outside control; self-governing

B

Presidential and parliamentary government (US and UK) United States Presidential government: The powers of the President and the legislature (Congress) are separate. These branches of government are elected1 separately. The President is elected for a four-year term and can appoint2 or nominate high officials in government, including cabinet members (who advise) and federal judges. The President leads a major party, usually, but not always, the majority party3 in Congress. Congress consists of two houses, the House of Representatives and the Senate. United Kingdom Parliamentary government: The government consists of a legislature4 (Parliament) and a Cabinet of Ministers5 from the majority party in Parliament. If no party has an overall majority, there may be a coalition government formed from more than one party. The Prime Minister is the head of the government and the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister selects high officials and heads6 the Cabinet. Parliament consists of two chambers, the House of Commons and the House of Lords. MPs are members of parliament elected from each constituency7 to the House of Commons. 1 chosen by vote

2 decide who to give positions of authority to

votes 4 group of people who make new laws 7 geographical voting area

C

3 political party which won the most

5 group of most important ministers

6 is the leader of

Parliamentary elections During a general election each constituency has to choose which politician it wants as its representative. Usually there are several candidates to choose from. These candidates are all standing (or running) for Parliament. They present the policies, i.e. their party’s plans. On polling day every adult goes to the polling station and casts a vote by marking a cross on their ballot paper. The candidate who gets the majority of votes wins the seat. If the vote is very close, the constituency may be referred to as a marginal seat.

Language help Here are some word families relating to words on this page.

82

verb

person noun

abstract noun

rule

ruler

rule

govern

governor

government

preside (often followed by over)

president

presidency

represent

representative

representation

elect

elector; electorate (group of people)

election

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 38.1

Circle the correct word from the choices offered. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

38.2

A member of parliament governs / rules / represents his or her constituency. India gained republic / independence / democracy from the UK in 1948. On electing / voting / polling day electors cast their votes. She’s running / sitting / walking for Parliament in the next election. His father was voted / stood / elected MP for Cambridge City. What is your country’s economic politics / policy / politician? The USA is a legislature / federation / congress of 50 states. Although modern monarchs are said to rule / govern / preside over their countries they have little real power.

Look at this text about politics in the UK. Fill in the missing words.

chambers : the House of Commons and the House Parliament in the UK consists of two 1 of Lords. The country is divided into 2 , each of which elects a(n) 3 to represent it in the House of Commons. The ruling party in the Commons is the one which gains a 4 of seats. The main figure in that party is called the 5 Sometimes more than one party may share power in a 6 government. The Commons is elected for a maximum period of five years although the Prime Minister may call a general 7 at any time within that period. 38.3

Match the sentence beginnings on the left with the endings on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

38.4

c

a b c d e f g h

over a Cabinet of Ministers. on the ballot paper. as a judge. from in our constituency. the seat in our constituency. for the Green Party candidate. for political office. my vote.

Find a word from the Language help section to match each definition. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

38.5

The President appointed his uncle The Prime Minister presides In last year’s election I voted Lee says he would never want to stand Put a cross beside the name you want I haven’t decided yet how to cast I’m not keen on the candidate who won We had five candidates to choose

the person with the highest political position in a republic the President someone who speaks or does something officially, on behalf of a group of people the leader of a country, e.g. a monarch or dictator the period of office of the person with the highest political position in a republic system used for controlling a country the group of people who are entitled to vote to act officially for a group of people

Over to you Write a paragraph about the political system in your country. Make sure your paragraph deals with all the following aspects of the topic appropriate to your country: kind of government, e.g. a republic or a monarchy chambers or houses elections terms of office government leader

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

83

39 A

Crime Crimes and criminals crime

definition

criminal

verb

murder

killing someone

murderer

murder

shoplifting

stealing something from a shop

shoplifter

shoplift

burglary

stealing something from someone’s home

burglar

burgle

smuggling

taking something illegally into another country

smuggler

smuggle

kidnapping

taking a person hostage in exchange for money or other favours, etc.

kidnapper

kidnap

terrorism

violent action for political purposes

terrorist

(terrorise)

fraud

deceiving people in order to take money from them

fraudster

defraud

abduction

taking someone, especially a child, usually in order to harm them

abductor

abduct

All the verbs in the table above are regular. Note that the verb terrorise is mainly used in a general way, meaning to make others very frightened, rather than just relating to the crime.

B

Investigating crime Ross committed a crime when he robbed a bank. Someone witnessed the crime and told the police. The police arrested Ross and charged him with bank robbery. They also accused his twin brother, Ben, of being his accomplice1. The police investigated the case2 and collected evidence3 at the crime scene. They found Ross’s fingerprints and they also found DNA evidence4 that linked him to the crime, so they were confident they had proof5 that the two men were guilty. 1 someone who helps someone commit a crime

2 a crime that is being investigated

3 information used in a

4 evidence from hair or skin that can be analysed court of law to decide whether the accused is guilty or not 5 evidence that shows conclusively whether scientifically and be shown to come from a particular person something is a fact or not

C

Trial and punishment

The case came to court1, and Ross and Ben were tried2. The trial3 did not last very long. Ross and Ben both pleaded not guilty4 in court. Their lawyer did her best to defend them, but the prosecuting lawyer produced a very strong case against them. After brief deliberations5, the jury passed verdict on them. They decided that Ross was guilty, and he was convicted of6 robbery, but Ben was innocent7. The judge acquitted Ben of any involvement in the robbery, but sentenced Ross to three years in prison/jail. As well as a prison sentence, Ross also had to pay a large fine. Ross served two years in prison, but was released from prison a year early. He got time off for good behaviour. 1 the place where a judge makes legal decisions

2 were put through a legal process to decide whether they

3 the legal process in court whereby an accused person is investigated and tried committed the crime or not 4 said they did not commit the crime 5 discussions 6 found to be guilty of a crime 7 not guilty of a crime

D

People connected with crime and the legal process offender: someone who commits an illegal act (an offence) judge: the person who leads a trial and decides on the sentence, i.e. the punishment when someone is found guilty jury: group of citizens (12 in the UK and, usually, the US) who decide on the verdict, i.e. whether the accused is guilty or not victim: a person who suffers as the result of a crime suspect: a person who is suspected of committing an offence witness: a person who sees a crime being committed

84

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 39.1

Which crime is each person accused of? Zoe is accused of shoplifting. 1 Zoe stole a chocolate bar from a shop. 2 Harry took a film star’s son and said she could only have him back if she paid a large sum of money. 3 Ophelia shot her husband in the heart. 4 Noah tried to take a large amount of cigarettes into his country without paying the due tax. 5 Tom broke into someone’s house and stole a TV and a computer. 6 Mike used a website to sell people holiday homes that didn’t really exist.

39.2

Fill in the gaps in the newspaper article below with words from B opposite.

CRIME WATCH A man has been 1 by police and 2 with burglary after a house in the city centre was broken into last night. Experts have searched the 3 and found several items which they have taken away to be used as 4 in court. The police believe the burglar may have had an 5 , so they are calling for anyone who 6 the crime to come forward and help them catch the second burglar.

39.3

A preposition is missing in each of these sentences. Add it.

to

1 The judge sentenced the accused >ten years in prison.

2 Many prisoners end up getting time for good behaviour. 3 The police have charged the driver of the red sports car speeding. 4 The two girls are suspected taking sweets from the shop without paying. 5 Sam was found guilty today but the judge will decide his sentence tomorrow. 6 The jury passed a verdict of guilty the accused.

39.4

Rewrite each sentence using the word in brackets. 1 The judge gave the accused six months in prison as punishment. (sentenced) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

39.5

The judge sentenced the accused to six months in prison.

The police think Bert is guilty but they cannot show this to be true. (proof) In court the accused said he did not commit the crime. (pleaded) The murder case is still being looked into by the police. (investigation) Anyone suffering because of a crime can join this support group. (victim) The detective thought the jealous lover killed the woman. (suspected) The bank robbers are currently being tried at a court in London. (trial) Nathan is hoping to be let out of prison soon. (released)

Over to you Find out about how criminals are caught and punished in your country. Answer the questions. 1 Who decides if someone is guilty or innocent? 2 Who decides on their sentence? 3 Can criminals get time off their sentence for good behaviour? 4 How are victims of crime helped? English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

85

40

Money

A

Personal finance Read these advertisements about personal finance. .

Newbank - Your Bank Need a good current account1 with the best interest rates2 and a guaranteed overdraft facility3? Pop into one of our branches.

£

TOO MANY CREDIT CARDS? Consolidate4 all your cards and debts5 into one convenient payment6. Discuss your credit limit7 with us today. Call 01677 442319. 1 account you use for most everyday business

Short of cash? Need a loan? Need to raise money for that round-the-world trip? For a loan with competitive8 interest rates visit our website at www.cashforyou.com

. Looking for a mortgage9? Act now! For mortgages with low deposits10 and flexible repayments11 call 01569 87623.

2 percentage which the bank pays you based on how much you

3 permission to have a negative amount of money in your account 4 join together have in your account 5 money you owe someone 6 the act of paying something 7 the maximum amount of to make one 8 as good as or better than other banks 9 a loan used usually to buy a money you may spend on your card 10 money you pay before buying something to show you really want to buy it 11 payments to reduce house

the amount you owe

B

Bank accounts and services I have a steady income1 now, which is great, and my outgoings2 are quite low. I don’t have any major expenses3. I pay all my bills by direct debit4, so I don’t have to worry about them. It also means I have a good credit rating5, so I can borrow money if I need to.

I need to buy a car, but I’m not sure how I’m going to finance6 it.

I’ve just opened a savings account7, and I transfer8 money into it regularly.

My account is usually in credit9 at the beginning of the month, but by the end of the month it’s always overdrawn10. I hate being in the red11 and the banks all charge interest12 on overdrafts! I try not to go over my overdraft limit, though.

I use online banking most of the time. I only go to the bank occasionally, to use the cash machine.

1 money coming in regularly, in a way that does not change much

2 money you pay each month, e.g. rent,

3 money you spend on things 4 money taken automatically from your account, cost of running a car, etc. e.g. to pay bills, a mortgage, etc.; the bank debits (verb) your account for the necessary sums of money 5 judgement made by a bank about how likely someone is to pay back money that they borrow 6 find the 7 account where you put money you do not immediately need 8 move from money needed to pay for it 9 has a positive amount of money in it 10 has a negative amount of money in it one account to another 11 infml have a negative amount of money in your account 12 make you pay a percentage of the amount

C

Public finance The government collects money through taxes. Income tax is the tax collected on wages and salaries. Inheritance tax is collected on money people get from people who have died. Customs (or excise) duty is paid on goods imported from other countries; airports usually have duty-free shops. VAT (value added tax) is a tax paid on most goods and services. Companies pay corporation tax on their profits.

86

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 40.1

Match the words on the left with the definitions on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6

40.2

interest mortgage overdraft savings account current account direct debit

e

a b c d e f

an account for money you don’t need immediately payment taken automatically from an account an account for day-to-day use a loan to buy a house or flat money that is charged on a loan an account with a negative sum of money in it

Use words from A opposite to complete the sentences. 1 Nico owes his brother 5,000 euros and he borrowed 10,000 euros to buy a car. Nico has d ebts totalling 15,000 euros. 2 Misha spent 6,000 euros on her credit card; the bank said she’d spent 1,000 euros too much. Her c l was 5,000 euros. 3 Newbank offers interest rates on loans that are similar to the rates other banks offer and are sometimes better. Newbank’s rates are c 4 Before she bought her new car, Alice paid £500 to the dealer. She paid a d of £500. 5 If a customer needs more money than is in their account, they can get permission to go on using the account. The bank offers an o f 6 Harry sold his car, got a part-time job and offered to clean people’s windows. He was trying to r money to f his trip to Africa. 7 You only need one credit card. You can c all the sums you owe into one p 8 If you want to buy a house, the bank offers loans where you can pay the money back over 30 years. The bank offers m with r over 30 years.

40.3

What do we call ... 1 2 3 4 5 6

40.4

the tax you pay on imported goods? customs / excise duty a shop at an airport where you don’t pay tax? a tax which is added to most goods and services? a tax on money paid if someone dies? the tax that companies pay on their profits? the tax that the government takes out of your salary?

Answer the questions. Give reasons for your answers. 1 If you were overdrawn, would you be in a good situation or a bad one?

A bad situation - you would have a negative amount of money in your bank account.

2 Why might a person open a savings account as well as a current account? 3 Joel’s account is in the red. Why is his bank manager unhappy? 4 Why might someone transfer money from a savings account to a current account? 5 Why is online banking easier than visiting your branch? 6 Why are cash machines so convenient? Are there any risks in using them? 7 Zara’s account is in credit. Is she probably happy or unhappy? 8 Bob doesn’t have a steady income and his outgoings are very high. Do you think he feels secure or insecure? 9 If your bank debited your account for 500 euros, would you feel you had more or less money as a result? 10 If you have a good credit rating, what will you find it easier to do?

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

87

41 A

Describing objects Some pairs of opposite adjectives Cotton is a natural material and nylon is artificial. Red and yellow are vivid colours while grey is a sombre colour. a conventional a bizarre chair You can see through a transparent material but you can’t see chair through an opaque material. A machine that has no problems at all is perfect while one that doesn’t work properly is faulty. Something that is hard and doesn’t move or bend easily is stiff while something that bends easily is flexible. A material that can be easily spoilt by, for example, washing, can be called delicate while something that is hard to spoil can be called tough. A material like glass that can be easily broken can be called fragile while something that does not break easily can be a plain frame a decorative frame called strong or sturdy. I prefer strong coffee to weak coffee - I can’t stand coffee that has too much water or milk in it. I like to be able to really taste my coffee! The painting is not a genuine Picasso - it’s a fake.

B

Adjectives and nouns adjective

noun

example

meaning

decent

decency

I’d like to get a table that’s a decent size so we can have ten people to a meal.

good

entire

entirety

Between them they ate the entire cake!

whole

characteristic

character, characteristic

Big windows are characteristic of houses built in the early 1900s.

typical

precise

precision

We need to take precise measurements before we decide which fridge to get.

exact

severe

severity

It’s a severe building - all concrete and straight lines.

very serious

solid

solidity

The table is made of solid oak.

hard all through

trivial

trivia, triviality

He doesn’t write serious novels, just trivial romances.

insignificant

The only verbs that can be formed from adjectives in the above table are characterise, solidify and trivialise.

C

Phrases typical of speech Did you see that great big cat run across the grass? [very big] This photo isn’t half as interesting as that one. [is much less] Jessie’s car is nowhere near as powerful as mine. [much less] Tamara makes an unusually strong cup of coffee. It’s a reasonably good piece of sculpture. [fairly good] It’s a pretty thick book. [fairly thick]

88

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 41.1

Answer these questions relating to the adjectives in A opposite. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

41.2

Which is artificial - silk or lycra? lycra Which is more delicate when it comes to washing - silk or cotton? Would you say a watch that looks like a snake has a conventional or a bizarre design? How could you describe car brakes that are not working properly? Which would cost more - a genuine Monet painting or a fake one? Which of these materials is more fragile - china or wood? Which is more flexible - metal or rubber?

Choose the correct option to complete each sentence.

B . 1 Jana’s clothes are never frivolous - they’re always rather A delicate B severe C precise

D bizarre

2 This painting is A characteristic

D plain

of the works of Rembrandt. B solid

3 I’d like to buy the A precise 4 Do have the A decency

salami, please, not just a small piece of it. B trivial C entire

matter.

6 Making beautiful jewellery requires a high degree of A entirety B precision

D characteristic

C trivial

D transparent

. C character

D triviality

Choose words from the box to complete the dialogue. reasonably NINA: MARK: NINA: MARK: NINA:

41.4

D solid

to put on a new shirt, not that one with the hole. B severity C vividness

5 Writing a good job application is not a A solid B conventional

41.3

C entire

nowhere

half

great

unusually

pretty

I love this room, Mark. Those 1 great big windows are wonderful, and the views from them are 2 amazing too. Thanks. And I’m sure it isn’t 3 as expensive as you might imagine. I only pay 1,000 euros a month. Wow! That’s 4 near as much as I pay. And my flat’s very noisy too. It seems 5 quiet here - you don’t seem to hear too much noise from the street. No, it’s not too bad. And I’ve certainly got 6 quiet neighbours. I never hear a sound from their flat. Lucky you! I wish I could say the same about mine.

Some words in this unit can be used to talk about abstract ideas as well as objects. Use your knowledge of these words to answer the questions. 1 If someone gives you a genuine smile, do they feel friendly or not particularly friendly towards you? They feel friendly 2 Do you think a transparent argument is one that is easy or difficult to follow? 3 If a writer describes something vividly, is their writing effective? 4 If a person behaves in a stiff way, are they more likely to be relaxed or tense? 5 If the teacher says your work is ‘solid’, are you likely to be pleased or not?

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

89

42 A

Belief and opinion Verbs connected with beliefs and opinions You probably already know think and believe; here are some more verbs. I’m convinced we’ve met before. [very strong feeling that you’re right] I’ve always held that compulsory education is a waste of time. [used for very firm beliefs; fml; maintain could be used here] She maintains that we’re related, but I’m not convinced. [insists on believing, often against the evidence; fml; hold could not be used here] I feel she shouldn’t be forced to do the job. [strong personal opinion] I reckon they’ll get married soon. [used for an opinion about what is likely to happen / to be true; infml] I doubt /daʊt/ we’ll ever see total world peace. [don’t believe] I suspect a lot of people never even think about pollution when they’re driving their own car. [have a strong feeling about something negative; fairly formal]

B

Phrases for expressing opinion We haven’t made any progress, in my view / in my opinion. (fairly formal) She’s made a big mistake, to my mind. (fairly informal) If you ask me, he ought to change his job. (infml) Note how point of view is used in English: From a teacher’s point of view, the new examinations are a disaster. [how teachers see things, or are affected]

Common mistakes Notice the prepositions in these phrases: In my opinion/view but to my mind and from my point of view. (NOT in my mind or in my point of view)

C

Prepositions used with belief and opinion words Do you believe in life after death? What are your views on divorce? What do you think of the new boss? Are you for or against long prison sentences? (neutral/infml) I’m in favour of (opp opposed to; fml) long prison sentences. I have my doubts about this plan.

D

Beliefs, ideologies, philosophies, convictions If you would rather organise this word tree differently or can add more examples, do so; it will probably help you to remember the words better. beliefs ideologies lef/right wing socialist

E

conservative

philosophies intellectual

personal

Darwinist

vegetarian

convictions religious Muslim

moral pacifist

Adjectives for describing beliefs and opinions These are in sets which have similar, but not exactly the same, meaning: fanatical / obsessive eccentric / odd / weird conservative / traditional middle-of-the-road / moderate dedicated / committed firm / strong radical / extreme Jason is a fanatical supporter of the Green Party. Grandpa has rather eccentric views. Maria is a moderate liberal. Rosie is a committed Christian. Emma is a firm believer in free speech. Tom is a radical Marxist.

90

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 42.1

Match the sentence beginnings on the left with the endings on the right and add an appropriate preposition. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

42.2

I have strong views on Many people believe I was in favour What does she think This is absurd, He’s quite wrong, Well, that’s just silly, I have my doubts Is Alex likely to be opposed

a b c d e f g h i

c

my opinion. the proposed changes. marriage. the plans for the new airport? life after death. how honest he is. our point of view. the new teacher? my mind.

Use adjectives from E which fit the phrases describing the beliefs and views of these people. 1 A person who insists that the earth is flat. (an eccentric belief) 2 A person who believes absolutely in the power of love to solve world problems. (a believer in the power of love) 3 A socialist neither on the left or the right of the party. (a socialist) 4 A vegetarian who refuses even to be in the same room as people who love meat. (an vegetarian) 5 Someone who is always suspicious of change. (a rather view of the world) 6 Someone who is in favour of making everyone wear blue clothes on Tuesdays. (a rather point of view)

42.3

Rewrite these sentences using a form of the verb in brackets. 1 My mum’s sure Nina’s expecting a baby. (reckon) My mum reckons Nina's expecting a baby. 2 I’ve always suspected that ghosts don’t really exist. (doubt) 3 My view has always been that people should rely on themselves more. (hold) 4 Claudia is convinced that the teacher has been unfair to her. (maintain) 5 I had a very strong feeling that I had been in that room before. (convince) 6 In his view, we should have tried again. (feel)

42.4

Over to you Are you … ? Consider how many of these words apply to you, and explain why. Some ideas for situations are given in the box to help you decide. Write sentences about yourself. EXAMPLE I don't think I'm a moralist because I wouldn't try to impose my views about religious or other morality on other people. a moralist left-wing an intellectual a traditionalist a philosopher middle-of-the-road a radical thinker dedicated food preferences work religion

politics

learning English

sport

life and existence

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

91

43 A

Pleasant and unpleasant feelings Happiness and unhappiness You feel ... content(ed) when you are satisfied with what you have. Content is not used before a noun. You can say ‘She is content/contented’ but only ‘a contented person’. He’s very content with his life. He’s always been a contented person. grateful when someone has done something thoughtful for you. Note: You feel thankful if something bad that could have happened did not happen. I’m really grateful to you for helping me with my project. delighted when something has happened that gives you great pleasure, when you hear news of someone’s good fortune, for instance. I was delighted to hear you’re getting married! miserable when everything seems wrong in your life. I felt miserable all day yesterday - maybe it was just the grey, cold weather. discontented when your life is not giving you satisfaction. She’s very discontented with her job and is going to look for a new one. fed up / sick and tired when you have had enough of something disagreeable. I’m fed up with Olivia's rudeness, and sick (and tired) of her bad behaviour. depressed when you are miserable over a long period of time. Depression is considered an illness in some severe cases. I felt depressed after having ten job interviews and not getting a job. confused when you cannot make sense of different conflicting feelings or ideas. I feel so confused - last week she said she loved me passionately; this week she said we were just good friends.

B

Excitement, upset, anger and anxiety I felt inspired after the concert. I’ve decided to take piano lessons. [stimulated to do something positive or creative] The argument I had with Eva the other night really upset me. [made me feel unhappy] I was quite enthusiastic about my tennis lessons at first, but the teacher isn’t very good and now I just feel frustrated. [ enthusiastic: had very positive feelings] [frustrated: feeling unable to do something you really want to do]

She was so thrilled when she got a job with a TV company. She’s always wanted to work in the media. [how you feel when something extremely exciting and pleasing happens] I was so nervous before the exam, and then I felt anxious before the results came out, but I passed with a high grade. [nervous: feeling nervous is a bit like feeling excited but it is a negative feeling] [anxious: when you are afraid and uncertain] I was furious with the waiter. The service was slow and he spilt coffee over my shirt. [extremely angry]

Language help Really can be used with all the adjectives on this page. Absolutely goes only with the words describing extreme states, i.e. delighted, fed up, sick and tired, thrilled, furious. With these words quite means absolutely, but with the other less extreme words, quite means rather.

92

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 43.1

Read the remarks and then answer the questions.

George ‘I’m just not feeling very happy today. Everything seems to have gone wrong.’

Agnes ‘I felt very happy when I heard she had an interview for the job.’

Katie ‘I like my life and I have nothing to complain about.’

Sara ‘Thank you for helping me today.’

Carlos ‘I’ve been so unhappy for a long time. I’ve been seeing a psychiatrist.’

Stefan ‘I just don’t understand. Was that his wife or his daughter?’

name

Who feels ...

1 fed up with something?

Max

5 miserable?

name

6 thankful? 7 confused? 8 delighted?

Rewrite the words in bold using words from A and B opposite. 1 2 3 4 5 6

43.3

Max ‘I’ve had enough of all the arguments and the bad atmosphere at work.’

Who feels ...

2 depressed? 3 content? 4 grateful?

43.2

Pilar ‘I felt so good that nothing bad had happened. It could have been a disaster.’

After watching the nature programme, I felt stimulated inspired to become a zoologist. I always get a feeling of negative excitement just before an exam. I was extremely angry when they refused to give me my money back. I was very excited and pleased to see my old school friend again after so long. The news about Rory’s illness really made me feel unhappy At first, I was full of positive feelings about the course, but it’s just not very good.

Sort the adjectives into positive and negative feelings. contented

sick and tired

anxious

thrilled

positive

frustrated

confused

negative

sick and tired

43.4

Fill the gaps using the adjectives in 43.3. Choose an appropriate adverb (absolutely, quite or a bit) to go in front of the adjective. Sometimes, both are possible. 1 I was feeling (quite / absolutely) quite anxious had arrived safely. 2 I am (quite / absolutely) 3 It’s all so complicated. I feel (a bit / quite) 4 I was (absolutely / a bit) 5 It made me feel (quite / a bit) weeks of guitar lessons. 6 You always seem so (absolutely / quite)

43.5

because she had not phoned to say she of her selfish behaviour. I’ve had enough! . Can you help me? when I heard the wonderful news! that I still couldn’t play any songs after six with life. How lucky you are!

Over to you Choose six adjectives from this unit which describe feelings you have had recently and write sentences about when and why you felt that way. English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

93

44 A

Like, dislike and desire Words and expressions relating to liking Reply

Forward

Dear Anna, Good to hear from you after so many years. Fancy you being married! I’m not married but I’ve got a boyfriend called Tom. I must tell you about him. We’ve known each other for three years. I quite liked him when we first met, but I didn’t really fancy him in any big way. I did like being with him - he fascinated me with his stories of his travels around the world and something mysterious about his past attracted me. What’s more, we were both keen on sailing. Little by little I fell in love with him. His sense of humour appealed to me and I was captivated by his smiling eyes. Now, three years later, I can’t see why I didn’t fall for him the moment we met. He’s a very caring person, fond of animals and small children. He’s always affectionate and loving towards me and passionate both about me and about the things he believes in and the people he cares for. I hope we’ll always be as devoted to each other as we are now. Do write again soon and tell me all about your life! Love, Amy

B

Words and expressions relating to disliking Loathe, detest, despise, cannot stand and cannot bear are all stronger ways of saying ‘dislike’ and they are all followed by a noun or an -ing form. I loathe / detest / despise / can’t stand / can’t bear bad-mannered people. I can’t bear listening to her stupid stories. Repel, revolt, appal and disgust are strong words used to describe the negative effect which something has on a person. His films disgust me. I was revolted by the way he spoke. We were appalled by the conditions in the refugee camp. His behaviour repels everyone.

C

Words and expressions relating to desiring Desire is either a formal verb to express a sexual wish for someone or a formal word for wish. He desired her the moment he saw her. I have a strong desire to see the Himalayas before I die. Look forward to means think about something in the future with pleasant anticipation. It is followed by a noun or an -ing form. The opposite is dread, which is rather strong. I’m looking forward to going to Fiji but I’m dreading the long flight. Long for means to wish for something very much. Yearn for is a more poetic way of saying long for. After this long, cold winter, I’m longing for spring. He will never stop yearning for his country although he knows he can never return.

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Exercises 44.1

Complete the sentences with words from A opposite and add the missing prepositions.

to Jack and Lily are very d evoted each other. Mrs Williams is very f her son-in-law. Are you k rugby? There’s a big match on TV tonight. Spending a whole day with my cousins doesn’t a me. We just looked at each other and we f love immediately. She’s so beautiful. I f her the moment I saw her. Our grandmother was always very a us when we were little and hugged us every time she saw us. 8 She’s very p wildlife and c sick animals in the local animal rescue centre. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

44.2

Rewrite the sentences, changing the meaning as little as possible. Use the word in brackets. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

44.3

In each pair of sentences which person probably feels more strongly, a or b? 1 2 3 4

44.4

I’m fond of him. (quite like) I quite like him. I strongly dislike jazz. (stand) Do you think Ethan is attractive? (fancy) She likes rowing and golf. (keen) I loathe very salty food. (bear) His art attracts me. (appeal) I find Gina very interesting. (fascinate) She has totally charmed him. (captivate) I’m dreading the exam. (look)

a He’s devoted to his sister. a I dislike his poetry. a She’s yearning to see him. a I’m not really looking forward to the exam.

b b b b

He’s very fond of his sister. I loathe his poetry. She’s longing to see him. I’m absolutely dreading the exam.

a

Correct the mistakes in these sentences. There may be more than one mistake in the sentence.

appalled

1 I was appealed by the terrible conditions in the prison. They were simply inhuman. 2 I can’t bare selfish people. I dispose anyone who never considers others. 3 Her manner repealed me at first and I wouldn’t stand being in the same room as her, but now I’ve begun to like her more. 4 I felt a strong desire of finding out what had happened to my old school friends. 5 Are you looking forward to start your new job? 6 I felt absolutely disgusting by his unkind remarks about Sylvia.

44.5

Over to you Answer the questions. 1 What characteristics in people do you most detest? 2 Would you describe yourself as a caring person? In what ways do you show it? 3 What issues are you passionate about? Why?

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45 A

Speaking Reporting verbs We can use these verbs to report people’s speech and how they speak (including how loudly and what their mood is). verb

loudness

most likely mood

whisper

very soft

telling someone a secret*

murmur

soft

romantic or complaining

mumble

soft (and unclear)

nervous or insecure

mutter

soft

irritated

shout

loud

angry or excited

scream

loud (usually without words)

frightened or excited

shriek

loud (and shrill)

frightened or amused

stutter, stammer

neutral

nervous or excited**

*People also whisper in places where it would be impolite to speak loudly. **Stuttering and stammering may also be the result of a speech impediment.

‘I’m sick of this. I’m going home,’ he muttered. Suddenly, someone shouted ‘Help!’ She whispered that she was not happy with the way the meeting was going.

B

Describing feelings These verbs indicate the speaker’s feelings or intentions. (sb = someone, sth = something)

C

verb

patterns

feeling

verb

patterns

feeling

boast

to sb about sth

proud of yourself

complain

to sb about sth

displeased

insist

on sth

determined

maintain

that

confident

object

to + -ing

unhappy with a situation

confess

to + -ing

repentant

threaten

to do sth

aggressive

urge

sb to do sth

encouraging

argue

with sb about sth

not in agreement

beg

sb to do sth

desperate

groan

that

despair, pain

grumble

about sth

displeased

Adverbs related to speech To indicate someone’s feelings, you can use a speaking verb plus an adverb. For example, ‘He said anxiously.’ ‘She spoke angrily.’ This is common in written style. If someone feels angry: angrily furiously bitterly If someone feels unhappy: gloomily miserably sadly If someone feels happy: happily cheerfully gladly hopefully If someone feels worried: anxiously nervously desperately Other useful adverbs: excitedly, impatiently, reluctantly, shyly.

Language help Most of the verbs in B above can also be used with a that clause. She boasted that she had scored 20 goals in one season. He threatened (that) he would call the police.

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English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 45.1

Choose a verb from A opposite to fit the meaning of the sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

45.2

Match the sentence beginnings on the left with the endings on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6

45.3

‘Oh, noooooooooo!!!!!!’ she screamed / shrieked in absolute terror. ‘Don’t look now, but Matt has just arrived,’ she in my ear. ‘Joey! Come here at once!!’ his mother . ‘I d-d-d-did it,’ he . ‘I’m sick of this meeting. I’m going home,’ he . ‘Oh, that’s so, so funny!’ she with laughter. ‘There’s a spider!!!’ she . ‘Stop ! I can’t hear what you’re saying,’ she said. ‘I think we should leave now. It’s late,’ he quietly.

He always maintained He groaned They threatened She complained He begged me She insisted

a b c d e f

to cancel my parking permit. not to leave, but I had to. on using recycled paper for everything. that he could read people’s minds. that he needed a doctor immediately. about the noise coming from above.

Add a reporting verb and one of the adverbs from the box to each sentence. Where possible, use reporting verbs from A. angrily

bitterly

impatiently

Milly ‘You must pay attention!’

Milly shouted angrily. Lily ‘This is our last day together. I’ll miss you.’

45.4

d

happily

Andrew ‘I feel much better today, thank you.’

hopefully

anxiously

sadly

Petra ‘Oh wow! I’ve just won a prize in a competition!’

Kallum ‘Oh, come on! Do hurry up! Let’s go! Now!’

Rory ‘I’m very worried. She said she would phone us.’

excitedly

Leo ‘I will never forgive them for what they did.’

Anna ‘We may be lucky and the rain might stop.’

Rewrite the sentences using the verbs in brackets. 1 Don’t exaggerate your talents to your friends. They’ll stop liking you. (boast)

Don't boast about your talents to your friends.

2 I’m not happy with having to sit on the floor. I paid for a seat. (object) 3 Stop being discontented with your job all the time. (grumble) 4 He talked about refusing to pay and calling the police. (threaten) 5 She asked if we would help her. (beg) 6 He admitted that he had broken the window. (confess) (two answers)

45.5

Answer the questions. 1 Which adverbs describe positive (P) feelings and which describe negative (N) feelings? gloomily (N) miserably ( ) cheerfully ( ) desperately ( ) gladly ( ) 2 Which prepositions usually follow: (a) object, (b) insist, (c) complain? 3 Which adverb means that someone does not want to do something? 4 What is the missing preposition? ‘Let’s be friends. I don’t want to argue you.’ 5 How might someone speak at a job interview if they were not very confident? English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

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46 A

The six senses The five senses The five senses are sight, hearing, taste, touch and smell. What is sometimes referred to as a ‘sixth sense’ (or extrasensory perception) is a power to be aware of things independently of the five physical senses - a kind of supernatural sense. The five verbs referring to the senses are modified by an adjective rather than an adverb. He looks dreadful. The trip sounds marvellous. The cake tastes good. It felt strange. The soup smelt delicious.

B

Sight Yesterday I glanced out of the window and noticed a policeman observing a house opposite through binoculars. I thought I glimpsed a man inside the house. Then I saw that there was a man peering into the window of the same house. I gazed at them wondering what they were doing. Suddenly the policeman stopped staring through his binoculars. He went to arrest the other man as he started to climb into the house through the window. I realised that I had witnessed a crime.

C

Hearing Scale of loudness: noiseless

D

silent

quiet

noisy

loud

deafening

Taste sweet (honey)

salty (crisps)

bitter (strong coffee)

sour (vinegar)

spicy (Indian food)

If you say something tastes hot it may mean spicy rather than not cold. If a curry, say, is not particularly hot, then it is mild. Food can be tasty, but tasteful refers to furnishings, architecture or a style of dressing or behaviour. The opposite of both is tasteless.

E

Touch She poked me in the ribs with her elbow to wake me up. He stroked the cat and patted the dog. She tapped him on the shoulder. He grasped my hand and we ran. She grabbed her phone and ran to the bus stop. The thief snatched her handbag and disappeared into the crowd. Press the button. Please handle the goods with great care.

F

Smell Here are some adjectives to describe smells: Very unpleasant: stinking foul-smelling putrid musty [smelling unpleasantly old and slightly damp] pungent [smelling very strong, often unpleasantly so] Pleasant: fragrant aromatic sweet-smelling perfumed/scented

G

Sixth sense Different phenomena which a person with a sixth sense may experience: telepathy [experiencing someone else’s feelings even though you are apart] premonition [knowing something is going to happen before it occurs] intuition [instinctive understanding] déjà vu [an inexplicable feeling that you have already been somewhere or experienced something before]

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Exercises 46.1

Which of the verbs in the text in B opposite suggests looking in the following ways 1 as a crime or accident occurs? witness 2 closely, finding it hard to make things out? 3 in a scientific kind of way?

46.2

Are the following best described as sweet, salty, bitter, sour, spicy or hot? 1 strong, unsweetened coffee

bitter

2 chocolate cake

46.3

3 chilli powder 4 lime

herbs in a kitchen old socks out-of-date eggs roses

aromatic

I touched the dog a few times. patted He knocked lightly on the door. She took my hand firmly. She put her face very close up to the window so she could see better. 5 Take care you don’t hit anyone in the eye with your umbrella.

a shed full of goats a beauty salon a loft used for storage a skunk

6 He touched the cat affectionately. 7 The robber took the money and ran. 8 She picked up, carried and put down the boxes carefully.

Make a sentence about the situations using any of these verbs - look, sound, taste, feel, smell - plus an adjective. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

46.6

5 6 7 8

Replace the underlined words with a more precise verb from the opposite page. 1 2 3 4

46.5

5 Indian cooking 6 sea water

Which of the adjectives in F best describes for you the smell of the following? 1 2 3 4

46.4

4 quickly? 5 fixedly? 6 at something but getting only a brief view?

You see a film about the Rocky Mountains. They look magnificent. You come downstairs in the morning and smell fresh coffee. A friend has just had her hair cut. You hear the latest number one song. A friend, an excellent cook, tries a new soup recipe. A friend asks how you feel today. A little boy asks you to listen to his first attempts at the piano. You see a friend of yours with a very worried look on her face.

Write sentences using each of the nine verbs in bold in B in ways that illustrate their specific meanings as clearly as possible. EXAMPLE Laura hoped her boss wouldn't notice her glancing at her watch every few minutes.

46.7

Over to you Answer these questions about yourself. 1 What’s your favourite smell? 2 Do you prefer a hot curry or a mild curry? 3 What materials do you like the feel of? 4 Do you believe that some people have a sixth sense? 5 Have you ever had a feeling of déjà vu? 6 Have you ever had a telepathic experience? English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

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47 A

What your body does Verbs connected with the mouth and breathing

yawn: Why are you yawning? Are you feeling sleepy? sneeze: Dust often makes me sneeze. snore: He snored in his chair with his mouth wide open. cough: It was so smoky in the room that he couldn’t stop coughing. sigh: She sighed with relief when she heard the plane had landed safely. be out of breath: I ran for the bus and now I’m out of breath! take a deep breath: He took a deep breath and jumped into the water. hold your breath: How long can you hold your breath underwater?

B

Verbs connected with eating chew: rumble: swallow: suck: lick: bite:

C

My granny used to say you should chew every mouthful ten times. It’s embarrassing if your stomach rumbles during an interview. Take a drink of water to help you swallow the pills. In an aeroplane, if you suck a sweet, it can stop your ears popping. The cat licked the bowl clean. Don’t bite that hard sweet - you’ll damage your teeth.

Verbs connected with the eyes and face wink:

He winked at me across the room to try to make me laugh. frown: Why are you frowning? What’s the problem? grin: She was so delighted with the present that she grinned from ear to ear. blink: She blinked several times to try and get the dust out of her eye. blush: He blushed with embarrassment when she smiled at him.

D

Verbs connected with the whole body

wink

grin

sweat

perspire/sweat /swet/: When it’s hot, you sweat/ perspire. (perspire is more formal) shiver: Look at him! He’s so cold that he’s shivering! tremble: My hands tremble when I’ve been drinking too much coffee. shake: She laughed so much that her whole body shook.

Language help

frown

All the verbs on this page (except shake and bite) are regular verbs; almost all the words have an identical noun form: to yawn → a yawn, to cough → a cough /kɒf/ etc. (except to breathe /briːð/ and to perspire; their nouns are breath /breθ/ and perspiration). 100

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shiver

Exercises 47.1

Which of the words on the opposite page do these pictures illustrate?

1

47.2

4

5

. . . .

. .

The Trubble family are at a restaurant and things are not going well. Fill the gaps with verbs from B opposite.

EDWARD: MR TRUBBLE: MRS TRUBBLE: MR TRUBBLE:

rumbling Where’s our food? My stomach is 1 . What slow service! Edward, stop making that horrible noise with your drink! People are looking at us. It’s my straw. It’s broken and I can’t 2 through it properly. 3 Ouch! I just an olive and I’ve broken my tooth on the stone! Look! Mm. So ... where’s the stone? Oh dear. I think I 4 it!

Find the word to match these definitions. 1 2 3 4 5 6

47.5

3

I could see she was extremely cold because she was shivering I sensed that he was feeling sad because he . She couldn’t sleep all night because her husband was The fumes from all the cars and lorries were horrible and made me I knew I had caught a cold because I started . The doctor examined my chest and asked me to Put your head underwater and see how many seconds you can We started running fast and soon we were both

MRS TRUBBLE:

47.4

2

Complete the sentences with verbs from A opposite. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

47.3

blush

Draw the eyebrows together to express displeasure or puzzlement. frown Crush food into smaller, softer pieces with the teeth so you can swallow it. Your body makes small, quick movements because you are laughing so much. Shut and open both eyes quickly. Deliberately shut and open one eye. Use your tongue to take in food (e.g. on an ice-cream cone).

Circle the correct word to complete the sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

We worked hard in the hot sun. Soon we were trembling / perspiring / shivering. He seemed very amused. He was trembling / blushing / grinning. She sucked / licked / bit the stamp and stuck it on the envelope. I always find it difficult to swallow / suck / chew medicines. It was so funny! I was just trembling / shaking / shivering with laughter! The poor little animal was shivering / trembling / grinning with fear. It was so hot and humid. Soon my shirt was soaked with perspire / perspiration / perspitation.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

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48 A

Praising and criticising Praising You praise someone for something. The teacher praised the children for their hard work. Highly praised is a common collocation. William’s acting in this film has been highly praised. She plays the guitar brilliantly, just like her father. [very skilfully] He’s the very best, a really first-rate / top-notch administrator. When it comes to grammar, she’s really on the ball. [quick to understand] Ben has a way with foreign students. The other teachers envy him. [good at establishing good relations / motivating them, etc.] Emma really has green fingers; look at those flowers! [good at gardening] Let him do the talking; he’s got the gift of the gab. [good at talking] Imogen is head and shoulders above the rest of the girls at maths. (usually used of people) / She’s miles better than the other girls at maths. When it comes to technology, Japan is streets ahead of most other countries. As far as sport is concerned, Sam is among the best in his class. [one of the best; can also say among the worst / most interesting, etc.] That meal was just out of this world. [outstanding/superb; usually used of things]

B

Criticising The verb criticise can mean: to say that someone or something is bad, e.g. Paige’s parents are always criticising her appearance. Notice that it can also be used to mean: give an opinion or judgement about a book or film, e.g. I belong to a writer’s group - we read and criticise each other’s work. critical /ˈkrɪt.ɪ.kəl/ adjective NOT PLEASED 1 saying that someone or something is bad or wrong: a critical report  The report is highly critical of safety standards at the factory. adjective IMPORTANT 2 of the greatest importance to the way things might happen: The President’s support is critical (to this project).  a critical decision adjective GIVING OPINIONS 3 giving opinions or judgements on books, plays, films, etc.: She has written a major critical appraisal/study of Saul Bellow’s novels.  His last film won/ received critical acclaim (= was praised by film critics). adjective SERIOUS 4 extremely serious or dangerous: Both drivers are critical / in a critical condition (= so badly hurt that they might die) after the 120 mph crash.

The adverb critically can relate to any of these four meanings of ‘critical’ although the following are the most frequent uses: critically important (meaning 2), critically acclaimed (meaning 3), critically ill (meaning 4) Note these idiomatic synonyms of the verb to criticise (with its meaning of saying something is bad): You shouldn’t run down your own country when you’re abroad. Why do you always have to pick holes in everything I say? Here are some criticisms of people: I think Antonio’s being totally absurd. [ridiculous] You are undoubtedly at fault / to blame and you should apologise. [you are in the wrong] She thinks she’s the cat’s whiskers /ˈwɪskəz/ / the bee’s knees. [thinks she’s wonderful] When it comes to time-keeping, he’s the world’s worst. [no one is worse] Jack is so rude. He really takes the biscuit. [is a striking example of some negative quality] Jo wants to have her cake and eat it! [wants everything with no contribution from her side]

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Exercises 48.1

Which expressions from the opposite page might these pictures help you to remember?

1

48.2

have your cake and eat it

2

3

4

5

Using the word in brackets and an expression from A opposite, rewrite the sentence without changing the meaning. 1 The hotel we were staying in was absolutely superb. (world)

The hotel we were staying in was out of this world. 2 Giovanni is a long way above the other kids when it comes to doing hard sums. (shoulders) 3 Maria is very good with young children - they always love her. (way) 4 You’re a long way ahead of me in understanding all this new technology; I’m impressed. (streets) 5 Hassan is great at chess. (brilliantly) 6 Agata is a very fluent and confident speaker. (gab)

48.3

Which of the expressions in 48.1 is most suitable for completing each sentence if you want to: 1 2 3 4 5

48.4

say someone’s behaviour is extremely annoying? What Jack said really takes the biscuit! say that someone is quick to understand? Tanya is usually say someone has a very high opinion of themselves? Rajiv thinks praise someone’s gardening skills? Marek comment on someone who wants to buy a new car but keep all their savings too? Unfortunately, you

Answer these questions.

It's serious. 1 If someone is critically injured, is their injury minor or serious? 2 If your teacher asks you to write a review criticising a film you’ve recently seen, does she want you only to write about its negative aspects? 3 If a father is critical of his son’s behaviour, does he approve or disapprove of it? 4 If someone says that it is ‘critically important’ that you complete a piece of work by a specific deadline, how flexible is that deadline? 5 If several people are said to be in a critical condition after an accident, are doctors worried or not particularly worried about them? 48.5

Write the opposite meaning to these sentences using expressions from the opposite page. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

He’s a third-rate athlete. He’s a first-rate / top-notch athlete. I don’t understand why Sophie has such a low opinion of herself. When it comes to sport, Andrey is one of the best in his school. Greta was not responsible for the error in the accounting figures. He is no good at talking to people at all. Mick doesn’t get on with the secretaries; just look at how they react when he wants something done. He often says how wonderful his school is. She always praises everything I say.49 English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

103

49

Emotions and moods In this unit we focus on fixed expressions describing various emotions. You may not need to use them often yourself, but you need to understand them when you read or hear them.

A

Positive feelings, moods and states Maria seems to be on cloud nine these days. [extremely pleased/happy] Everyone seemed to be in high spirits. [lively, enjoying things] She seems to be keeping her chin up. [happy despite bad things] Jo’s as happy as Larry / as happy as can be. [extremely content]

B

Negative feelings, moods and states He had a long face. [looked depressed/sad] She certainly looked down in the dumps. [looked depressed/sad] Zac is in a bad mood. [a bad mood/temper] Martin was like a bear with a sore head. [extremely irritable] (See Unit 97.) Alice threw a wobbly the other day. [became extremely angry and upset]

C

Physical feelings and states I’m feeling done in. [exhausted] You’re looking a bit under the weather. [not very well / ill] She looked, and felt, on top form. [in good physical condition] I suddenly felt my head was spinning. [unable to balance, feel as if you will fall over] I was almost at death’s door last week! [very sick/ill] Old Nora’s as fit as a fiddle. [very fit indeed]

D

Fear/fright She was scared stiff. [very scared] She frightened the life out of him. [frightened him a lot] We were all shaking in our boots/shoes. [trembling with fear] The poor lad was scared out of his wits. [very scared indeed] I jumped out of my skin when I heard the bang. [gave a big jump]

E

Other expressions for actions and feelings

Capricorn (21.12-19.1)

Taurus (21.4-20.5)

Don't get carried away1 by promises not kept. Keep a cool 2 head and take everything as it comes3. On the work front, things are looking up4.

If someone says something that makes you swell with pride5 and feel on top of the world6, enjoy the moment!

1 get too excited

2 stay calm

3 deal calmly with events as they happen

5 feel proud / very pleased because of something good that you did

4 improving

6 very happy indeed

Language help There is often an element of exaggeration in these expressions. They make quite strong comments on the situation and often lighten the tone of what you are saying. So use them only in informal situations. 104

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Exercises 49.1

Match the sentence beginnings on the left with the endings on the right to make fixed expressions. 1 2 3 4 5 6

49.2

c

a b c d e f

her chin up. a bear with a sore head. cloud nine. a bad mood. a wobbly. happy as the day is long.

Complete the fixed expressions from A and B opposite. 1 2 3 4 5

49.3

Imogen was on Michaela was in Anna kept Lily was as Kathy was like Rosie threw

Has something good happened? You all seem in high What’s the matter? You’ve got a long As long as he has his car to work on, he’s as happy It’s been an awful day! No wonder everyone is in a Has something bad happened? You look down

spirits

.

. .

. .

Read the comments and then answer the questions. Mark ‘I’ve never felt so terrified in my life.’

Lidia ‘I was just not feeling very well yesterday.’

Krishnan ‘I’ve been feeling really well recently.’

Lars ‘I was very ill indeed last week.’

Andrea ‘I felt as if I couldn’t keep my balance and was about to fall.’

Karen ‘I’ve gone to the gym every day this month and I can feel the results.’

comment

name

1 Who was feeling under the weather?

Lidia

2 Who is probably as fit as a fiddle? 3 Who was scared out of their wits? 4 Who was at death’s door? 5 Whose head was spinning? 6 Who is feeling on top form?

49.4

Use fixed expressions to rewrite the words in bold. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

I gave a sudden jump when he fired the gun. jumped out of my skin I think you should not panic and just be patient. He scared me very much when he came in wearing that ghost mask! Everyone was trembling with fear when they saw the door open all by itself. I was very scared before I did the bungee jump, but it was OK. She felt very proud indeed as her daughter received the gold medal. I think I got too excited by the idea of joining a rock band. It’s actually very hard work!

8 I try to just deal with events in a calm way as they happen.

49.5

Over to you Write sentences about yourself. 1 Describe a situation or event which would make you feel on top of the world. 2 Which of the expressions in C opposite best describe(s) your state at the moment? English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

105

50 A

Commenting on problematic situations Types of problems and difficulties There are many words for different types of difficulties. Chaos is a state of total confusion, where there is no order at all. A disaster is an event which causes great harm or damage. If you are facing a dilemma or are in a dilemma you are in a situation where you have to make a difficult decision between two things.

The earthquake was a dreadful disaster for the country. The transport system was in chaos for some time afterwards. The government were faced with a dilemma: start reconstruction work at once or wait until the likelihood of aftershocks had passed.

to be in a fix = be in a difficult situation to be in a tight corner = be in a situation that is hard to get out of to be in a muddle = be confused / mixed up The word challenge puts a positive slant on a problem situation in that it focuses on the fact that it needs great mental or physical effort in order to be done successfully and therefore tests a person’s ability.

B

Specific difficulties

You can be badly affected1 by all sorts of things, from those that are mildly irritating2 to the intensely annoying3. 1 things can have a negative impact on you

2 slightly annoying

3 extremely annoying

Your plans may be disrupted. [prevented from continuing as intended] Negotiations or a building may collapse. [fail because of a lack of support] You can be deprived of something you value. [have something taken away from you] Someone’s heart can be broken. [made extremely sad] Your life may lack something that you would like. [not have (enough of) something] The nouns related to the words in this section are effect, irritant or irritation, annoyance, disruption, collapse, deprivation, heartbreak and lack.

C

Idioms about dealing with problems and difficulties to take a back seat [not to do anything; let others act instead] ≠ to take the bull by the horns [act positively to face and attack the problem] to stir things up [do/say things that make the situation worse] ≠ to pour oil on troubled waters [do/say things that calm the situation down] I can’t face (the thought of) clearing up all this mess today. [don’t want to deal with] I thought it would be best just to lay my cards on the table. [state exactly what my position is] This has to be done by next week; we must get our act together before it’s too late. [organise ourselves to respond; infml] We need a proper investigation to get to the bottom of things. [find the true explanation] It’s quite difficult to get people to sit up and take notice. [make them pay attention] I’m trying to get a grasp of what’s happening; it’s not easy. [find out / understand]

D

Idioms relating to changes in problem situations The tide has turned for us; better days are ahead. We can see the light at the end of the tunnel at last. [see that a difficult situation may be ending soon] I’m afraid we’ve just come to a dead end with our plans. I think I’ve reached a turning point in my career. The government and the unions have buried the hatchet for the time being. [made peace / stopped fighting each other] All that trouble last year was just swept under the carpet in the end. [ignored / deliberately forgotten, without solving it]

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English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 50.1

Choose the best word from A opposite to complete these sentences. 1 Can you help Grandpa fill out that form? It’s so long and complicated that he’s getting in a bit . of a muddle 2 The manager told his staff that he didn’t want to hear the word ‘problems’, but rather they should talk about . 3 After the earthquake, city transport was in . 4 I wonder if you could help me out - I’m in a bit of a tight . 5 Should I take the job in New York or the one in Sydney? It’s quite a . 6 The floods are the worst natural the country has experienced this century.

50.2

Match the sentence beginnings with the words on the right and add a preposition to complete the sentence. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

50.3

Ben decided he would immediately lay his cards. The best thing to do is just to take the bull Fortunately we can now see the light at the end It’ll take ages before we can get to the bottom It’s asking for trouble to sweep things You can always rely on Naomi to pour oil At the moment my research seems to have come Claire has now reached a turning point

on

c

a b c d e f g h

troubled waters. her life. the table. a dead end. the horns. things. the tunnel. the carpet.

Rewrite each sentence using the word in brackets. 1 The snow caused serious disruption to trains in the region. (disrupted) Trains in the region were seriously disrupted by the snow. 2 I don’t want to drive home in all this traffic. (face) 3 Keira doesn’t seem to have much confidence. (lacking) 4 Unfortunately, the project doesn’t seem to be getting anywhere at the moment. (dead) 5 Sleep deprivation can cause health and other problems. (deprived) 6 Paula was profoundly affected by her meeting with Angus. (effect)

50.4

Choose suitable idioms from C and D to fill the gaps. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Selim’s business has been going through hard times but he feels at last the tide has turned No, please, don’t say anything: you’ll only It’s been a long, hard struggle, but I think finally we can The police are trying their best to , but it’s still a real mystery at the moment. You’ve been messing around achieving nothing for too long; it’s time you ! At last I’ve managed to get him to ; he’s paid no attention at all to us so far. I found it hard to understand thermodynamics at first but I’m beginning to it now. I think I’ll just and let everyone else get on with sorting matters out. I wish you and John wouldn’t argue so much. Can’t you once and for all?

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51 A

Number, quantity, degree and intensity Number and quantity Number is used for countable nouns (e.g. a large number of students), amount for uncountable nouns (e.g. a large amount of money). Some adjectives for expressing number and quantity: smaller

minute /maɪnjuːt/ tiny

bigger

average significant excessive vast considerable substantial enormous

Even minute amounts of toxic material can be dangerous. (fml) Add just a tiny amount of chilli pepper, or else it may get too hot. Were there many people at the airport? Oh, about average, I’d say. (fairly informal) A considerable number of people failed to get tickets. (fml) A significant number of students have dropped out of university in the last year. [noticeably large] Substantial amounts of money have been wasted on this project. (fml) There is an excessive amount of sugar in many soft drinks. [too much; rather formal] A vast / An enormous quantity of sand was blown on to the road during the storm.

B

Informal words for number/quantity I’ve got dozens of nails in my tool box. [a dozen is 12; dozens of means many; especially used for countables] Scores of people were injured when the gas tank exploded. [a score is 20 or about 20; scores of means a large number of; usually formal] There’s heaps/bags/loads of time yet, slow down! (usually with singular there is, not there are; countable or uncountable; infml) There was absolutely tons of food at the party – far too much. (again, note singular there was; especially used for things, not so often used for abstract nouns) There are tons of apples on this tree this year – last year there were hardly any. (Note: The verb here is plural because of ‘apples’, but singular in the example before with ‘food’ – number depends on the noun following, not on tons/lots/loads.) Just a drop of milk for me, please. [tiny amount of any liquid]

C

Degree and intensity: collocations with utter(ly), total(ly), wholly Utter(ly), total(ly) and wholly mean complete(ly). Utter combines with ‘strong’ nouns like nonsense, contempt, silence, confusion, chaos and despair. There was utter chaos during the transport strike. Utterly combines with adjectives such as ridiculous, confused and impossible. I was utterly confused by the instruction manual that came with my camcorder! Total combines most often with disbelief and ban, e.g. She looked at him in total disbelief. The government introduced a total ban on smoking in public places. Totally combines most often with different, unexpected, unsuitable and wrong, e.g. The two brothers have totally different personalities. Wholly combines most often with dependent, inadequate and unacceptable, e.g. The success of the project was wholly dependent on the weather.

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Exercises 51.1

Complete the sentences with words from A opposite. 1 It takes a c 2 As

onsiderable

possible answers)

amount of time to learn to ski well. quantity of food is thrown away every day by supermarkets. It’s a scandal. (two

3 The scientists found only a m amount of the chemical in the food and said it was safe to eat. 4 We ate an e amount of food at dinner last night! (two possible answers) 5 V amounts of money are wasted by government departments every year. 6 The number of students registering for our courses is about a for the autumn semester. 7 At amount of water had got into the keyboard and it stopped working. 8 Last year we didn’t really notice an increase in prices, but this year the increase has been s .

51.2

Use words from A to fill the gaps. More than one answer may be possible. 1 2 3 4 5

51.3

Circle the most suitable answer. More than one may be correct. 1 2 3 4 5

51.4

Even a tiny / minute amount of sand can damage a camera. I’ve had an absolutely amount of work lately. I’m exhausted! Oh, you’ve given me a amount of food here! I mustn’t eat too much. It takes a amount of money to start a business. An amount of fat in your diet is dangerous.

Tons / Scores / Bags of people came on to the streets to hear his speech. We’ve got loads / scores / dozens of time. The train doesn’t leave till 2.30. There was / were tons of food left over after the dinner party. I’ve got heap / loads / dozens of CDs that I never play any more. There was / were dozens of people waiting outside the building.

Using intensifiers from C, write what you could say in the following situations. 1 You thought someone’s views were completely ridiculous. His/Her views were utterly ridiculous. 2 You read two novels by the same author which were completely different. 3 You thought someone’s behaviour was completely unacceptable. 4 You thought a particular way of working produced chaos. 5 You listened to someone’s story and did not believe a word of it. 6 You think there should be a complete ban on using mobile phones in cinemas.

51.5

Over to you Write sentences that are true for you using these collocations: wholly dependent

utterly confused

totally unexpected

utter nonsense

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52 A

Numbers and shapes Pronunciation of numbers Notice how we say the following: 28% twenty-eight per cent 12/3 one and two thirds 42 four squared 10.3 ten point three

10m × 12m ten metres by twelve metres 4/ four fifths 9/ nine thirteenths / nine over thirteen 5 13 73 seven cubed 84 eight to the power of four 32°C or F thirty-two degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit

Decimal fractions are separated by a dot and not a comma in English and this is pronounced point. Note how commas are used to separate each set of three numbers in long numbers: 1,623,457 = one million, six hundred and twenty-three thousand, four hundred and fifty-seven. Telephone numbers are usually said like this: 01223 20675 = oh one double two three, two oh six, seven five.

Language help When saying a long number, you pronounce each set of up to three digits separately with rising intonation, until the last set, where the intonation falls at the end to make it clear that the number is complete.

B

Two-dimensional shapes circle

rectangle

pentagon

triangle octagon

square

oval

The corresponding adjectives are: circular, pentagonal, rectangular, triangular, square, octagonal, oval. A rectangle has four right angles. A pentagon has five sides. A circle is cut in half by its diameter. Its two halves can be called semi-circles. The radius of a circle is the distance from its centre to the circumference.

C

Three-dimensional shapes

sphere

cube

pyramid

spiral

The corresponding adjectives are: spherical, cubic, pyramidal, spiral. The two halves of a sphere can be called hemispheres.

D

Arithmetic + addition 2x + 3y – z = 3z 4x 6 × 7 = 42

110

– subtraction

× multiplication

÷ division

Two x plus three y minus z equals three z divided by four x or three z over four x Six times / multiplied by seven is forty-two or six sevens are forty-two

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 52.1

Write the following in words rather than in figures or symbols. 1 2 3 4

52.2

How good at maths are you? Try this numbers quiz. Write the answers in words rather than figures. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

52.3

17.1% of adults have false teeth. Seventeen point one per cent of adults … According to a UN study, 2% of the world’s population owns over 1/2 of all household wealth. 0°C = 32°F This article says that 8,556,981 people are currently living in London.

What is seven times nine? sixty-three Name two shapes that have four right angles. Subtract 41 from 93. What is three fifths of twenty? How many sides has an octagon? What is one third of ninety-nine? What is three squared? What is four cubed?

Complete this table. description

name of shape

adjective

shape with four sides of equal length and four right angles

square

square

round shape shape with three sides shape with eight sides shaped a bit like an egg three-dimensional round shape three-dimensional square shape

52.4

Correct the mistakes in how the numbers are said in these sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

52.5

32 = 9 Three square equals nine. Three squared equals nine. 46.6% Oxygen accounts for forty-six comma six per cent of the earth’s crust. 7 × 9 = 63 Seven nine are sixty-three. 18o C The temperature today is eighteen points Celsius. 3m × 6m My bedroom is three multiplied by six metres. 69 What is six at the power of nine? 11/ Eleven sixteens of the students passed the exam. 16 2/ × 53 = 831/ Two third times five cubes is eighty-three and three third. 3 3

Draw the following shapes. 1 A circle with its diameter indicated. 2 A right-angled triangle with two equal sides of about two centimetres in length. Draw a small circle at the centre of the triangle and then draw lines from the centre of the circle to each of the angles of the triangle. 3 A rectangle with diagonal lines joining opposite angles. 4 An octagon with equal sides. Draw an oval in the middle of the octagon. 5 A cube of roughly 3cm by 3cm by 3cm.

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53 A

Time Periods of time – words and typical contexts the Ice Age

the Stone Age

[major historical/geological periods]

the Middle Ages

the computer age

After the war, a new era of stability began. [long period, perhaps several decades] A spell of hot weather [indefinite but short period] He’s had a couple of spells in hospital in the last two or three years. The city went through several stages of development to become what it is today. [period of development or particular time in a process] Most teenagers go through a phase of being lazy. [a period which is part of a longer period; phase can also mean the same as stage]

B

Useful expressions with time During the 1980s I lived in Barcelona for a time. [vague, indefinite period] The doctor says you should stay in bed for the time being. [for now, not specific] She can get a bit bad-tempered at times. [occasionally / now and then] By the time we get home this pizza will be cold! (Note: followed by present tense, not future with will) I’m not in regular contact with her; I just send her an email from time to time. [sometimes but not often] One at a time, please! I can’t deal with you all together. We arrived just in time to hear the Prime Minister’s speech. [at the right time / with enough time to do something] Our plane was on time and she was waiting for us at the airport. [punctual / neither early nor late] I’ve told you time and time again not to ring me at the office! [many times; very emphatic and usually in negative contexts] The city has changed a great deal over the course of time / over the course of the last two centuries. (used about long periods of time)

C

Verbs associated with time passing 2002 → 2012 Ten years had elapsed since they last saw each other. (normally used in the perfect or past, without adverbs; fml) Time seems to fly as you get older. [pass very quickly] This film lasts for three hours. The meeting went on / dragged on for two hours. (suggests longer than expected or desired; drag on is stronger)

D

Adjectives describing duration (how long something lasts) There was a momentary loss of electrical power and the data was lost. [very brief] I just got a fleeting glimpse of the President as his car drove past. [very short and quick] Venice has a timeless beauty.

Common mistakes Don’t confuse in time and on time. In time means with enough time to do something or at the right time. On time means punctual, neither early nor late. We got there just in time for dinner. I expect she will be late - the trains are never on time.

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Exercises 53.1

Fill the gaps with age, era, period, spell, phase or stage.

period 1 The Minister said that before the new law came into force there would be a of six months when people could hand in firearms without being prosecuted. 2 The last two decades of the twentieth century will be seen by historians as the beginning of the computer . 3 The new university will be built in three , beginning with the opening of the science faculty in 2015. 4 These factories mark the beginning of a new of industrial development for the country. 5 My son went through a of not wanting to go to school when he was about nine or ten. 6 We had a very cold in February. All the water pipes froze up. 53.2

Complete the sentences. 1 Over the course of a century, from 1900 to 2000, the population grew steadily. 2 The lecture / for almost three hours and everyone was totally bored. (two answers) 3 The archaeologists discovered some tools which dated from the Stone . 4 Time seems to when you’re enjoying yourself. 5 A period of seven years between the two earthquakes. 6 Shakespeare’s plays have a quality - they never grow old. 7 It was just a visit. She only stayed for about ten minutes. 8 There was a pause as the official considered her answer. Then she said she would try to help us.

53.3

Which phrases from B could you use in the following situations? Write exactly what you might say. 1 To a child who leaves the fridge door open despite being told off often.

I've told you time and time again not to leave the fridge door open!

2 To someone you’re happy to see who arrives just as you are serving tea/coffee. 3 On a birthday card you expect will arrive at someone’s address after you arrive in New York. 4 A large group of people want to talk to you but you’d prefer to see them individually. 5 Ask someone to use an old computer while the new one is being repaired. 6 Tell someone you’ll do your best to arrive punctually at a meeting. 7 Explain to someone that the weather can be very hot in your city occasionally. 8 Tell someone you enjoy a game of tennis sometimes but not often.

53.4

Over to you Your country/culture may have names for important periods of its history (for example, British people often refer to the years 1840-1900 as the ‘Victorian era/period’ because the monarch at the time was Queen Victoria). Make a list in English of important historical periods from your culture.

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54 A

Distances and dimensions Broad and wide and tall and high Wide is more common than broad, e.g. It’s a very wide road/garden/room. Make a note of typical collocations for broad as you meet them, e.g. Economics is a very broad subject. We came to a broad expanse of grassland. [big area] Note the word order for dimensions, e.g. The room’s five metres long and four wide. Don’t forget that tall is for people but can be used for things such as buildings and trees when they are high and thin in some way. Otherwise, use high for things. She’s very tall for a five-year-old. Her office is in that tall building in the square. There are some high mountains in the North.

B

Deep ≠ shallow

The deep and shallow ends of a swimming pool.

C

Derived words, phrases and compounds long

Let’s measure the length /leŋθ/ of this rope. I swam 20 lengths (of the swimming pool). I’ve lengthened her skirt for her. [opp = shorten, see below] Getting a visa can be a lengthy process. (usually refers to time; rather negative) Tony has got a job as a long-distance lorry driver. short The new road will shorten our journey by ten minutes. There’s a shortcut to the station. [quick way] wide Let’s measure the width /wɪdθ/ of the room. They’re widening the road. broad I want to broaden my experience. (usually more abstract contexts) She’s very broad-minded and tolerant of others. [willing to accept other people’s behaviour and beliefs; opp = narrow-minded] I admire the breadth of his knowledge. (usually more abstract concepts) high The height /haɪt/ of the wall is two metres. The fog heightened the feeling of mystery. (usually used only for feelings and emotions) low You can lower the microphone if it’s too high. [opp = raise] far He loves travelling to faraway places. [a long way away = distant] distant What’s the distance from Helsinki to St Petersburg? [= How far is it …?] deep The depth of the river here is about three metres. His death so soon after hers deepened our sadness. (often with feelings)

D

Other verbs for dimensions and for changing them Our garden stretches all the way to the river, so we have plenty of room to extend the house if we want to. The cities are spreading and the countryside is shrinking. [getting bigger; getting smaller] The business expanded considerably in the last decade. [grew in size; opp = contract]

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Exercises 54.1

Complete B’s replies using a suitable form of the dimension/distance words opposite and any other necessary words. 1 A: B: 2 A: B: 3 A: B: 4 A: B: 5 A: B: 6 A: B:

54.2

These trousers I’ve bought are too long. Well, why don’t you get them shortened? He’s a big boy, isn’t he? 1.90 metres! Yes, he’s . Why are we going across the field? Just to get there a bit quicker; it’s . We’ll have to measure how high the room is. That’s not necessary; we already know the . The traffic seems to move far quicker on this road since I was last here. Yes, well, they . Why do they have music on TV news programmes? It seems totally unnecessary! Well, I think they want to create a feeling of drama, and the music is supposed to .

Give opposites for: 1 a length of the pool a width of the pool 2 to shorten 3 a very broad range of goods

54.3

7 narrow-minded 8 raise your hand

Match the sentence beginnings on the left with the endings on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6

54.4

4 a local call 5 deep water 6 nearby places

c

The city’s spread a lot; It takes ten weeks; We extended the house You can choose; Your experience is too narrow; The forest stretches

a for miles along the river. b you should broaden it. c it’s much bigger now. d there’s a wide range. e it’s a lengthy business. f to give us more room.

Use the verbs in the box to fill the gaps. spread

expand

extend

stretch

shrink

contract

1 I’ll spread the rug out on the grass so we can both sit on it. 2 The steel industry when the economy was strong, but now it has only employs 8,000 people. 3 This sweater of mine has in the wash! 4 Our land as far as those trees there. 5 The arts centre has recently its opening hours.

54.5

and

Fill in the prepositions. If you are unsure, try looking up the word distance in a dictionary. 1 2 3 4

The car was parked at a distance about 150 metres from the scene of the robbery. I saw you the distance yesterday but didn’t call out as you were with someone. She’s a great shot. She can hit an empty can a distance of about 100 feet. What’s the total distance here Paris?

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55 A

Obligation, need, possibility and probability Obligation You will be liable /ˈlaɪəbl/ for any damage when you rent a car. [obliged to pay; fml/legalistic] The company is obliged to give a refund if the tour is cancelled. The bank robbers forced him at gunpoint to open the safe. We had no choice/alternative but to sell our house; we owed the bank £100,000. The death sentence is mandatory /ˈmændətəri/ for drugsmuggling in some countries. [automatic; there is no alternative] Was sport compulsory/obligatory at your school? No, it was optional. [you can choose] I am exempt from paying income tax as I’m a student. [free from obligation]

B

Need This plant is in need of water. (more formal than ‘needs/wants’) There’s a need for more discussion on the matter. [we feel a need; fml] There is a shortage of teachers. [there are not enough] She could not concentrate through lack of sleep. [she had none or not enough; fml] A car is an absolute necessity if you live in the countryside and there is no public transport. [something you must have] You just can’t do without one. [survive or live without] What are the requirements for a Master’s course in English? [things you must do or need]

C

Possibilities I’ve been given an opportunity to work in Berlin. [a real chance] Is there any chance/possibility you’ll be free next week? (chance is less formal than possibility) A rise in oil prices is inevitable as oil supplies run out across the world. [is certain to happen] It is doubtful whether the economy will improve next year. [it may not improve] It is probable that the next government will change the tax laws. Most scientists believe that climate change is no longer just a possibility but is now an absolute certainty.

Common mistakes The correct preposition after the noun need is for, not of. There is a need for more qualified teachers. (NOT There is a need of ...)

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English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 55.1

Match the sentence beginnings on the left with the endings on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6

55.2

The club closed down People could not heat their homes Most people cannot do There is a real need There is a list of requirements The whole house is in need

e

a b c d e f

of repairs and redecoration. for university entry on the website. because of the oil shortage. for better day care for young children. through lack of interest. without a mobile phone these days.

Continue the sentences using obligation words and phrases from A opposite with the words in brackets. 1 They were losing £10 million a year, so the company was forced/obliged to close down. (close down) 2 You don’t have to buy the travel insurance; it’s (extra charge) 3 You can borrow the camcorder, but you will (for any damage to it) 4 We’ll have to sell the house. I’m afraid we have (otherwise, bankrupt) 5 He didn’t want to give them the money, but they had guns; they (hand it over) 6 No, he couldn’t choose to pay a fine; a prison sentence is (for dangerous driving) 7 I didn’t want to do maths, but I had to. It’s (in all secondary schools) 8 If you’re unemployed, you’re

55.3

Answer the questions. 1 2 3 4 5

55.4

(paying tax)

If a fee or charge is mandatory, do you have to pay it or can you choose? You have to pay it. If an event is inevitable, how certain is it that it will happen? 20%, 50% or 100%? If a car is exempt from tax, how much tax do you have to pay for it? If an exam is optional, are you obliged to take it? If you are liable for something, is it your or someone else’s responsibility?

Rewrite the words in bold using expressions from the opposite page. 1 Most people consider that a mobile phone is not a luxury but something you absolutely must have. an absolute necessity / something you can't do without 2 I have been given a chance to work with a team of zoologists in East Africa. 3 Is there any chance that you will be free to join us at 4 pm tomorrow? 4 It’s not at all sure whether there will be any change in the situation in the near future. 5 It’s not just a possibility that food prices will go up, it’s absolutely certain to happen. 6 She will probably arrive tomorrow.

55.5

Over to you Name something which … 1 you think is inevitable. 2 there is a need for in your country. 3 was compulsory when you were at school. 4 you personally are in need of right now. 5 you own that you couldn’t do without. English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

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56 A

Sound and light General words to describe sound I could hear the sound of voices/music coming from the next room. (neutral) The noise of the traffic here is pretty bad. [loud, unpleasant sounds] The children are making a terrible racket upstairs. Could you go and tell them to be quiet? [very loud, unbearable noise, often of human activity; infml] Sound and noise can both be countable or uncountable. When they are of short duration or refer to different sounds/noises, they are countable. When they mean a lot of continual or continuous sounds, they are uncountable. I heard some strange sounds/noises in the night. (countable) I wish the children wouldn’t make so much noise when I’m working. (uncountable) The sound of the sea is very relaxing. (uncountable)

B

Sound words and things that typically make them All the words in this section can be used as nouns or verbs. I could hear the rain pattering on the roof. We heard the patter of a little child’s feet.

C

verb/noun

example(s) of what makes the sound

bang chime clang clatter crash hiss hum rattle ring roar /rO:/ rumble rustle /ˈrʌsəl/ screech thud

a door closing in the wind, a balloon bursting a big public clock on a building sounding the hour a big bell ringing, a hollow metal object being struck a metal pan falling onto a concrete floor a big, solid, heavy object falling onto a hard floor gas/steam escaping through a small hole an electrical appliance when switched on, e.g. computer, freezer small stones in a tin being shaken a small bell, a telephone noise of heavy traffic, noise of a huge waterfall distant noise of thunder, noise of traffic far away opening a paper/plastic bag, dry leaves underfoot a car’s tyres when the brakes are suddenly applied a heavy object falling onto a carpeted floor

Darkness Here are some adjectives for dark conditions. (For adjectives describing brightness, see Unit 59.) These brown walls are a bit gloomy. We should paint them white. This torch is getting a bit dim. I think it needs new batteries. It was a sombre /ˈsɒmbə/ room with dark, heavy curtains. [serious, imposing]

D

Types of light Note these collocations. A torch gives out a beam of light. A diamond ring sparkles. A camera gives a flash of light. Stars twinkle. A candle flame flickers in the breeze. White-hot coal on a fire glows. The sun shines and gives out rays of light. A gold object glitters.

Language help Many of the words relating to darkness and light can be used about people’s expressions too. Light suggests happiness and darkness suggests unhappiness. Kate’s face was glowing with pleasure. Dan looks very gloomy. Has he had some bad news? 118

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 56.1

Choose sound, noise(s) or racket to fill the gaps. You may use the words more than once. 1 I could sit and listen to the sound of the river all day. 2 There was a terrible outside the pub last night; it was a fight involving about six people. 3 My car’s making some strange . I’ll have to have it checked. 4 Oh! What an awful ! I think you should take up a different instrument; the violin’s just not for you! 5 I can’t sleep if there’s of any kind, so I use ear-plugs.

56.2

Using the table in B opposite, what sound do you think each of these might make? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

56.3

A bottle of sparkling mineral water being opened. hiss A box of saucepans being dropped down an iron staircase. A mouse moving among dead grass and leaves. A child falling over on a wooden floor. A starting gun for a sporting event. A train passing at high speed a few feet away from you. A slow train passing, heard through the walls of a house. A car coming to a halt very suddenly.

Choose the best word from the box to complete each sentence. Put it in the correct form. chime

clang

hum

patter

rattle

ring

I woke up when a small earth tremor rattled the cups on the table. I can hear my mobile - I think it must be at the bottom of my bag. It’s cosy indoors with the rain on the windows. We live in the country but can still always hear a of traffic from the road across the fields. 5 I couldn’t sleep last night and heard the clock on the town hall every hour. 6 Joe the metal gate behind him as he left the garden. 1 2 3 4

56.4

Pair up the sentences on the left with the ones on the right so they make sense.

b

1 I saw a beam of light coming towards me. 2 3 4 5

The jewels sparkled in the sunlight. The candle began to flicker uncertainly. The first rays of the sun shone into the room. She always wears rather sombre clothes.

6 We could see a dim shape in the fog.

56.5

a Then it died, leaving us in complete darkness. b It was a police officer holding a flashlamp. c But blacks and greys do suit her. d I’d never seen such a beautiful bracelet. e As we got nearer we realised it was a bush. f It was clearly time to get up.

Which do you think is the correct meaning of the underlined words in these sentences? 1 Her eyes were shining as she told me her news. a looked full of happiness b looked angry 2 Jessica glowed all through her pregnancy. a looked rather worried

b looked pale

a c looked afraid c looked very happy

3 She beamed at him. a smiled

b shouted

c attacked

4 He has a twinkle in his eyes. a a grain of sand b a sign of humour/enjoyment

c a sign of anger

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57 A

Possession and giving Possession All his possessions were destroyed in the terrible fire. [everything he owned] Don’t leave any of your belongings here; we’ve had a few thefts recently. [smaller things, e.g. bag, camera, coat; always plural] Estate in the singular can mean a big area of private land and the buildings on it, or all of someone’s wealth upon death. They live on a housing estate / an estate. [area containing a large number of houses or apartments built close together at the same time] She owns a huge estate in Scotland. [land, etc.] After his death, his estate was calculated at 10 million euros. [all his wealth] Property (uncountable) is used in a general sense for houses, land, etc. He’s only 14; he’s too young to own property. A property (countable) is a building (e.g. house, office block) or land. She owns some valuable properties in the town centre.

B

Words for people connected with ownership The proprietor /prəˈpraɪətə/ of this restaurant is a friend of mine. (used for shops, businesses, etc.; fml; owner is less formal) The landlord/landlady has put the rent up. [owner of rented property] Do you own this house? No, we’re just tenants. [we rent it] He inherited a big house in the country when his parents died. [became the owner after someone’s death]

C

Giving The river provides the village with water / provides water for the village. (or supplies) Jakes Ltd supplies our school with paper and other items. (often for ‘selling’ contexts) It gives me pleasure to present you with this gift from us all. His parents supported him while he was at college but now he’s independent. The school restaurant caters for 500 people every day. [looks after the needs of] That uncle of mine that died left £3,000 to an animal shelter. When she died she donated all her books to the library. (for large gifts to institutions) I’m running a marathon next week for a cancer charity. Will you sponsor me? [give money if I complete the race]

D

Phrasal verbs connected with giving

Would you like to contribute/donate something to the children’s hospital fund?

You’ve been allocated room 24. Here’s your key.

When I left the job I had to hand over the keys to my office to the new person. I didn’t really want to let go of my bike but I had no money so I had to sell it. The people from the charity handed out / gave out stickers for everyone to wear. [distributed] I had a banjo once, but I gave it away. [gave it free to someone] This vase has been handed down from generation to generation in my family.

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Exercises 57.1

Complete the missing words from A opposite. 1 2 3 4 5 6

57.2

The verbs in the middle column have been jumbled. Put them in the right sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

57.3

A millionaire The director was My mother’s cousin A farmer nearby When I retired they The restaurant My parents The oldest son

inherited supported donated catered left allocated presented supplied

donated

his entire library to the school. the best parking place. me £5,000 in her will. us with logs for the fire. me with a camera. for vegetarians. me when I was out of work. the house when his father died.

What questions using words from B and C opposite do you think were asked to get these answers? 1 2 3 4 5 6

57.4

He became a multi-millionaire and bought a huge estate in the country. Some of the p in this street have sold for more than five million euros this year. I left some of my b in the changing room at the gym and they were stolen. On his death, Mr Carson’s e was valued at £400,000. She sold all her p and travelled around the world for a year. It’s often difficult for young couples to buy p and they have to rent a place instead.

Are you the owner/proprietor of this restaurant?

No, I’m not the owner. I just work here as a waiter.

? Yes, he became the owner when his aunt died. It’s a massive house. ? OK, I’ll give you one euro for every kilometre you run. ? Yes, that’s right. I pay rent every month. ? Actually, I’ve already given something. Sorry. ? No, I’m sorry, we don’t. You have to buy your own pens and exercise books.

The rise and fall of Mr Fatcatt - a sad story. Fill the gaps with suitable words from the opposite page.

properties in the city when prices were low. Toby Fatcatt began his career by buying old 1 Soon he was one of the biggest private 2 in the city, with around 1,000 3 renting houses and flats from him. He was also the 4 of 5 many shops and businesses. He became very rich and bought himself a huge in Scotland, but then there was an economic crisis and he had to sell all his 6 and 7 - everything. He was left with just a few personal 8 and finally died penniless. 57.5

Over to you Think of something that … 1 you would hand over to a mugger if threatened. 2 has been handed down in your family. 3 you have given away at some time in your life. 4 is often given out in classrooms. 5 you value and would not want to let go of. English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

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58 A

Movement and speed Particular types of movement Move is the basic verb for all movement, but don’t forget it also means ‘to move to a new house/flat’, e.g. We’ve moved. Do you want our new address? Cars, lorries, etc. travel/drive along roads. Trains travel along rails. Boats/ships sail on rivers / across the sea. Rivers/streams flow/run through towns/villages. Things often have particular verbs associated with their types of movement. You should learn these as typical collocations when you meet them, and record them with a phrase or sentence, for example: The car swerved /swɜːvd / to avoid a dog which had run into the road. [moved suddenly to the side] White clouds drifted across the sky. [moved slowly] The flag fluttered in the wind. [moved gently from side to side] The leaves stirred /stɜːd/ in the light breeze. [moved slightly] The trees swayed back and forth as the wind grew stronger. [moved slowly from side to side]

B

Verbs to describe fast and slow movement The traffic was crawling along because of the roadworks. [moving very slowly] Stop dawdling! /ˈdɔːdlɪŋ/ We’ll be late! [moving more slowly than is necessary] Suddenly a car came round the bend and tore along the road at high speed. Seconds later, a police car shot past after it. Everyone was hurrying/rushing to get their shopping done before closing time. The train was just creeping along at about 20 miles per hour. I knew we’d be late. [moving very slowly] The donkey was plodding along the road. [plodding suggests heavy, often tired, movement] The plane was cruising at a height of 30,000 metres. [travelling at a steady speed]

C

Nouns to describe speed and their typical contexts speed is a general word used for vehicles, developments, changes, etc., e.g. We were travelling at high speed. rate is often used in statistical contexts; the rate of increase/decrease, e.g. The birth rate is going down. pace shows how you experience something as happening fast or slow, e.g. The lesson was going at a very slow pace. velocity /vəˈlɒsɪti / is used in technical/scientific contexts, e.g. The velocity of a moving object.

Common mistakes We say at a speed/rate/pace. (NOT in or with a speed/rate/pace) The train was travelling at a speed of 120 kph. (NOT The train was travelling with a speed of 120 kph.)

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Exercises 58.1

Pair up the sentences on the left with the ones on the right so they make sense. 1 That tree was swaying back and forth in the wind. 2 The cruise liner is leaving tomorrow. 3 A cat ran out in front of my car.

c

a It sails at dawn. b It flows through the capital city. c It was moving so much I thought it would break altogether. d It was travelling at 160 kph at the time.

4 The most famous river in France is the Seine. 5 A train came off the rails yesterday.

58.2

What other things do you think could be described by each verb apart from the contexts given opposite? Use a dictionary, if necessary. 1 2 3 4 5

58.3

e I had to swerve hard and nearly ended up in the river.

sway: a tree, crawl: traffic, shoot: a car, flutter: a flag, drift: a cloud,

someone dancing, someone walking on a ship in a rough sea, someone who's drunk

Fill the gaps with speed, rate, pace or velocity. Use the guidelines opposite to help you. 1 The rate of decline in this species is alarming. 2 I just couldn’t stand the of life in the city, so I moved to a small village. 3 The teacher asked the students to calculate the of a series of objects dropped from a specific height. 4 A: What were you doing at the time? B: Oh, about 60 kph, I’d say. 5 The company is showing an impressive of growth.

58.4

Correct the error in each sentence. 1 2 3 4 5

58.5

crept

Pierre creeped down the stairs making as little noise as possible. We were making progress but only in a very slow pace. The baby stired but didn’t wake up. The old man swerved a little but didn’t fall over. Trains can travel with a much faster speed than buses.

Use a dictionary to make notes to help you learn the difference between these near synonyms. Make notes under the headings usage and grammar, as in the example. fast

usage

grammar

e.g. fast car / fast train - refers to speed

adjective and adverb - 'she drove fast'

quick rapid swift

58.6

Over to you In what situations might you … 1 tear out of the house? 2 deliberately dawdle? 3 plod along at a steady pace?

4 not even dare to stir? 5 shoot past someone’s office/room? 6 creep around the house?

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59 A

Texture, brightness, weight and density Texture - how something feels when you touch it adjective

typical examples

smooth /smuːð/ polished silky slippery furry /ˈfɜːri/ rough /rʌf/ coarse /kɔːs/ jagged /ˈʤægɪd/ prickly

the paper in this book varnished wood; a shiny metal surface silk itself; fine, expensive tights or stockings a fish just out of the water a thick sheepskin rug new, unwashed denim jeans; bark of a tree sand sharp, irregular edges of broken glass or metal a thistle; a cactus; thorns on a rose

Your hair has a silky feel. This cotton is very smooth to the touch. The table had a beautiful polished surface. /ˈsɜːfɪs/ The ground was rough underfoot.

B

Brightness

a shady corner of the garden

carnival costumes full of vivid colours

shiny leather shoes

a dazzling light

You wear such dull colours - why don’t you start wearing bright colours for a change? The light’s too dim to read in here. We need another lamp. I wear sunglasses when I drive because of the glare of the sun.

C

Density and weight A solid ≠ hollow object. She has thick ≠ thin/fine hair. An area with dense ≠ sparse vegetation. Your bag’s as light as a feather! Have you brought enough clothes? Your bag’s as heavy as lead! What’s in it? Bricks? This suitcase is very bulky/cumbersome. /ˈkʌmbəsəm/ [difficult, big and heavy]

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Exercises 59.1

Which adjectives from A opposite could describe the texture of these things? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

59.2

A new cotton T-shirt. smooth Heavy, stone-ground wholemeal flour. A wet bar of soap. The branches of a rose bush. A gravel pathway. The inside of a pair of sheepskin gloves. The edge of a piece of broken, rusty metal. The surface of a mirror. A silk scarf. An empty sack.

Rewrite the sentences. Look at the words in bold and follow the instructions in brackets. 1 The material felt metallic. (change to noun) The material had a metallic feel. 2 The cloth was rough when you touched it. (change to noun) 3 We sat in a part of the garden where there was shade. (change to adjective) 4 Suddenly there was a light which dazzled everyone. (change to adjective) 5 The ground was very wet under our feet. (change to adverb) 6 My suitcase weighs very little. (use feather)

59.3

Match the sentence beginnings on the left with the endings on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6

59.4

e

a b c d e f

which was hollow. which was absolutely solid. which was as heavy as lead. which was very vivid. which was very dense. which was very sparse.

What could you do if … 1 2 3 4 5

59.5

We walked through the jungle vegetation, We found it inside an old tree, We loved the new colour, We examined the desert vegetation, We tried to drill into the rock, We couldn’t lift the box,

your reading lamp was rather dim? get a brighter one you were fed up with the dull colour of the walls in your room? you found the glare of the sun uncomfortable? you wanted your shoes to be shiny? your rucksack was too bulky or cumbersome?

Over to you Look round your own home and find … 1 something soft to the touch. 2 something rough underfoot.

4 something furry. 5 something smooth.

3 something with a polished surface.

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60 A

Success, failure and difficulty Succeeding We succeeded in persuading a lot of people to join our protest. (in + -ing) I managed to contact him just before he left his office. I don’t think I can manage the whole walk. I think I’ll turn back. (manage, but not succeed; may have a direct object in this meaning) We’ve achieved /@'tSi:vd/ / accomplished /əˈkɒmplɪʃt/ a great deal in the last year. (both are used with quantity phrases such as ‘a lot’ and ‘a little’; accomplish is rather formal) The company has achieved all its goals/aims/targets for this year. (achieve is more common than accomplish with nouns expressing goals and ambitions) Do you think his plan will come off? [succeed; infml] Here is a matrix for some typical collocations with ‘succeeding’ verbs: reach

an ambition a dream an agreement an obligation a target a compromise

B

attain

secure

✓ ✓

realise

fulfil

achieve

✓ ✓

✓ ✓

✓ ✓

✓ ✓

Failing and difficulty Plans and projects sometimes go wrong / backfire. [don’t go as intended] Companies, clubs and societies often fold / go under through lack of success. [close down; go under is informal] A plan or project may falter /ˈfɒltə/, even if it finally succeeds. [have ups and downs] All your plans and hard work / efforts may come to nothing. I have great difficulty (in) getting up in the morning. I find it difficult to remember the names of everybody in the class. (hard can also be used here; it is more informal) It’s hard/difficult to hear what she’s saying. I often have trouble starting the car on cold mornings. (more informal) We’ve had a lot of bother with the neighbours lately. (very informal) Can you cope with three more students? They’ve just arrived. [deal successfully with a difficult situation] I’ve got no money and my girlfriend’s left me. I need help; I can’t cope any more.

C

Word formation verb

noun

adjective

adverb

succeed accomplish achieve attain fulfil harden

success accomplishment achievement attainment fulfilment hardness

successful accomplished achievable attainable fulfilling hard

successfully hard

Common mistakes Izzy had great difficulty finding somewhere to live in London. (NOT difficulties) Paul had considerable success with his first novel. (NOT successes)

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Exercises 60.1

Choose a suitable verb to fill the gaps. If the exact word in the sentence is not in the vertical column of the matrix on the opposite page, look for something that is close in meaning. More than one verb is often possible. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

60.2

The management have reached a no-strike agreement with the union. Now I’ve all my family responsibilities, I can retire and travel the world. The school building fund has failed to its target of £250,000. I never thought I would my ambition, but now I have. Very few people all their hopes and dreams in life. We hope the two sides a compromise and avoid war. I’m afraid that little plan of mine didn’t off.

Fill in the missing word forms where they exist. verb

noun

realise

realisation

adjective

difficulty target fail trouble

60.3

Correct the mistakes in these sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

60.4

it

I find very difficult to understand English idioms. She succeeded to rise to the top of her profession. Do you ever have any trouble to use this photocopier? I always seem to. I’ve accomplished to work quite hard this last month. I’m amazed that you can cope all the work they give you. Did you have many difficulties finding the book in the library? Unfortunately, it seems as if all Johnny’s plans have come at nothing. I’m afraid I haven’t had any successes in contacting Lara today.

In what sorts of situations would you hear the following remarks? 1 We’ll have to get an au pair. I just can’t cope.

You would probably hear it from a parent who is finding it too difficult to combine work and family life.

2 I can’t believe it — £5,000. The company folded and now I’ve got nothing to show for it!

5 Yes, her plan came off even though the odds were really against her.

4 You can’t manage all that. Let me help you.

60.5

3 It went under, I’m afraid, and he’s bankrupt now.

Over to you What would you do if … 1 you were having a lot of bother with your car? 2 you started a small business but it came to nothing? 3 you couldn’t cope with your English studies? English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

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61 A

Time: connecting words and expressions One thing before another I had written to her prior to meeting the committee. (formal/written style) It was nice to be in Venice. Previously I’d only been to Rome. (fairly formal, more informal would be Before that, I …) I was in the office from 2.30. I was out earlier on. [before then; fairly informal] The street is now called Treetop Avenue. Formerly it was Hedge Lane. (fairly formal, typically written; used when something has changed its name, state, etc.) Dinner will be ready in about an hour. In the meantime / Meanwhile, relax and have a drink. [between now and the time of the meal]

B

Things happening at the same time She was entering (at) the very time / the very moment I was leaving. (these two are stronger and more precise than as or just as) The two events happened simultaneously. [started and ended at exactly the same time] During the war, she lived in Dublin. Throughout the war, they remained in the city.

Language help During does not specify how long within a period of time. Throughout means from the beginning to the end of a period of time.

C

One thing after another Read this personal statement by someone hoping to work for an international corporation in China. The words in bold are rather formal. Following1 my first visit to Beijing, I read several books about China and subsequently2 decided to take a six-month course in Mandarin Chinese. I revisited China on several occasions thereafter3 and now feel that I have a good knowledge of the country and its culture. 1 after

2 at some time after that

3 after finishing the course

Note also immediate (adjective), e.g. The government removed the price regulations and the immediate result was a 10% price rise. [which happened at once]

D

Time when The moment / The minute I saw his face I knew I’d met him before. I stayed in that hospital the time (that) I broke my leg. I met Paula at Mark’s wedding. On that occasion she was with a different man. (more formal)

E

Non-specific time expressions We can discuss the budget now. At a later stage we can discuss the detailed arrangements. At some point we will have to replace our computers, but we’re OK for the moment. [at an unspecified time in the future]

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Exercises 61.1

Look at these pages from the personal diary of Laura, a businesswoman who travels a lot, and then do the exercise.

Mon 12

Paris – day 5 – Pompidou Centre then theatre.

Up early. Said goodbye to Nick and left. Saw bad accident on motorway.

Fri 16

Tue 13

Been away 6 days! Paris OK, but miss home.

Answered all the emails, then felt I could watch TV!

Sat 17

Wed 14

Left Paris 10 am. Huge pile of emails waiting!

Lots of phone calls - Kate, Ellie and George all in a row! Lazy day!

Sun 18

Thu 15

Manchester, then Glasgow. Met Manuela at Nick’s.

Book tickets for Dublin 24th

Notes

Fill the gaps with time expressions from A and B opposite. You are given the first letter. 1 Prior to going to Manchester, Laura was in Paris. 2 Her next trip after Glasgow is to Dublin on the 24th. I t m , she can relax at home. 3 She was away for a week. S , she had lots of emails to deal with. 4 She was in Glasgow on the 15th. E o , she had been in Manchester. 5 She went to the theatre in Paris on Monday. P t that, she had been to the Pompidou Centre. 6 F her visit to Nick, she saw a bad accident on the motorway. 7 On Sunday, she had a lot of phone calls d the day. 8 The m she put the phone down it rang again. This time it was George.

61.2

Rewrite the words in bold using words or phrases from opposite. 1 2 3 4

61.3

I emailed James and got a reply straight away. an immediate reply I will contact you at a time I can’t specify to arrange to get together to discuss things. The two committees were meeting at exactly the same time. I was living in Budapest when I was offered the job in Paris.

Read the comments and then answer the questions.

Gunilla ‘I was in Oslo throughout the summer. Josep visited me during that time.’ 1 2 3 4 5 6

61.4

Edward ‘I was in Athens for a week, then in Rome for two weeks thereafter.’

Kim ‘At the very time I was in Rome, Edward was in Rome.’

Liba ‘I was in Athens in October, but I didn’t see Edward on that occasion.’

Josep ‘I visited Hamburg; at a later stage I went to Berlin.’

Which two people were in the same place at the same time? Kim and Edward Did Liba see Edward when she was in Athens? Yes/No Did Gunilla spend part of the summer or all summer in Oslo? Where did Josep go first – Berlin or Hamburg? How many weeks in total did Edward spend in Athens and Rome? Did Josep spend the whole summer in Oslo or probably just part of it?

Over to you Complete the sentences so they are true for you. 1 The moment I wake up, I

3 I’m doing vocabulary right now. Earlier on, I was

2 Throughout my childhood I

4 Prior to going on holiday, I always

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129

62 Condition A

Words connecting sentence parts In addition to if, there are several other words and phrases for expressing condition.

1 You can’t come in unless you have a ticket. [… if you do not have a ticket]

2 You can borrow the bike on condition that you return it by five o’clock.

3 In case of fire, dial 112. [When there is …; usually seen on notices; you can also say in the event of] 4 You can stay, as/so long as you don’t mind sleeping on the sofa. (as long as is less formal than so long as and less formal and not so strong as on condition that) 5 Provided/Providing you don’t mind cats, you can stay with us. (providing (that) or provided (that) can also be used in examples 2 and 4; they are less formal and not so strong as on condition that but stronger and more restricting than as/so long as)

Language help Don’t confuse in case of with in case. Take your umbrella in case it rains means ‘It isn’t raining but it might rain.’

B

Supposing ... and What if ... Note the use of supposing and what if (both usually found in spoken language) for possible situations in the future. What if is more direct. Mick: Ethan’s coming tomorrow. He’ll help us. Alice: Supposing / What if he doesn’t turn up - what shall we do then?

C

Conditions with -ever The -ever su ix means ‘it does not matter which …’. The stress is normally on ever.

What’s the best way to travel in your country? However you decide to travel in this country, it’ll cost you a lot of money. For example, you’ll end up paying at least 70 euros, whichever means of transport you take from the airport to the city centre - train or bus. Public transport is expensive wherever you go here. Whoever wins the next election should try to lower fares. These sentences can also be expressed using no matter. Note the stress. No matter how you decide to travel in this country, it will cost you a lot of money. No matter who wins the next election, they should try to lower fares.

Common mistakes With the condition phrases in A, B and C the present tense is used in the conditional clause. Take a jacket in case it gets cold later on. (NOT Take a jacket in case it will get cold later on.)

D

Some nouns which express condition Certain conditions must be met before the peace talks can begin. (rather formal) A good standard of English is a prerequisite /priːˈrekwɪzɪt/ for studying at a British university. [absolutely necessary; very formal] What are the entry requirements /rəˈkwaɪəmənts/ for doing a diploma in Management at your college? [o icial conditions; rather formal] I would not move to London under any circumstances. (fairly formal)

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English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 62.1

Fill the gaps with a suitable word or phrase from A and B opposite. 1 You can come to the party as long as you don’t bring that awful friend of yours. 2 emergency in the machine room, sound the alarm and notify the supervisor at once. 3 I hear from you, I’ll assume you are coming. 4 A person may take the driving test again they have not already taken a test within the previous 14 days. 5 I lent you my car, would that help?

62.2

Change the sentences with -ever to no matter, and vice versa. 1 Wherever she goes, she always takes that dog of hers.

No matter where she goes, she always takes that dog of hers.

2 If anyone rings, I don’t want to speak to them, no matter who it is. 3 No matter what I do, I always seem to do the wrong thing. 4 It’ll probably have meat in it, whichever dish you choose. They don’t cater for vegetarians here. 5 No matter how I do it, that recipe never seems to work. 6 However hard you try, you’ll never be able to do it all on your own.

62.3

The pictures show conditions that must be met to do certain things. Make different sentences using words and phrases from the opposite page. EXAMPLE 1 You can have a passenger on a motorbike provided they wear a helmet. / Unless you wear a helmet,

you can't ride on a motorbike.

1

2

4

62.4

3

6

5

Over to you What would your answers be to these questions? 1 Are there any prerequisites for the job you do or would like to do in the future? 2 Under what circumstances would you move from where you’re living at the moment? 3 What are the normal entry requirements for university in your country? 4 On what condition would you lend a friend your house/flat?

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63 A

Cause, reason, purpose and result Cause and reason You probably know how to use words like because, since and as to refer to the cause of or reason for something. Here are some other ways to express cause and reason: The collision was due to the icy conditions. The collision was caused by ice on the road. The cause of the collision was ice on the road. The heavy rain caused the river to flood. Owing to the icy conditions, the two cars collided.

Language help If you use owing to with a clause, you must follow it with the fact that. In this example, the clause is underlined. Owing to the fact that the conditions were icy, the two cars collided. (NOT Owing to the conditions were icy, …)

Here are some other ‘cause’ words and typical contexts. They are all rather formal, and more suitable for written use. The rise in prices sparked (off) a lot of political protest. (often used for very strong, perhaps violent, reactions to events) The President’s statement gave rise to / provoked / generated a lot of criticism. (slightly less strong than spark (off)) The new law has brought about / led to great changes in education. (often used for political/social change) This problem stems from the inflation of recent years. (explaining the direct origins of events and states) The court case arose from / out of allegations made in a newspaper. (the allegations started the process that led to the court case)

B

Reasons for and purposes of doing things Her reason for not going with us was that she had no money. or The reason (why) she didn’t go with us was that … (less formal) The following sentences are all fairly formal, and more frequent in written English: I wonder what his motives were in sending that email? (purpose) I wonder what prompted her to send that message? (reason/cause) She wrote to the press with the aim of exposing the scandal. (purpose) I’ve invited you here with a view to resolving our differences. (sounds a bit more indirect than with the aim of) He refused to answer on the grounds that his lawyer wasn’t there. (reason) The purpose of her visit was to inspect the equipment.

C

Results Most of these expressions are fairly formal, and more frequent in written English: He did no work. As a result / As a consequence / Consequently, he failed his exams. The result/consequence of all these changes is that no one is happy any more. The examples with consequence/consequently sound more formal than result. His remarks resulted in everyone getting angry. (verb + in) The events had an outcome that no one could have predicted. [result of a process or events, or of meetings, discussions, etc.] The upshot of all these problems was that we had to start again. (less formal than outcome) When the election results were announced, chaos ensued. (very formal)

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Exercises 63.1

Make two sentences into one using the ‘reason and purpose’ words in brackets. Look at B opposite if you aren’t sure. 1 There was a controversial decision. She wrote to the local newspaper to protest. (prompt) 2 3 4 5 6

63.2

The controversial decision prompted her to write to the local newspaper to protest.

I didn’t contact you. I’d lost your phone number. (reason) I will not sign. This contract is illegal. (grounds) The government passed a new law. It was in order to control prices. (aim) She sent everyone flowers. I wonder why? (motives) The salary was high. She applied for the job. (prompt)

Make full sentences using ‘cause and reason’ words from A opposite. 1 closure of 20 mines → strikes in coal industry 2 3 4 5 6 7

63.3

The announcement of higher taxes → a strong attack from the opposition The new Act of Parliament → great changes in industry The failure of the electrical system → the train crash A violent storm → the wall collapsed Food shortages → serious riots in several cities The food shortages → bad economic policies

Fill in the missing prepositions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

63.4

The closure of 20 mines sparked (off) strikes in the coal industry.

My reasons for not joining the club are personal. The purpose this pedal is to control the speed. I came here the aim resolving our dispute. His stupidity has resulted everyone having to do more work. All this arose one small mistake we made. It was done a view lowering inflation. That press article has given rise a lot of criticism.

Use the pictures to describe the causes and results of events in different ways.

1 … the road was blocked. There was heavy

2 … everyone got a refund.

3 … the customers got angry.

4 … we had to walk home.

snow, which caused the road to be blocked.

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133

64 A

Concession and contrast Verbs of concession Concession means accepting one part of an idea or fact, but putting another, more important argument or fact against it. It can be expressed with a conjunction, e.g. Although they were poor, they were independent, or an adverb, e.g. He is a bit stupid. He’s very kind, nevertheless, or through verbs like those in the table below.

B

example

paraphrase and comments

I acknowledge/accept that he has worked hard but it isn’t enough. I admit I was wrong, but I still think we were right to doubt her. I concede that you are right about the goal, but not the method.

I agree but … (accept is less formal than acknowledge) I accept I’m guilty of what I’m accused of. You have won this point in our argument. (rather formal, used in debates/arguments)

Adverbs and other phrases showing contrast These examples are fairly informal: OK, you’re sorry. That’s all well and good / That’s all very well, but how are you going to pay us back? You shouldn’t seem so surprised. After all, I did warn you. It’s all very well saying you love dogs, but who will take it for walks if we do get one? He is boring, and he is rather cold and unfriendly, but, for all that, he is your uncle and we should invite him. These examples are more formal: Admittedly, she put a lot of effort in, but it was all wasted. I thought she didn’t like me. In fact, the reverse was true. In Europe they use metric measurements. In contrast, the USA still uses many non-metric measurements. It’s not actually raining now. On the other hand, it may rain later, so take the umbrella.

C

We’re not almost there at all. Quite the opposite: we’ve got five miles to go yet.

Collocating phrases for contrast When it comes to politics, Jamie and Isla are poles apart. There’s a world of difference between being a friend and a lover. There’s a great divide between city residents and people who live in the country. A yawning gap divides the rich and poor in many countries. There’s a huge discrepancy between his ideals and his actions.

Language help On the other hand means ‘that is true and this is also true if we look at it from a different viewpoint’, e.g. Life in the country is nice and quiet. On the other hand, you have to go a long way to get to the shops. On the contrary is a rather formal expression which means ‘that is not true; the opposite is true’, e.g. A: You must be pleased with your exam results. B: On the contrary, I thought they would be much better.

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Exercises 64.1

Rewrite these sentences using the most likely verb from A opposite (there is usually more than one possibility). 1 I know that you weren’t solely to blame, but you must take some responsibility.

I accept that you weren't solely to blame but you must take some responsibility.

2 OK, OK, I was wrong, you were right; he is a nice guy. 3 The company is prepared to accept that you have suffered some delay, but we do not accept liability. 4 She didn’t deny that we had done all we could, but she was still not content.

64.2

Complete the sentences with phrases from B opposite. 1 OK, you’ve cleaned the kitchen; that's all very well , but what about the dining room?

4

64.3

2 No need to panic. doesn’t start till six.

, it

3 She’s bossy and sly, but , she is a friend.

5 I know you’ve been very busy preparing for the school concert. , but you still mustn’t neglect your homework.

saying you’ll pay me back soon; when is what I want to know!

Use the word in brackets in an appropriate collocation to make comments on these statements. 1 Some people believe in nuclear weapons, some in world disarmament. (divide) 2 3 4 5

64.4

She says one thing. She does quite the opposite. (discrepancy) Toby believes in saving as much as possible. Catalina prefers to spend all the money they earn. (poles) Being a student’s one thing; being a teacher’s quite another. (world) People in the north of the country have a totally different standard of living from those in the south. (gap)

Write a sentence before each of these sentences. 1 2 3 4 5

64.5

There's a great divide between those who believe in nuclear weapons, and those who believe in world disarmament.

I expected Lydia to be tall and dark. should rent it. increasing yearly.

The reverse was true; she was short, with fair hair. On the other hand, it does have a big garden, so I think we On the contrary, the number of cars on the road is In contrast, in Britain you drive on the lef. Quite the opposite; I feel quite full. I had a huge breakfast.

Choose between on the other hand and on the contrary and explain what the speaker means. 1 2 3 4 5 6

, I feel quite calm. It's not true that I'm worried. I’m not worried; on the contrary It’s expensive, but , we do need it. In some ways I’d like to change my job, but , I’d miss all my colleagues. I don’t think he’s lazy; , he puts in a great deal of effort. She doesn’t speak Japanese well; , she only knows a couple of phrases. This hotel looks very attractive; , it’s more expensive than the first one we looked at.

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135

65 A

Addition Expressions for linking sentences/clauses sentence/clause 1

and

sentence/clause 2

For this job you need a degree.

In addition, Additionally,

you need at least two years’ experience.

Smartphones are becoming more sophisticated.

Furthermore, Moreover, What’s more*,

they are becoming cheaper.

Children should respect their parents.

Equally, Likewise,

they should respect their teachers.

We’ll have all the stress of going to court and giving evidence.

On top of (all) that**,

we’ll have to pay the lawyers’ bills.

* furthermore and moreover are normally interchangeable, and are both rather formal; what’s more is informal; what is more is rather formal. ** emphatic: used mostly in informal spoken English.

You can also use plus, e.g. To keep fit you need a good diet plus (you need) regular exercise. (normally used to connect noun phrases, but can connect clauses in informal speech)

B

Expressions at the end of sentences/clauses They sell chairs, tables, beds, and so on /etˈsetrə/. (and so on is more informal than etc.) It’ll go to the committee, then to the board, then to another committee, and so on and so forth. [suggests a long continuation; infml] He was a good sportsman and an excellent musician into the bargain / to boot. [emphasises the combination of items; infml]

C

Expressions that begin, or come in the middle of, sentences/clauses Further to my telephone call to you yesterday, I am now writing to … (formal opening for a letter or email) In addition to winning the gold medal, she also broke the world record. In addition to his BA in History, he has a PhD in Sociology. (fairly formal) Alongside her full-time job as a dentist, she does voluntary conservation work at weekends. I have to go to the bank today, as well as getting my hair cut. Besides / Apart from having a salary, he also has a private income. Apart from her many other hobbies, she restores old racing cars. Jo Evans was there, along with / together with a few other people who I didn’t know.

Language help The words and expressions in C are followed by nouns, noun phrases, or a verb plus -ing, e.g. As well as speaking Japanese, she also speaks French. (NOT As well as she speaks Japanese, she also speaks French.)

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Exercises 65.1

Fill in the gaps in this email with suitable addition words and phrases. Try to do it without looking at the opposite page.

Dear Mrs Coldstream, 1

Further to

my letter of 16 March, I should like to give you more information concerning my qualifications and experience. 2 holding a Diploma in Catering, I also have an Advanced Certificate in Hotel Management. The course covered the usual areas: finance, front services, publicity, space allocation 3 . I also wish to point out that 4 holding these qualifications, I have now been working in the hotel trade for five years. 5 , my experience prior to that was also connected with tourism and hospitality. I hope you will give my application due consideration. Yours sincerely, Gemma Weaver

65.2

Rewrite the sentences using the word or phrase in brackets at the end. 1 Physical labour can exhaust the body very quickly. Excessive study can rapidly reduce mental powers too. (equally) Physical labour can exhaust the body very quickly. Equally, excessive study can rapidly reduce mental 2 3 4 5 6

65.3

My cousin turned up and some schoolmates of his came with him. (along with) He owns a big chemical factory and he runs a massive oil business in the USA. (as well as) I’m their scientific adviser and act as a consultant to the Managing Director. (addition) It was raining and getting dark. We also had very little petrol left in the tank. (top) He’s a very good singer. He has a degree in music. (more)

Correct the mistakes in the use of addition words and phrases in these sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

65.4

powers.

being

I work part-time as well as I am a student, so I have a busy life. Besides to have a good job, my ambition is to meet someone nice to share my life with. Alongside I have many other responsibilities, I now have to be in charge of staff training. In addition has a degree, she also has a diploma. Likewise my father won’t agree, my mother’s sure to find something to object to. To boot she’s a good footballer, she’s a good athlete. He said he’d have to first consider the organisation, then the system, then the finance and so forth so on.

What addition words/phrases can you associate with these pictures?

1 to

65.5

boot

2 into the

3 in

4 on

Rewrite this text using alternatives to ‘and’ and the words in bold and as many expressions from the opposite page as possible.

plus

To become a successful athlete you will need to be fit and you will need to train hard every day. And you will need a very special type of determination and stamina. And you will need support from friends and family, financial support and other things. And a good coach will help a great deal, motivating you and setting goals for you. And with all those other things you will need that indefinable thing: talent.

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66 A

Referring words Text-referring words Text-referring words take their meaning from the surrounding text. For example, this sentence in isolation does not mean much: ‘We decided to look at the problem again and try to find a solution.’ What problem? The words problem and solution help organise the argument of the text, but they do not tell us the topic of the text. They refer to something somewhere else. Here are some examples. The word in bold refers to the underlined words. Pollution is increasing. The problem is getting worse each day. Should taxes be raised or lowered? This was the biggest issue in the election. [topic causing great argument and controversy] Whether the war could have been avoided is a question that interests historians. Let’s discuss crime. That’s always an interesting topic. [subject to argue about or discuss, e.g. in a debate or in an essay] Punishment is only one aspect of crime. [part of the topic]

B

Problem-solution words Text-referring words are often used with ‘problem-solution’ types of text, where a problem is presented and ways of solving it are discussed. In the following example, the words in bold concern a problem or a solution. Try to learn these words as a family. The situation in our cities with regard to traffic is going from bad to worse. Congestion is a daily feature of urban life. The problem is now beginning to affect our national

economies. Unless a new approach is found to control traffic, we will never find a solution to the dilemma.

In the dialogue below, two politicians are arguing. Note how the words in bold refer to parts of the argument. A: Your claim that we’re doing nothing to invest in industry is false. We invested £10 billion last year. You’ve ignored this fact. A: That argument is out-ofdate in a modern technological society. Our position has always been that we should encourage technology.

B: But the investment has all gone to service industries. The real point is that we need to invest in our manufacturing industries.

B: But that view won’t help to reduce unemployment.

The following problem-solution words are grouped in families associated with the underlined key words. The prepositions normally used with them are given in brackets. situation: state of affairs, position (with regard to) problem: difficulty (more formal), crisis, matter response (to): reaction (to), attitude (to), approach (to) solution: answer (to), resolution (to), key (to), way out (of ) evaluation (of the solution): assessment, judgment

Economically, the government is in a critical position. This state of affairs is partly a result of the financial difficulties currently being experienced globally. Our government’s initial response to the 138

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

situation was to impose higher taxes. This approach has not proved to be the solution to the problem. Economists’ current assessment is that this may in fact be making matters worse.

Exercises 66.1

Match the sentences on the left with a suitable label on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6

66.2

The earth is in orbit around the sun. It has proved to be most efficient. People are essentially good. I’ve run out of cash. World poverty and overpopulation. They should get married, to my mind.

c

a problem b evaluation c fact d belief e view f issue

Fill the gaps with an appropriate word to refer to the underlined parts of the sentences. So you were talking about animal rights? That’s quite a big issue nowadays. We are running out of funds. How do you propose we should deal with the ? Is there life on other planets? This is a nobody has yet been able to answer. (teacher to the class) You can write your essay on ‘My best holiday ever’. If you don’t like that , I’ll give you another one. 5 She thinks we should all fly around in tiny little helicopters. This to the traffic problem in cities is rather new and unusual. I wonder if it is viable? 1 2 3 4

66.3

These newspaper headlines have been separated from their texts. Put each one with a suitable text extract.

a NEW APPROACH TO

b NEW ARGUMENT OVER

CANCER TREATMENT

ECONOMIC RECESSION

d PRIME MINISTER SETS OUT

VIEWS ON NATO 1 she said if the world community failed to respond, thousands of children could die

c SCIENTIST REJECTS

CLAIMS OVER FAST FOOD

e SOLUTION TO AGE-OLD

f SITUATION IN SAHEL

MYSTERY IN KENYA

WORSENING DAILY

2 tests were being carried out to see if the new drug really did work

3 there was no proof at all that such things were harmful, and in

5 also said that he believed that most people had a similar vision of

6 the Minister denied that this was true and said instead that the evidence pointed to

f 4 the bones proved beyond doubt that human beings had inhabited the region during

66.4

Over to you 1 What aspect of your work/studies do you find most interesting? 2 Have you ever faced a dilemma? What was it? What was your response to the situation? 3 Can you think of an argument in favour of single-sex schools and an argument against? What are your own views on this issue? 4 What would you say is the main problem facing your country at the moment? Can you suggest a solution to this problem?

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139

67 A

Discourse markers in spoken English What are discourse markers? Discourse markers are expressions which organise, comment on or in some way frame what we are saying. An example is well. A: So you live in Boston? B: Well, near Boston. Well here shows that the speaker is aware he/she is changing the direction of the conversation in some way (not giving the expected ‘yes’ answer). Another example is how teachers use words like Right and OK to organise what is happening in a classroom: Right/OK, let’s have a look at exercise 3.

B

Organising a conversation Here are some common expressions which organise the different stages of a conversation. Now, what shall we do next? So, would you like to come to the table now, please? Good, I’ll ring you on Thursday, then. Well then, what was it you want to talk about? Now then, I want you to look at this picture. (said by someone in control of the conversation, e.g. a teacher) Fine/Great, let’s meet again next week, then, shall we? (often used to close conversations) So, where was I? I was telling you about my aunt … (often used after an interruption or to come back to the main topic or story)

C

Modifying and commenting on what you say In these mini-dialogues, the expressions in bold modify or comment on what is being said.

D

A: It’s cold, isn’t it? B: Yeah. A: Mind you, it’s November, so it’s not surprising. (an afterthought, used like however)

A: What’s her number? B: Let me see, I have it here somewhere … (a hesitation gaining time)

A: It’s quite a problem … B: Listen/Look, why don’t you let me sort it out? (introducing a suggestion / an important point) A: Would you? Thanks a lot.

A: And he said he was goB: Well, that’s typical! A: Hang on / Hold on! Let me tell you what he said! (preventing an interruption)

Other useful discourse markers I can’t do that. You see, I’m not the boss here. (explaining) He was, you know, sort of … just standing there. (hesitation) He was wearing this, kind of / like, cowboy hat. (not sure of the best way to say something) So that’s what we have to do. Anyway, I’ll ring you tomorrow. (the speaker thinks the topic can change or the conversation can now close) It rained all day yesterday. Still / On the other hand, we can’t complain, it was fine all last week. (contrasts two ideas or points) We shouldn’t be too hard on him. I mean, he’s only a child. (making clear what you mean) In informal spoken language, people often use the letters of the alphabet (usually no more than a, b and c), to list points they want to make. STELLA: Why aren’t you going this evening? ADAM: Well, a) I haven’t got any money, and b) it’s too far anyway.

It is often difficult to hear these expressions when they are used in rapid speech, but when you are in a position to listen in a relaxed way to someone speaking English (for example, if you are not the person being spoken to, or you are listening to informal speech on radio or TV or in a film), it is easier to concentrate on listening for discourse markers. 140

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 67.1

Underline all the discourse markers in this monologue. ‘Well, where shall I start? It was last summer and we were just sitting in the garden, sort of doing nothing much. Anyway, I looked up and … you see, we have this, kind of, long wall at the end of the garden, and it’s … like … a motorway for cats. That big fat black one you saw, well, that one considers it has a right of way over our vegetable patch, so … where was I? I was looking at that wall, you know, daydreaming as usual, and all of a sudden there was this new cat I’d never seen before. It wasn’t an ordinary cat at all … I mean, you’ll never believe what it was …’

67.2

Here are some short dialogues where there are no discourse markers, which would be unusual in real informal conversation. Use markers from the box to fill the gaps. You can use the markers more than once, and more than one answer may be possible. good I mean hang on well let me see right still listen anyway you know 1 A: Are you a football fan? B:

Well

5

, I like it but I wouldn’t say I was

a fan.

so tired.

2 A: I’ll take care of these. B: A: B:

3

.That’s everything. , see you next week. . That was a very useful meeting.

from work. I saw this funny old man approaching me. I stopped him … B: I bet it was Jim Dibble! A: ! Let me tell you what happened first.

4 A: Which number is yours?

67.3

6

… it’s that one there, yes, that one.

A: What do you mean, ‘cold’? B: , she’s not friendly, very distant.

Last week I gave her a nice smile and she scowled at me. A: , what do you expect? I’ve seen the way you smile at people; it puts them off.

A: It was last Monday. I was coming home

B:

A: He’s looking exhausted. B: Really? A: , look at his eyes - he looks

7

A: Money isn’t the most important thing in life. B: , you can’t live without it! A: I suppose that’s true.

8

A: What are we going to do? B: , I’ve got an idea. Why don’t we

ask James to help? He’s a lawyer.

Which discourse marker fits best into the sentences? Rewrite the sentences with the markers included. on the other hand

great

a, b, c, etc.

anyway

look

now

Anyway,

1 Yes, there is a lot of work to do. I must rush now, I’ll call you tomorrow. 2 There are two reasons why I think he’s wrong. People don’t act like that, and Paul would certainly never act like that. 3 I want you to pay attention, everyone. 4 He loses his temper very quickly. He’s got a great sense of humour. 5 You seem a bit sad today. Let me buy lunch for you to cheer you up. 6 A: So I’ll pick you up at 6.30. B: See you then.

67.4

Over to you Choose three expressions that appeal to you from this unit and try to use them in your spoken English. Be careful not to overuse them! English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

141

68 A

Linking words in writing Organising a formal text First / Firstly / First of all, we must consider … Next, it is important to remember that … Secondly and thirdly are also used with first/firstly for lists. Finally/Lastly, we should recall that … (coming to the final point on a list) Turning to the question of foreign policy, … (changing to a new topic) Leaving aside the question of pollution, there are also other reasons … (the writer will not deal with that question here) In parenthesis, let us not forget that … (making a point that is a side issue, not part of the main argument) In summary / To sum up, we may state that … (listing / summing up the main points) In sum, the economic issues are at the centre of this debate … (listing / summing up the main points: much more formal) In conclusion / To conclude, I should like to point out that … (finishing the text)

Common mistakes Lastly is used when making a final point, e.g. Lastly, let us consider what the future holds. (NOT At last let us consider …) At last means finally after a long time, e.g. At last I’ve finished my essay - what a relief!

B

Linking words for explaining, exemplifying, rephrasing, etc. To learn new words properly a lot of recycling is needed; in other words / that is to say, you have to study the same words over and over again. (that is to say is much more formal) Some English words are hard to pronounce, for example / for instance, ‘eighth’. It might be possible, say, to include the parents in the discussion. (similar to for example; note the commas before and after; say is also common in spoken English) The Parliament has different committees. Briefly, these consist of two main types. [the explanation will be short and not comprehensive] She is, so to speak / as it were, living in a world of her own. (makes what you are saying sound less definite/precise; as it were is more formal)

C

Referring backwards and forwards in the text The following points will be covered in this essay: … (used to introduce a list) It was stated above/earlier that the history of the USA is … [earlier in the text] See page 238 for more information. [go to page 238] Many writers have claimed this (see below). [examples will be given later in the text] A full list is given overleaf. [turn the page and you will find the list] For further details/discussion, see Chapter 4. [more discussion/details] May I refer you to page 3 of my last letter to you? [May I ask you to look at / read; fml] With reference to your email of 12th March, … (often used at the beginning of a letter or email to link it with an earlier text; fml)

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Exercises 68.1

Match the linking words on the left with the appropriate function on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6

68.2

Leaving aside … In parenthesis, … Turning to … In conclusion, … With reference to … See above …

c

a b c d e f

change the topic read something earlier in the text this will not be discussed this document is about another one to finish off as an aside / as a secondary issue

Fill the gaps with typical linking words or phrases used in writing. The first letter of each phrase/word is given.

Firstly

, it is important to understand why people commit crimes; 2i , what are the motives which make people do things they would never normally do? 3F , a young man steals clothes from a shop - does he do it because it is an exciting risk? 4N , 5 it is essential to consider whether punishment makes any difference, or is it just, a , a kind of revenge? 6L , how can we help victims of crime? 7I , how can we get to the roots of the problem, rather than just attacking the symptoms? 1

68.3

Which linking word or phrase(s) … 1 2 3 4 5

68.4

is based on the verb ‘to say’? say (meaning ‘for example’) is based on the verb ‘to follow’? contain the word/syllable ‘sum’? (three answers) is a form of the word ‘far’? contains something you find on trees?

Write a short formal email to the Editor of a newspaper about a report in the paper the previous week that a local hospital is going to close. You think the hospital should not close because: • The nearest other hospital is 50 kilometres away. • • • •

200 people work at the hospital; they will lose their jobs. The hospital makes an important contribution to the local economy. It is the only hospital in the region with a special cancer unit. It is being closed for political reasons, not genuine economic ones.

Try to include as many as possible of these linking words and phrases: with reference to firstly, secondly, thirdly, etc. leaving aside the following to sum up that is to say finally

Dear Editor,

Yours sincerely,

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143

69

Talking and communicating

A

Idioms connected with communication problems So, see you then.

Monday

Friday

I really like you as a friend.

Yes.

They’re talking at cross-purposes. [talking about different things without realising it]

He’s got the wrong end of the stick. [not understood something in the correct way]

… and that means …

Can … Er …

… but if not, it could be …

Why …

… and another thing …

… notwithstanding any other proviso not stated …

She can’t get a word in edgeways /edʒweɪz/. [doesn’t get a chance to speak because others are talking so much]

B

Wow! She’s in love with me!

He can’t make head or tail of what she’s saying. [cannot understand at all]

Good talk, bad talk The boss always talks down to us. [talks as if we were inferior] My workmates are always talking behind my back. [saying negative things about me when I’m not there] It was just small talk, nothing more, I promise. [purely social talk, nothing serious] Let’s sit somewhere else; they always talk shop over lunch, and it bores me rigid. [talk about work] Hey! Your new friend’s become a real talking point among the staff! Did you know? [subject that everyone wants to talk about] It’s gone too far this time. I shall have to give him a talking to. [reproach/scold him / tell him off]

C

Talk in discussions, meetings, etc. 1 2

Who’s going to start the ball rolling?

To put it in a nutshell, this is a waste of time. 3

4

I want to speak my mind today.

4 say exactly what I think 7 says stupid things

2 say it in few words

5

I hope we wrap up the discussion by 12.30.

I hope Will speaks; he always talks sense.

3 come to the important part of the matter

5 finish the discussion

6 says intelligent, reasonable things

8 says things in a long, indirect way

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

8

Sophie always talks rubbish.

I hope they get to the point soon.

1 start the discussion

144

Alex is so long-winded. /ˈlɒŋˈwɪndɪd/

7

6

Exercises 69.1

Look at these dialogues and comment on them. 1 PAUL: 2

3

4

5

69.2

£98 for a meal! That’s outrageous! EMMA: Not the meal, you idiot! The room! Emma and Paul seem to be talking at cross-purposes . JO: So that’s what I’m going to do, take it all away. MEENA: What about JO: And if they don’t like it they can just go and do what they like. MEENA: If she JO: Not that I have to consult them, anyway; I’m in charge round here. It seems that Meena can’t get . VOLODYA: I got very upset when you said I was childish. GINA: I didn’t! I just said you seemed to get on very well with the children. Honestly. VOLODYA: Oh, I see. Oh, sorry. It seems that Volodya got the . DAN: So, area-wise the down-matching sales profile commitment would seem to be high-staked on double-par. KIM: Eh? Could you say that again? You’ve got me there. It seems that Kim can’t what Dan is saying. ALI: I don’t expect someone with your intelligence to understand this document. JUAN: Oh. Ali seems to be talking to Juan.

What idioms opposite do these drawings represent?

1

wrap up the

4 get to / come to

69.3

discussion

2 talk

3 start

5 to put

6 get hold of

Fill the gaps to complete the sentences. She is very direct and always speaks her mind. He gets bored quickly with small and always wants to get down to serious matters. The boss gave me a real to after that stupid mistake I made. You’re behind the times! George's girlfriend was last week’s point. Paula’s uncle is so long- it takes him ten minutes to make a point that anyone else could make in 30 seconds. 6 It was such a relief when James got up to speak - at last someone was talking . 7 I hate going out with my boyfriend and his work colleagues - they spend all evening talking . 8 You should tell him what you think to his face rather than talking behind his . 1 2 3 4 5

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145

70 A

Suffixes Common noun suffixes -er /@/ is used for the person who does an activity, e.g. writer, painter, worker, shopper, teacher. You can use -er with a wide range of verbs to make them into nouns. Sometimes the -er suffix is written as -or (it is still pronounced /@/). It is worth making a special list of these words as you meet them, e.g. actor, donor [person who donates something], operator, sailor, supervisor [person whose job is to make sure that other people do their jobs correctly, safely, etc.]. -er/-or are also used for things which do a particular job, e.g. pencil sharpener, bottle opener, grater, projector, stapler, coat hanger. -er and -ee (pronounced /i:/) can contrast with each other meaning ‘person who does something’ (-er) and ‘person who receives or experiences the action’ (-ee), e.g. employer/employee /emplɔɪjˈiː/, sender, addressee, payee (e.g. of a sum of money). -tion/-sion/-ion are used to form nouns from verbs, e.g. complication, pollution, reduction, alteration, donation, promotion, admission, action. -ist [a person] and -ism [an activity or ideology] are used for people’s politics, beliefs and ideologies, and sometimes their profession (compare with -er/-or professions above), e.g. Marxist, typist, physicist, terrorist, Buddhism, journalism. -ist is also often used for people who play musical instruments, e.g. pianist, violinist, cellist. -ness is used to make nouns from adjectives, e.g. goodness, readiness, forgetfulness, happiness, sadness, weakness. Note what happens to adjectives that end in -y.

B

Adjective suffixes -able/-ible /@bl/ with verbs means ‘can be done’, e.g. drinkable washable readable forgivable edible [can be eaten]

C

flexible [can be bent]

Verbs -ise (or -ize, which is more common in American English) forms verbs from adjectives, e.g. modernise [make modern], commercialise, industrialise, computerise.

D

Other suffixes that can help you recognise the word class -ment: (nouns) excitement, enjoyment, replacement [the act of putting sb or sth in the place of sb or sth else] -ity: (nouns) flexibility [ability to change easily according to the situation], productivity, scarcity -hood: (abstract nouns, especially family terms) childhood, motherhood, brotherhood -ship: (abstract nouns, especially status) friendship, partnership, membership -ive: (adjectives) active, passive (in language, the passive is when the receiver of an action becomes the subject, e.g. The bank was robbed), productive [producing a positive large amount of something] -al: (adjectives) brutal, legal [related to or which follows the law], (nouns) refusal, arrival -ous: (adjectives) delicious, outrageous [shocking and morally unacceptable], furious [very angry] -ful: (adjectives) hopeful, useful, forgetful -less: (adjectives) useless, harmless [which cannot hurt or damage anyone or anything], homeless -ify: (verbs) beautify, purify, terrify [cause someone to be extremely afraid]

The informal suffix -ish can be added to most common adjectives, ages and times to make them less precise, e.g. She’s thirtyish. He has reddish hair. Come about eightish.

Language help Adding a suffix can sometimes change the stress in a word. Be sure to check in a dictionary. Examples: productive → productivity piano → pianist flexible → flexibility

146

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 70.1

These pictures show objects ending in -er/-or. Can you name them?

stapler

1

70.2

4

5

thing

3 a ticket holder 4 an MP3 player

5 a cleaner 6 a smoker

7 a drinker 8 an advisor

Use the -er/-or, -ee and -ist suffixes to make the names of the following. If you need to use a dictionary, try looking up the words in bold. 1 2 3 4 5

70.4

3

Do these words mean a thing or a person, or can they mean both? Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 a cooker 2 a grater

70.3

2

A person who plays jazz on the piano. a jazz pianist A thing that wipes rain off your car windscreen. A person who plays classical violin. A person who takes professional photographs. A person who acts in amateur theatre.

6 A person to whom a sum of money is paid. 7 A machine for washing dishes. 8 A person who donates their organs upon their death. 9 A person to whom a letter is addressed.

Rewrite the underlined parts of the sentences using a suffix from the opposite page and making any spelling changes needed.

. 1 Most of his crimes can be forgiven. Most of his crimes are forgivable 2 The Club refuses to admit anyone not wearing shoes. The Club refuses to anyone not wearing shoes. 3 Her only fault is that she is lazy. Her only fault is . 4 This firm has produced a lot recently. This firm has been very recently. 5 I found the book very easy and pleasant to read. I found the book very . 6 I have lovely memories of when I was a child. I have lovely memories of my . 7 You can’t wash that jacket. That jacket isn’t . 8 The most important thing in life is having friends. The most important thing in life is . 70.5

Complete the table with the different parts of speech. Do not fill the shaded boxes. noun

verb

adjective

eat

edible

fury beautiful scarce refuse modern forget act

70.6

Over to you List six jobs you would like to have. How many different suffixes are there in your list? Do any of the job names not have a suffix (e.g. pilot, film star)? English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

147

71 A

Prefixes Negative prefixes on adjectives Prefixes are often used to give adjectives a negative or an opposite meaning. For example, fair/unfair, experienced/inexperienced and similar/dissimilar are opposites. Other examples are ‘unnatural’, ‘inedible’, ‘disorganised’. Unfortunately, there is no easy way of knowing which prefix any adjective will use to form its opposite. in- becomes im- before a root beginning with ‘m’ or ‘p’, e.g. immature, impatient, immoral, impossible, improbable. Similarly in- becomes ir- before a word beginning with ‘r’, e.g. irregular, irresponsible, irreplaceable, and il- before a word beginning with ‘l’, e.g. illegal, illegible, illiterate.

Language help The prefix in- (and its variations) does not always have a negative meaning - often it gives the idea of inside or into, e.g. internal, import, insert, income.

B

Negative prefixes on verbs The prefixes un- and dis- can also form the opposites of verbs, e.g. tie/untie, appear/disappear. These prefixes are used to reverse the action of the verb. Here are some more examples: disagree, disapprove, disbelieve, disconnect, discourage, dislike, disprove, disqualify, unbend, undo, undress, unfold, unload, unlock, unveil, unwrap, unzip.

C

Other common prefixes Some words with prefixes use a hyphen. Check in a dictionary if you’re not sure.

148

prefix

meaning

examples

anti

against

anti-war antisocial antibiotic antiseptic

auto

of or by oneself

autograph auto-pilot autobiography

bi

two/twice

bicycle bilateral biannual bilingual

ex

former

ex-wife ex-smoker ex-boss

ex

out of

extract exhale excommunicate

micro

small

microbiology microchip microscopic microwave

mis

badly/wrongly

misunderstand mistranslate mislead

mono

one/single

monolingual monologue monogamous

multi

many

multinational multimedia multi-purpose

over

too much

overdo overtired oversleep overeat

post

after

post-war postgraduate post-impressionist

pre

before

preconceived pre-war pre-judge

pro

in favour of

pro-government pro-revolutionary

pseudo

false

pseudo-scientific pseudo-intellectual

re

again/back

rewrite regain rearrange repay replace renew

semi

half

semi-circular semi-final semi-detached

sub

under

subway submarine subdivision

under

not enough

underworked underused undercooked

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 71.1

Which negative adjective fits each of the following definitions? 1 2 3 4 5 6

71.2

What kind of oven cooks things particularly fast? microwave How can you describe a cream, for example, that helps prevent infection? What kind of company has branches in many countries? How are aeroplanes often flown for easy stretches of a flight? on What is a student who is studying for a second degree? What word means ‘underground railway’ in the US and ‘underground passage’ in the UK?

Write the opposites of the words underlined. Not all the words you need are on the opposite page. Use a dictionary to help you. 1 2 3 4 5 6

71.5

The runner was disqualified after a blood test. (qualify) Children (and adults) love parcels at Christmas time. (wrap) I almost always find that I with his opinion. (agree) I’m sure he’s lying but it’s going to be hard to his story. (prove) After a brief speech the President the new statue. (veil) It took the removal men an hour our things from the van. (load) His phone was because he didn’t pay his last bill. (connect) Hannah the letter and began to read it. (fold)

Answer the following questions with words from the table opposite. 1 2 3 4 5 6

71.4

means not being fair or right means impossible to eat. means unable to read or write. means not being well organised. means not having much sense of responsibility. means unable to be replaced.

Use the word in brackets to complete the sentences. Add the necessary prefix and put the word in the correct form. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

71.3

unfair

He’s a very honest man. dishonest I’m sure she’s discreet. I always find him very sensitive. It’s a convincing argument. That’s a very relevant point. She’s always obedient.

7 8 9 10 11 12

She’s employed. He’s very efficient. The door is locked. He seems grateful for our help. I’m sure she’s loyal to the firm. He’s a tolerant person.

Using the table opposite, construct words or phrases to replace the underlined words. 1 2 3 4 5 6

He’s in favour of the American approach. pro-American The BBC tries to avoid pronouncing foreign words incorrectly. Most people say they have to work too hard but are paid too little. Dan says that economics is not really a science even if it claims to be one. She’s still on good terms with the man who used to be her husband. He made a mistake in the calculation and had to do it again.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

149

72 A

Roots Verbs based on Latin words Many words in English are formed from Latin roots. These words are often considered fairly formal in English. Here are some examples of the more common Latin roots, with some of the English verbs derived from them. DUC, DUCT lead He conducted the orchestra with great vigour. [led] Nothing would induce me to join their organisation. [persuade / lead] The railway goes over a high viaduct. [a high bridge across a river or valley] PONE, POSE place, put The meeting has been postponed until next week. [put off to a later date] The President was deposed by his own son. [put out of office] The government have imposed a sizeable tax increase. [put into force] Beethoven composed some beautiful pieces of music. [created, put together] She deposited some money in her bank account. [placed, put in] PORT carry, take How are you going to transport your things to the States? [send across] Britain imports cotton and exports wool. [buys in] [sells out] Our opinions are supported by a considerable amount of research. [held up / backed] Foreigners who commit crimes are usually deported. [taken/sent away to another country] PRESS press, push She was impressed by his presentation. [filled with admiration and respect] This weather depresses me. [fills me with miserable feelings] She always expresses herself very articulately. [puts her thoughts into words] SPECT see, look You should respect your parents / the laws of a country. [look up to] The police officer inspected the mysterious package. [looked into / examined] Many pioneers travelled west in America to prospect for gold. [look for / search] VERT turn I tried the new make of coffee but I soon reverted to my old favourite brand. [went back] Can you convert this document to a pdf? [change from one form to another] The police diverted the traffic because there was a demonstration. [sent it a different way]

B

Nouns based on Latin words The examples above are of verbs only. Note that for all the verbs listed, there is usually at least one noun, sometimes a different one for a person and an idea. Here are some examples.

150

verb

person noun

abstract noun

inspect

inspector

inspection

advertise

advertiser

advertisement

deport

deportee

deportation

introduce

introducer

introduction

oppress

oppressor

oppression

compose

composer

composition

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 72.1

Complete the table with other forms of some of the words presented in B opposite. Use a dictionary if necessary. Do not fill the shaded boxes. verb

person noun

abstract noun

convert

conversion

conduct impress support compress

72.2

Fill the gaps in the sentences below using words based on the root given in brackets at the end of the sentence. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

72.3

The bad news depressed everyone. (PRESS) He was from the USA for not having a visa. (PORT) The magazine seems to have nothing in it but for cosmetics. (VERT) The new manager a lot of new rules on the staff when she took over. (POSE) The tax wrote to tell me I owed a lot of money. (SPECT) Because of the flood, the traffic was and we had to drive a long way. (VERT) Thank you for me to Dino last week. (DUC) Tchaikovsky some wonderful ballet music. (POSE) Grey, wet weather always me. I love the sun. (PRESS) I think we should our tennis game till tomorrow. It’s going to rain. (PONE)

Can you work out the meanings of the underlined words in the sentences below? To help you, here are the meanings of the main Latin prefixes: intro: within, inward de: down, from

o, ob: against ex: out

in, im: in, into sub: under

re: again, back trans: across

1 She’s a very introspective person and her husband’s also a quiet, thoughtful person. 2 3 4 5 6

72.4

thinks privately about her own thoughts and feelings instead of talking about them to others

He always seems to oppose everything I suggest. Why can’t he agree sometimes? I don’t think it’s healthy to repress your emotions too much. You should just behave naturally. Perhaps you can deduce what the word means from the way it’s formed. Otherwise, use a dictionary. The documentary exposed corruption in high places. Now everyone knows the truth. She just thought he looked so funny. She tried hard to suppress a laugh but couldn’t.

Below are some words based on Latin roots and their two-part verb equivalents. Match each word with its synonym. Which in each pair is more formal? support put off

72.5

hold up divert look at

postpone hold up

oppose turn away

go against

inspect

deposit

put down

Over to you Choose any four words from A opposite. Write sentences which will help you to remember their meanings.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

151

73 A

Abstract nouns What are abstract nouns? An abstract noun represents an idea, experience or quality rather than an object that you can touch. For example, advice, happiness, intention and (in)justice are abstract nouns but pen, bed and trousers are not.

B

Suffixes in abstract nouns Certain suffixes (see Unit 70) are used frequently in abstract nouns. The most common are -ment, -ion, -ness and -ity. The suffix -ion sometimes becomes -tion, -sion, -ation or -ition. The suffixes -ment and -ion are usually used to make verbs into abstract nouns. The suffixes -ness and -ity are added to adjectives. Here are some examples of abstract nouns using those suffixes. achievement adjustment amazement disagreement improvement investment replacement retirement

C

affection collection combination expectation frustration limitation recession reduction

carelessness consciousness eagerness friendliness kindness laziness politeness weakness

activity authority creativity curiosity generosity hostility popularity sensitivity

Less common suffixes forming abstract nouns -ship, -dom, -th and -hood The suffixes -ship and -hood are usually added to other nouns to form abstract nouns. The suffix -th is added to an adjective to form an abstract noun and -dom can combine with either a noun or an adjective. Here are some examples of abstract nouns using those suffixes. boredom freedom kingdom martyrdom stardom wisdom

breadth depth length strength warmth width

adulthood brotherhood childhood motherhood neighbourhood (wo)manhood

When he left school, Rolf trained as an electrician with a large company. There were two other boys in a similar position and he enjoyed their companionship. They developed such a good relationship that, once they’d completed their apprenticeship, they decided to go into partnership together. Now they have set up a business under joint ownership. They have taken out membership of the Association of Electricians and are beginning to attract a great deal of work.

D

Abstract nouns with no suffix anger faith luck sense

152

belief fear principle sight

calm humour rage speed

chance idea reason thought

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Common mistakes The definite article is not normally used before an abstract noun, e.g. Love is blind. (NOT The love is blind.) I can resist everything except temptation. (NOT I can resist everything except the temptation.)

Exercises 73.1

What is the abstract noun related to each of the following adjectives? 1 2 3 4 5

73.2

collection recession belief relationship

11 12 13 14 15

popular weak wise reasonable wide

5 6 7 8

strength boredom activity sight

9 10 11 12

production ownership expectation adjustment

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

community (-hood) vision (no suffix) liberty (-dom) fury (no suffix) wealth (-ity) maternity (-hood) possession (-ship)

Complete each of the quotations with one of the words in the box. advice

Imitation

is the highest form of flattery.

3

injustice

kingdom

2

darkness

Do not ask of the ignorant.

4 Better to suffer than to commit it. 5

73.5

collect

animosity (-ity) hostility astonishment (-ment) inquisitiveness (-ity) fraternity (-hood) possibility (no suffix) substitution (-ment) fame (-dom) decrease (-tion)

imitation 1

strong angry generous polite happy

Find a synonym with the suffix in brackets for each of the following nouns. Use a thesaurus if necessary. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

73.4

6 7 8 9 10

Which verbs are related to these abstract nouns? Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 2 3 4

73.3

friendly friendliness amazed frustrating kind hostile

Better to light a candle than to curse the .

It’s easy to govern a but difficult to rule one’s family.

Over to you Write your own quotations to describe the following abstract nouns. Perhaps you know a saying in your own language that you could translate into English? 1 freedom 2 love 3 life 4 curiosity 5 imagination English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

153

74 Compound adjectives A

Form and meaning A compound adjective has two parts. It is usually written with a hyphen, e.g. well-dressed, never-ending, sky-blue. Its meaning is usually clear from the combined words. The second part of the adjective is often a present participle (ending in -ing) or past participle (ending in -ed, except for irregular verbs).

Language help Some compound adjectives use a hyphen before a noun but not after a verb (e.g. a well-dressed man but He is always well dressed).

B

Personal appearance A number of compound adjectives describe personal appearance. Here is a rather far-fetched description of a person starting from the head down. [hard to believe] Tom was a curly-haired, suntanned, blue-eyed, rosy-cheeked, thin-lipped, broad-shouldered, left-handed, long-legged young man, wearing an open-necked shirt, brand-new, tight-fitting jeans and open-toed sandals.

C

Personality and character Other compound adjectives describe a person’s character. Melissa was absent-minded [forgetful], easy-going [relaxed], good-tempered [cheerful], warmhearted [kind] and quick-witted [quick-thinking/sharp], if perhaps a little big-headed [proud of herself], two-faced [not sincere], self-centred [always thinking about herself instead of others] and stuck-up [thinks she’s better than other people (informal)] at times.

D

Prepositions and particles Another special group of compound adjectives has a preposition or particle in its second part. The workers’ declaration of an all-out strike forced management to improve conditions. [total] Once there were fields here but now it’s a totally built-up area. That student’s parents are very well-off [rich] but they don’t give him much money and he is always complaining of being hard-up. [poor] I love these shoes and, although they’re worn-out, I can’t throw them away. This area was once prosperous but it now looks very run-down. [in a very bad condition]

E

Collocations Here are some other compound adjectives with typical noun collocations. air-conditioned rooms bullet-proof windows on the President’s car business-class ticket cut-price goods in the sales duty-free items handmade furniture interest-free credit last-minute revision for an exam long-distance lorry driver long-standing relationship off-peak train travel [at a time which is less busy] part-time job so-called expert sugar-free diet time-consuming writing of reports top-secret information world-famous film star

F

Changing compound adjectives You can vary the compound adjectives listed by changing one part of the adjective. For example, curly-haired, long-haired, red-haired and wavy-haired; first-hand (knowledge), firstclass (ticket) and first-born (child).

154

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 74.1

What compound adjectives from the opposite page can describe …

never-ending 1 a problem that never ends? a(n) problem 2 a shirt whose neck is open and which fits tightly? a(n) shirt 3 a girl who has long legs and brown eyes? a(n) , 4 very new sandals that have open toes? , 5 a boy who dresses well and is brown from the sun? a(n) boy 6 a person who is very relaxed and kind? a(n) , 7 a boy who has curly hair and is sharp? a(n) , 8 a story that is difficult to believe? a(n) story 74.2

,

girl sandals person boy

Fill the gaps with the words from the box to form new compound adjectives. Use a dictionary if necessary.

1 2

tight

blue

man

broad

brown

bullet

fire

water

loose

green

hand

sugar

second

narrow

business

right

home

absent

duty

left

blue -eyed -proof

3

4 5

-minded

7 8

-made

-fitting -handed

6 -class

74.3

,

-free

Complete the sentences using compound adjectives from D and E opposite. 1 It was an old, run- down hotel that needed modernising. None of the rooms were airand the sorestaurant was just a coffee bar. Our room had an old, -out carpet that was dirty. 2 It’s a very -up coast, with hotels and villas everywhere. 3 We managed to get a -minute booking for a Mediterranean cruise. 4 Offtrain travel is much cheaper than travelling at busy times, but longtravel by train can sometimes be more expensive than flying. 5 The route of the President’s drive to Parliament was secret and he was driven in a bulletlimousine. 6 The workers went on -out strike over a longpay dispute and the airport was closed for three days. 7 She used to be quite wellbut she lost a lot of money and now she has a -up look about her. She got a partjob to help pay the bills. 8 She has to have a sugardiet but it’s very timetrying to make sure everything she buys has no sugar in it.

74.4

Over to you Which of the adjectives from this unit could you use to describe yourself or your friends or members of your family? English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

155

75 Compound nouns 1: noun + noun A

What are compound nouns? A compound noun is a fixed expression which is made up of more than one word and functions as a noun. Such expressions are frequently combinations of two nouns, e.g. car park, human being [person], science fiction [fiction based on some kind of scientific fantasy]. A number of compound nouns are related to phrasal verbs and these are dealt with in Unit 76.

B

How are compound nouns written? If you understand both parts of the compound noun, the meaning will usually be clear. Compound nouns are usually written as two words, e.g. tin opener [an opener for tins], bank account [an account in a bank], pedestrian crossing [a place for people to cross a road], but sometimes they are written with a hyphen instead of a space between the words, e.g. self-control [control over your own emotions and reactions]. Sometimes they may be written as one word, e.g. earring, trademark [the symbol of a product], babysitter [someone who stays with a baby/child while parents are out]. Note that there are no strict rules about which compound words should be written in which way. There is a lot of variation even between dictionaries.

C

Stress in compound nouns Usually the main stress is on the first part of the compound but sometimes it is on the second part. In the common compound nouns below, the word which contains the main stress is underlined.

D

alarm clock

contact lens

mineral water

voice mail

blood donor

credit card

package holiday

windscreen

burglar alarm

heart attack

steering wheel

windscreen wiper

bus stop

light bulb

tea bag

youth hostel

Grammar of compound nouns Compound nouns may be countable, uncountable or only used in either the singular or the plural. The examples given in C are all countable compound nouns. Here are some examples of common uncountable compound nouns. air traffic control

computer technology

food poisoning

junk food

birth control

cotton wool

hay fever [allergy to pollen]

mail order

blood pressure

data processing

income tax

pocket money

Here are some examples of common compound nouns used only in the singular. arms race [two or more countries competing to have the most powerful military] climate change death penalty

generation gap labour force sound barrier welfare state

Here are some examples of common compound nouns used only in the plural.

156

grass roots

kitchen scissors

race relations

sunglasses

headphones

luxury goods

roadworks

traffic lights

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 75.1

Complete these bubble networks with any appropriate expressions from the opposite page. Add extra bubbles if you need them.

bank account

health

money credit card

social issues 75.2

Here are some compound expressions you have looked at in this unit. Explain what the significance of the nouns used in the compound is. 1 2 3 4

75.3

windscreen A screen that protects a driver from the wind. burglar alarm 5 climate change food poisoning 6 kitchen scissors generation gap 7 luxury goods

8 pocket money 9 welfare state 10 voice mail

What are they talking about? In each case the answer is a compound noun opposite. 1 I had it taken at the doctor’s this morning and he said it was a little high for my age. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

75.4

blood pressure

It’s happening through man-made pollution and is causing more extreme weather. She always has terrible sneezing fits in the early summer. I can’t understand why they spend so much on devising ways of killing people. They say that working there is much more stressful than being a pilot. The worst time was when one fell out at the theatre and I spent the interval searching around on the floor. I can’t see a thing without them. I don’t think it should ever be used whatever the crime. It’s much easier not to have to make your own travel arrangements. It’s not difficult to access mine on my mobile. You really shouldn’t cross the road at any other place. I didn’t like the low-energy ones at first because they’re so slow to get going. I had it very badly once when I ate some chicken that wasn’t properly cooked.

In some cases more than one compound noun can be formed from one particular element. For example, blood pressure and blood donor; air traffic control, birth control and selfcontrol. Complete the following compound nouns using nouns from the box. bite

country

fast

inheritance

level

mail

pot

rat

ties

word

1 junk mail 2 sound 3 blood

75.5

4 tea 5 mother 6

tax

7 8 9

-processing crossing food

10

race

Now make up some sentences like those in exercise 75.3 relating to the new compound nouns you made in exercise 75.4. EXAMPLE 1

I get a ridiculous amount of this through my letter box every day. (junk mail) English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

157

76 A

Compound nouns 2: verb + preposition Compound nouns based on phrasal verbs An example of a compound noun based on a phrasal verb is a takeover [when one company takes control of another] from to take over. In sections B to E you will see these types of nouns in context. The meaning of the compound noun is given in brackets. To form the plural, ‘s’ is added to the end, e.g. workouts [exercise sessions, e.g. at the gym].

B

Journalism Nouns based on phrasal verbs often have an informal feel to them and they are particularly common in newspaper reporting. In response to the pay offer, there was a walkout at the factory. [strike] There is going to be a crackdown on public spending. [action to stop/reduce] An inquiry into the recent breakout from the local prison has recommended measures to tighten security there. [escape] Last month saw a tremendous shake-up in personnel. [change] Last week we reported on the break-up of the mayor’s marriage. [collapse]

C

The economy The takeover of one of our leading hotel chains has just been announced. [purchase by another company] We’re trying to find some new outlets for our products. [places to sell] Take your things to the check-out to pay for them. [cash desk] Cutbacks will be essential until the recession is over. [reductions] Our profit was £1,000 on a turnover of £10,000. [money passing through a company] The banks were given a huge bailout by the government. [money given to a company to save it from failure]

D

Aspects of modern life What the computer produces depends on the input. [information that is put in] Output has increased thanks to new technology. [production] We have a rather rapid staff turnover. [change] Just after leaving school he went through a stage of being a dropout. [person who rejects society] The consequences of fallout from the explosion at the nuclear reactor were felt for many years. [radioactive dust in the atmosphere] I can easily get you a printout of the latest figures. [paper on which computer information has been printed] A breakthrough has been made in AIDS research. [important discovery]

E

General The following words can be used in more general circumstances. Many of the problems were caused by a breakdown in communications. [failure] The outlook for tomorrow is good - sunny in most places. [prospect] There are drawbacks as well as advantages to every situation. [negative aspects] The outcome of the meeting was not very satisfactory. [conclusion] TV companies always welcome feedback from viewers. [comments] It was clear from the outset that the set-up would cause problems. [start; situation] We parked in a lay-by on the bypass. [parking space at the side of a road; road avoiding the centre of a town] The outbreak of war took many people by surprise. [start of something unpleasant]

158

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 76.1

Which of the words on the opposite page would be most likely to follow the adjectives given below? 1 2 3 4

76.2

radioactive nervous computer annual

5 6 7 8

final sales positive city

Match the compound nouns on the left with the synonyms on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

76.3

fallout

e

breakdown break-up cutback drawback feedback outcome output outset walkout bailout

a b c d e f g h i j

result beginning production strike failure disadvantage payment comments reduction collapse

Fill in the gaps with an appropriate word from the opposite page. 1

AKC make takeover bid for FEDCO

5

Two prisoners escape in jail

6

2

3

Prime Minister announces cabinet

Football star injured in pre-game

7

Flu in Ireland

76.4

4

Transport union threatens

8

Police plan on vandalism

staff at supermarket announce strike

Here are some compound nouns based on phrasal verbs. Guess the meaning of the underlined word from its context. Show how it relates to its verb. 1 Because of the accident there was a three-mile tailback along the motorway. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

76.5

queue of traffic (it tails back from a vehicle at the head of the queue)

Police are warning of an increased number of break-ins in this area. The papers are claiming the Prime Minister organised a cover-up. Unfortunately, our plans have suffered a setback. I’m sorry I’m late. There was a terrible hold-up on the bridge. The robbers made their getaway in a stolen car. There was a surprisingly large turnout at the concert. I love having a lie-in on Sundays. The lecturer distributed handouts before she started speaking. I’m giving my office a major clear-out this week.

These words are made up of the same parts but they have very different meanings. Explain the meaning of each of the words. Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 outlook / look-out

Outlook means prospect, whereas a look-out is a person watching out for an enemy or danger.

2 set-up / upset

3 outlet / let-out

4 outlay / layout

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

159

77 A

Binomials What are binomials? Binomials are expressions (often idiomatic) where two words are joined by a conjunction (usually ‘and’). The order of the words is normally fixed. For example: odds and ends: small, unimportant things, e.g. Let’s get the main things packed we can do the odds and ends later. (NOT ends and odds) give and take: a spirit of compromise, e.g. Every relationship needs a bit of give and take to be successful. You can often tell something is a binomial because of the sound pattern, which may be a repetition of the same first sound or a rhyme. Tears are part and parcel of growing up. [an important part of / belong to] The boss was ranting and raving /ˈreɪvɪŋ/ at us. [shouting / very angry] The old cottage has gone to rack and ruin. [is ruined / has decayed] He’s so prim and proper at work. [rather formal and fussy] The hotel was a bit rough and ready. [poor standard or quality] She has to wine and dine important clients. [entertain / take out to restaurants] They stole my wallet. I was left high and dry, with no money. [in a very difficult situation]

B

Pairs of near synonyms At other times, the clue is that the words are near synonyms. You can pick and choose - it’s up to you. [have a wide choice] My English is progressing in/by leaps and bounds. [big jumps] It’s nice to have some peace and quiet now that the children have lef. [a peaceful/calm situation] The doctor recommended some rest and recreation / R and R. [relaxation] First and foremost, you must work hard. [first and most importantly]

C

Binomials composed of grammar words Many grammar words combine to form binomials. There are cafés here and there along the sea front. [scattered round / in different places] We’ve had meetings on and off / off and on. [occasionally] I’ve been running back and forth / to and fro all day. [to and from somewhere] She’s better now, and out and about again. [going out] She ran up and down the street. [in both directions]

D

Language help Your language probably has many binomials. Check that the ones which look similar in English have the same word order as your language. These three are very neutral binomials and can be used in formal or informal situations. Try translating them.

an old black and white photograph Ladies and gentlemen, your attention, please! She ran back and forth.

Binomials linked by words other than and You’ve got your sweater on back to front. [the wrong way] He won’t help her - she’ll have to sink or swim. [survive or fail] Slowly but surely, I realised the boat was sinking. [gradually] Sooner or later, you’ll learn your lesson. [sometime in the future] She didn’t want to be just friends - it had to be all or nothing. Well, I’m sorry, that’s all I can offer you - take it or leave it. It’s about the same distance as from here to Dublin, give or take a few miles. [perhaps a mile or two more, or a mile or two less]

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English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 77.1

Here is a list of words that can combine to form binomials. Use similarities in sound to join them with and. Look at A opposite to check that you have the right word order and meaning. Use the binomials to fill the gaps in the sentences which follow. prim

dine

high

parcel

ruin

rough

dry

rack

part

ready

proper

rave

rant

wine

prim and proper prim 1 The receptionist is always so terribly and proper ; the whole atmosphere always seems so very formal. 2 I was left and , with no one to help me. 3 The room’s a bit and but you’re welcome to stay as long as you like. 4 She was in a bad temper and was and at everybody. 5 My hosts and me at the best restaurants. 6 That old house in the country has gone to and ; nobody looks after it now. 7 Working hard and being very disciplined is and of training to be a top athlete. 77.2

Use binomials from B and C to rewrite the words in bold. Your new sentences will often sound more informal than the original ones. 1 I’m hoping to get some time without noise or interruption at the cottage I’ve rented. 2 3 4 5 6 7

peace and quiet

Most importantly of all, I want to get a good, steady job. I’ve bumped into Karen occasionally but I don’t meet her regularly. Her violin playing seems to be progressing very rapidly. I’ve been running from one place to another and back again all morning. The doctor said I needed a few weeks of relaxation without activity. We’ll have to stay in a cheap hotel. We can’t afford to choose what we’d like best.

8 There are some nice hotels in different places along the coast. 9 Mrs James was ill for a while, but now she’s going out and doing things again. 10 Robin’s office is on the next floor to mine, so we have to go from one floor to another all day.

77.3

Some of the binomials in these sentences are in the right order and some are wrong. Correct the wrong ones. 1 I spent a long time going forth and back between different offices to get my visa. 2 3 4 5 6

77.4

wrong: back and forth

You look very tired and stressed. You need some rest and recreation. I love those old white and black Hollywood films from the 1940s. Later or sooner you will learn that he is not a true friend of yours. Gentlemen and ladies, would you like to take your seats now, please? Slowly but surely my English got better and soon I felt fairly fluent.

These binomials do not have and in the middle. What do they have? Check the opposite page if you are not sure. 1 sooner 2 all

or

later nothing

3 back 4 sink

front swim

5 slowly 6 give

surely take

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161

78 A

Abbreviations and acronyms Abbreviations pronounced as individual letters Most abbreviations are pronounced as individual letters. Abbreviations for groups or organisations: BBC British Broadcasting Corporation CIA Central Intelligence Agency (US government agency collecting information about other countries) EU European Union FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation MI6 Military Intelligence 6 (UK equivalent of CIA) WHO World Health Organisation Other abbreviations pronounced as individual letters: ID Identity (an identity card or passport) GM genetically modified DNA deoxyribonucleic acid (chemical at the centre of living cells) FAQ frequently asked questions AKA also known as IOU I owe you ATM automated teller machine (cash machine usually outside a bank) ASAP as soon as possible

Language help When these abbreviations are stressed words in the sentence, the stress falls on the last letter, e.g. She works for the CIA. I heard it on the BBC.

B

Abbreviations pronounced as words Abbreviations pronounced as individual words are called acronyms. NATO /neɪtiəʊ/ PIN /pɪn/ SAD AWOL /eɪwɒl/

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Personal Identity Number (e.g. for a bank or credit card) seasonal affective disorder (lacking energy and enthusiasm in winter in latitudes where there is little sunlight at that time) absent without leave [permission; usually used in military contexts]

Some acronyms have become so normal as words that people do not think of them as abbreviations any longer, and so they are not written in capital letters. laser

C

radar

scuba

sonar

Clippings Some words are often used in an abbreviated form in informal situations. We say, for example, kilo instead of ‘kilogram’ or gig for ‘gigabyte’. Other examples include: air con (air conditioning) satnav (satellite navigation system) uni (university) mobile (mobile phone) or (US) cell (cellphone) carbs (carbohydrates) sci-fi (science fiction) high-tech (high-technology)

D

Written abbreviations Some abbreviations are most frequently used in writing. PTO Please turn over (turn to the next page) PS post script (written at the end of a message or letter, when you want to add something else) RSVP Répondez s’il vous plaît (French, meaning ‘please answer’) (written at the end of an invitation, to indicate that you should reply) RIP Rest in peace (often written on a headstone where someone is buried after they have died)

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Exercises 78.1

Match the sentence beginnings on the left with the endings on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

78.2

kilo gig Find two that relate to measurement. Find four that relate to food and health. Find three that relate to money. Find one that relates to sport. Find three that are political organisations. Find two that relate to equipment using sound or radio waves. kilo Please could you buy me a of apples? William Barclay James Stubbs has been charged with burglary. The surgeons used technology to carry out the operation. My sister works in a very office using all the most up-to-date hardware and software. Bats cannot see and use a kind of to find their way around. When you’re driving it’s much easier to use a rather than a road atlas.

Complete the texts with the correct abbreviations from D opposite. 1

3

78.5

a ID. b PIN. c BBC. d SAD. e FAQs. f AWOL. g DNA. h IOU.

Fill each gap with an appropriate abbreviation or acronym. 1 2 3 4 5 6

78.4

c

Find abbreviations from A, B or C opposite to fit these categories. 1 2 3 4 5 6

78.3

Wherever I am in the world I listen to the news on the Most websites have a page dealing with Holly took some money out of my wallet and left me an What kind of people we are depends on our They won’t let you into the club without any You won’t be able to use the ATM if you’ve forgotten your I don’t know where John can be - he’s gone I always feel lethargic in December - I think I suffer from

Party! At Sam and Beth’s house Saturday 14 August 8 till late by 28 July

In loving memory of James Goodman 1945 - 2015

2

I’ve gone shopping with Ana. Back around six. See you later. Emma

Tom phoned for you. Can you call him back?

4

Patients should arrive ten minutes before their appointment time, and must inform their doctor if they are unable to come to an appointment.

Over to you 1 What’s the nearest uni to the place where you live? 2 Have you ever tried scuba diving? 3 Would you be happy to eat GM food? 4 Do you know anyone who has SAD? 5 What is the main source of carbs in your diet? 6 How common is air con in your country?

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163

79 A

Multi-word expressions Learning and remembering multi-word expressions Fixed expressions, also known as idioms, often have meanings that are not clear or obvious. For example, the expression to feel under the weather, which means ‘to feel unwell’, is typical. The words do not tell us what it means, but the context usually helps. Think of multi-word expressions as units, just like single words; always record the whole expression in your notebook, along with information on grammar and collocation, e.g. This tin opener has seen better days. [it is rather old and broken down; usually of things, always perfect tense form] Multi-word expressions of this type are often rather informal and include a personal comment on the situation. They are sometimes humorous or ironic. As with any informal words, be careful how you use them. Never use them just to sound ‘fluent’ or ‘good at English’. In a formal situation with a person you do not know, don’t say: ‘How do you do, Mrs Watson? Do take the weight off your feet.’ [sit down] Instead say: ‘Do sit down’ or ‘Have a seat.’

B

Organising multi-word expressions Multi-word expressions can be grouped in a variety of ways. It is probably best to use whichever way you find most useful to help you remember them. Grouping by grammar get (hold of) the wrong end of the stick [misunderstand] pull a fast one [trick/deceive someone] verb + object poke your nose in(to) [interfere] be over the moon [extremely happy/elated] feel down in the dumps [depressed/low] verb + prepositional phrase be in the red [have a negative bank balance] Grouping by meaning, e.g. expressions describing people’s character/intellect He’s as daft as a brush. [very stupid/silly] She takes the biscuit. /ˈbɪskɪt/ [is the extreme / the worst of all] They’re a pain in the neck. [a nuisance / a difficult person] Little Sam’s as good as gold. [behaves very well - usually used about children] Grouping by a verb or other key word, e.g. expressions with make Why do you have to make a meal out of everything? [exaggerate the importance of everything] I think we should make a move. It’s gone ten o’clock. [go/leave] Most politicians are on the make. I don’t trust any of them. [wanting money/power for oneself] I’m afraid I’m making heavy weather of my essay. [making slow and difficult progress]

C

Grammar of multi-word expressions It is important when using these expressions to know just how flexible their grammar is. Some are more fixed than others. For instance, barking up the wrong tree [be mistaken] is always used in continuous, not simple form, e.g. I think you’re barking up the wrong tree. (NOT I think you bark up the wrong tree.) A good dictionary may help, but it is best to observe the grammar in real examples. Note how Units 89-94 group expressions in different ways. For more information on multi-word expressions, see English Idioms in Use by Michael McCarthy and Felicity O’Dell.

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English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 79.1

Complete the expressions from A and B opposite. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

79.2

the moon When I passed all my exams, I felt over . This printer isn’t working again! It’s a pain . It’s almost midnight! I’d better be making . I spent too much money last month and now I’m in It’s time to change my laptop. It’s five years old and has seen She is the absolute limit! She really takes . Oh dear, Matthew completely misunderstood me. He always seems to get I’m sorry. I do some really stupid things. You must think I’m as daft I wonder what’s wrong with Ursula? She looks down I don’t trust politicians. Most of them are just on the

2

be over the moon

3

4

b Sit down and (a) get (b) take the weight off your feet. Why does she always have to (a) poke (b) peek her nose into other people’s affairs? I was feeling (a) under (b) below the weather, so I didn’t go to work. Zoe pulled a (a) quick (b) fast one and didn’t pay for her share of the meal. All right, all right! You don’t have to (a) cook (b) make a meal out of it! He’s really making (a) heavy (b) bad weather of what should be a simple task.

Without using a dictionary, try to work out the meaning of the underlined expressions from the context. 1 2 3 4 5 6

79.5

. .

.

.

Which is correct, (a) or (b)? Check with A and B opposite. 1 2 3 4 5 6

79.4

.

Which expressions from the opposite page do these pictures remind you of?

1

79.3

.

It’s midnight. It’s time to hit the sack. go to bed This is just kid’s stuff. I want something more difficult and challenging! I feel fit as a fiddle ever since I started going regularly to the gym. I can’t understand why he’s giving me the cold shoulder. He’s usually so friendly. I haven’t seen Simone for ages. We only get together once in a blue moon. I think I’ve got the hang of this photo-editing program now, though it was complicated at first.

Over to you Try a grouping exercise with six expressions from the opposite page, using any of the methods suggested in B. Which type of grouping works best for the expressions you chose? English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

165

80 A

Words commonly mispronounced Vowels The phonetic transcription is provided for some of the words below. Check you understand the symbols, which are used by most good dictionaries (see page 258). To master English pronunciation it is helpful to learn the 22 phonemic symbols for English vowel sounds. These are important because the vowel letters can be pronounced in many different ways: a cat /æ/ about /ə/ wander /ɒ/ last /aː/ i alive /aɪ/ give /ɪ/ u put /ʊ/ cut /ʌ/ cupid /juː/ ie fiend /iː/ friend /e/ science /aɪə/ ei rein /eɪ/ receive /iɪ/ reinforce /iːɪ/

B

late /eɪ/

e met /e/ meter /iː/ /ə/ o sorry /ɒ/ go /eʊ/ love /ʌ/ to /uː/ ea head /e/ team /iː/ react /iːæ/ ou our /aʊ/ route /uː/ would /ʊ/ oo cool /uː/ cook /ʊ/ coopt /əʊɒ/

Silent letters The letters below in bold are silent in the examples: p b b l h t k

psychic /ˈsaɪkɪk/ psychiatry pneumatic receipt pseudonym psychology comb /kəʊm/ dumb numb tomb climb womb lamb doubt /daut/ subtle debt debtor could /kʊd/ should calm half talk palm walk salmon chalk honour /ɒnə/ honourable honest hour hourly heir heiress whistle /ˈwɪsəl/ castle listen fasten soften Christmas knee /niː/ knife know knob knowledge Language help knot knit r card /kaːd/ park farm burn work The letter ‘r’ is not silent in some storm tart varieties of English, for example (unless followed by a vowel) mother /ˈmʌðə/ sister American, Irish, Scottish. teacher water

C

Changing stress Some two-syllable words in English have the same form for the noun and the verb. The stress is on the first syllable of the word when it is a noun and the second syllable when it is a verb, e.g. Wool is a major Scottish export. Scotland exports a lot of wool. Here are some other words like this. conduct

conflict

contest

decrease

suspect

record

desert

import

increase

insult

transfer

reject

permit

present

progress

protest

transport

upset

Multi-syllable words in English tend to put their main stress on the third syllable from the end, e.g. photograph, telephone, arithmetic. As a result, as a long word adds suffixes its word stress does not stay on the same syllable, e.g. photographer, telephony, arithmetical. Note that, although this rule is useful, it does have plenty of exceptions.

Common mistakes These words are often mispronounced. apostrophe /əˈpɒstrəfi/ recipe /ˈresɪpi/ ought /ɔːt/

166

catastrophe /kəˈtæstrəfi/ vegetables /ˈvedʒtəblz/ muscle /ˈmʌsəl/

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

cupboard /ˈkʌbəd/ sword /ˈsɔːd/ interesting /ˈɪntrəstɪŋ/

Exercises 80.1

Underline all the silent letters in the following sentences. 1 They sang a psalm to honour the memory of the world-famous psychologist as she was laid to rest in the family tomb. 2 The psychiatrist was knifed in the knee as she was walking home. 3 He should have whistled as he fastened his sword to his belt. 4 You could have left me half the Christmas cake on Wednesday.

80.2

Which word is the odd one out in each of these groups? 1 2 3 4

80.3

5 6 7 8

doubt, could, shout cough, rough, tough land, wand, sand soot, root, foot

What word could a poet use to rhyme with each of the words below? Use your dictionary to check the pronunciation. 1 2 3 4 5

80.4

worry, sorry, lorry worry sword, cord, word come, some, dome head, plead, tread

enough plough through cough though

stuff

Circle or highlight the stressed syllable in each of the underlined words. 1 They paid a £1 million transfer fee to transfer the player to their team. 2 Although they suspected several people were partly involved, the police decided to concentrate on Jo as the main suspect. 3 There are conflicting views as to the cause of the conflict. 4 All this upset over the wedding has really upset them. 5 The cost of living has increased while there has been a decrease in wages. 6 A work permit permits you to work for a period of six months. 7 I wish I could record a hit record! 8 Despite the disgraceful conduct of the audience, James went on conducting the orchestra.

80.5

Write out the words below using the normal English alphabet. 1 /ˈmʌsl/ muscle 2 /kəˈtæstrəfi/

80.6

5 /ˈsʌtel/ 6 /[emailprotected]'siːt/

7 /haɪt/ 8 /'resIpi/

Underline the stressed syllable in each of the words below. 1 2 3 4 5

80.7

3 /ˈhæŋketʃiːf/ 4 /'kemIkəl/

photograph photography photographer zoology zoologist zoological arithmetic arithmetical arithmetician psychology psychologist psychological psychiatry psychiatric psychiatrist

photographically

Find words on the opposite page to match each definition. Say them aloud. 1 cooking instructions recipe 2 between warm and cold 3 an old weapon

4 a punctuation mark 5 the opposite of descend 6 describes a sea that isn’t rough

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81 A

Onomatopoeic words What are onomatopoeic words? Onomatopoeic words are those which seem to sound like their meaning. The most obvious examples are verbs for the noises which animals make.

cows moo

B

cats meow and purr

lions roar

bees buzz

small birds tweet

Letters, sounds and their associations Certain combinations of sounds have particular associations in English. • gr- at the beginning of a word can suggest something unpleasant or miserable, e.g. She was groaning with pain. [make a deep sound forced out by pain or despair] Everyone was grumbling about the quality of the food. [complain in a bad-tempered way] Don’t be so grumpy! [bad-tempered] The teacher growled angrily at the boys. [make a deep, threatening sound, like an angry dog]

• cl- at the beginning of a word can suggest something sharp and/or metallic, e.g. Click on ‘log in’ to enter the website. [make a short sharp sound] There was a loud clang as the metal bar hit the stone floor. [make a loud ringing noise] Horses go clip-clop on the road. • sp- at the beginning of a word can suggest water or other liquids or powders, e.g. She splashed water over her face to wake herself up. [cause a liquid to fly about in drops] The meat was horrible and she spat it out. [send liquid or food out from the mouth] I never use hair sprays. [to spray = send liquid through the air in tiny drops either by the wind or some instrument] He sprinkled sugar on his breakfast cereal and ate it quickly. [scatter small drops] Water was spurting out of the broken pipe. [come out in a sudden burst] • wh- at the beginning of a word often suggests the movement of air, e.g. He whistled and the horse ran towards him. [a high-pitched noise made by forcing air or steam through a small opening] Suddenly a large insect whizzed over my head and scared me. [make the sound of something rushing through air] Old Mr Banks wheezed as he climbed the stairs. [breathe noisily especially with a whistling sound in the chest] • -ash at the end of a word can suggest something fast and violent, e.g. smash [break violently into small pieces] dash [move fast or violently] crash [suddenly strike violently and noisily] bash [strike heavily so as to break or injure] mash [make soft or pulpy by beating or crushing] gash [a long deep cut or wound]

a smashed window 168

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

a car crash

sausages and mashed potato

Exercises 81.1

Match the verbs and the animals which make the sound. Some of the verbs are not given on the opposite page. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

81.2

d

a b c d e f g h

roar growl buzz purr tweet hiss cluck bleat

Look at B opposite and insert the missing letters. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

81.3

cat hen sheep snake dog bee small bird lion

sp rayed some water on the leaves. The plant looked very dry, so I Old Mrs Jenks had bronchitis and was eezing all the time. I heard the sound of a horse ipopping along the road. Brightly coloured insects izzed around our heads as we walked through the jungle. Stop umbling about everything and try to enjoy yourself! She d ed out of the door and ran down the street. After the accident, oil urted from the pipe and polluted the river. As I was carrying my computer to my new office, I b ed it against the door and damaged it.

Fill the gaps with words from the opposite page. 1 The cat was meowing because it wanted food. After it had eaten, it with contentment and fell asleep. 2 on the ‘copy’ symbol, then you can copy the text to a new file. 3 Everyone in despair when they heard the bad news. 4 The car had into a wall and was badly damaged, but luckily no one was hurt. 5 Do you like your potatoes fried or shall I them for you? 6 The boy had a on his knee and blood was pouring from it.

81.4

Answer the questions. 1 What things do people normally sprinkle on food? sugar, salt, pepper, spices, herbs 2 Which would make a clang if it hit a hard surface, a piece of wood or a piece of metal? 3 If someone growls at you, are they probably happy or angry with you? 4 Can you whistle? If so, when would you do it? 5 What things make you grumpy? 6 What might you do if you put some food into your mouth and it tasted very bad?

81.5

Over to you Which of the sounds listed opposite exist in your language? Do they have similar associations?

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

169

82 A

Homophones and homographs Homophones and homographs Homophones are words with different meanings which are pronounced in the same way but are spelt differently, e.g. row as in ‘at the end of the row’ and roe [fish eggs]. Homographs are words which are written in the same way but have different meanings and may be pronounced differently. Compare row in ‘we had a row /raʊ/ about who should pay for the tickets’ [argument] and ‘he sat at the end of the row’/rəʊ/ [line of seats].

B

C

Homophones air/heir

mail/male

raise/rays

tea/tee

aloud/allowed

meat/meet

read/reed

there/their/they’re

break/brake

mown/moan

rein/rain/reign

through/threw

fare/fair

our/hour

right/rite/write

tire/tyre

faze/phase

pair/pear/pare

sale/sail

toe/tow

flu/flew

pale/pail

scene/seen

waist/waste

grate/great

pane/pain

sight/site

wait/weight

groan/grown

peal/peel

so/sew

weak/week

hoarse/horse

place/plaice

sole/soul

weather/whether

its/it’s

practise/practice

some/sum

whine/wine

lays/laze

pray/prey

steak/stake

would/wood

Homographs with differing pronunciations Check the pronunciation of the words in bold. You can use the list of phonemic symbols on page 258. I live in the north of England. /lIv/ My favourite rock group is singing live on TV tonight. /laIv/ I read in bed each night. /ri:d/ I read War and Peace last year. /red/ The lead singer in the group is great. /li:d/ Lead pipes are dangerous. /led/ [metal, chemical element] The wind blew the tree down. /wInd/ Wind the rope round this tree. /waInd/ She wound the string round the parcel and tied it up. /waʊnd/ He suffered a terrible wound in the war. /wu:nd/ This book is called English Vocabulary in Use. /ju:s/ You must know how to use words as well as their meaning. /ju:z/ They lived in a large old house. /haʊs/ The buildings house a library and two concert halls as well as a theatre. /haʊz/ The sow has five piglets. /saʊ/ [female pig] The farmers sow the seeds in the spring. /səʊ/ [plant seeds] Bathing the baby at night may help her to fall asleep. /ba:TIŋ/ (on a sign at a beach) No bathing. /beIDIŋ/

Common mistakes I don’t know whether to go or not. (NOT I don’t know weather to go or not.)

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English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 82.1

Each underlined word rhymes with, or sounds similar to, one of the words in brackets. Choose the matching word.

five 1 The girl I live give with knows a good pub with live music. (five / give) 2 The main house houses a collection of rare stamps. (mouse / browse) 3 It’s no use . I can’t use this gadget. (snooze / juice) 4 You sow the seeds while I feed the sow . (cow / go) 5 The violinist in the bow tie made a bow . (now / so) 6 He’s the lead singer in the group ‘Lead piping’. (head / deed) 7 What a row from the last house in the row ! (plough / though) 8 Does he still suffer from his war wound ? (found / tuned) 9 I wound the rope around the tree to strengthen it against the gale. (round / spooned) 10 It’s hard to wind in the sails in this wind . (find / tinned) 82.2

Write the word given in phonemic script in the correct spelling for the context. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

82.3

I really must do some more exercise or I’ll never lose /weɪt/. weight Watching TV game shows is such a /weIst/ of time. There’s a hole in the /səʊl/ of my shoe. He broke a /peIn/ of glass in the kitchen window. The eldest son of the monarch is the /[emailprotected]/ to the throne. You are not /əˈlaʊd/ to talk during the test. Look at that lovely yacht with the red /seIl/. He’s going /Tru:/ a rather difficult /feIz/ at the moment. Don’t throw away that orange /pi:l/. I need it for a recipe.

Write one sentence using both of the words which correspond to the phonemic script. 1 /peɪl/ She was quite pale after the exertion of carrying such a heavy pail of water. 2 /'[emailprotected]/ 7 /saIt/ 3 /'præktIs/ 8 /preI/ 4 /greɪt/ 9 /hO:s/ 5 /waIn/ 10 /reIz/ 6 /breIk/

82.4

Homophones and homographs are at the root of many jokes in English. Match the first part of each of these children’s jokes with the second part and then explain the play on words involved in each. 1 What do you get if you cross a sheep and a kangaroo? 2 3 4 5

82.5

c a Let’s play draughts. This plays on two meanings of jumper - a sweater and a person or animal that jumps.

What did the south wind say to the north wind? Why did the man take his pencil to bed? Why is history the sweetest lesson? What’s the best birthday present?

b A drum takes a lot of beating. c A woolly jumper. d He wanted to draw the curtains. e Because it’s full of dates.

Choose pairs of words from B opposite to describe the pictures below.

1

rain and reign

2

3

4

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171

83 A

Uncountable nouns What are uncountable nouns? Countable nouns can be used with a/an and made plural (e.g. a hat, two hats). Uncountable nouns are not normally used with a(n) or the plural, e.g. information (NOT an information or some informations). You can learn uncountable nouns in groups associated with the same subject or area. Here are some useful headings.

B

Travel

luggage baggage (more

accommodation

money currency

common than luggage in AmE)

C

The word food is usually uncountable, and so are many food names. Other uncountable food words can be added to this list.

D

rice soup

transport

Language help

Food

sugar flour

information

spaghetti

butter

bread

Travel is an uncountable noun, e.g. Travel broadens the mind. If you want to refer to an individual occasion of travel, use journey or trip, e.g. It was a very long journey. (NOT a very long travel) She was away on a business trip for three days. (NOT a business travel)

Abstract uncountable nouns and nouns for activities She gave me some advice on how to study for the exam. I picked up some interesting knowledge on that course. She’s made a lot of progress in a very short time. She has done some research on marine life. They’ve done a lot of work on the project. The teacher always gives us homework at the weekend. Do you have any experience of working with children? Wealth [state of being rich] does not guarantee happiness, but neither does poverty. [state of being poor]

E

Material and resources For making clothes, furniture, etc.: cloth (e.g. silk) leather For energy: coal For buildings: stone brick plastic General: equipment software

F

oil

Other common uncountable nouns I have some news for you: Henry is getting married. What lovely weather! Let’s go for a walk.

Common mistakes Although you may have learnt these words and their meanings before, it is very easy to continue making mistakes with them. We say: What terrible weather! I have some news for you. We bought some new furniture. (NOT What a terrible weather! I have a news for you. We bought some new furnitures.) See Unit 86 for ways of making uncountable nouns countable.

172

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 83.1

Complete each sentence in two ways using the nouns in brackets. 1 He gave me (some) advice / some tips about applying for university courses. (advice / tip) 2 I’m sorry, I can’t come. I have to do. (job / homework) 3 She’s doing teenage slang in English for her university project. (research into / study of) 4 You’ll need if you want to make a Chinese meal. (rice / noodle) 5 I have for you: you’re going to meet the President next week! (news / surprise) 6 They make for the furniture industry in this factory. (textile / cloth)

83.2

List these words under the headings in the table: uncountables and countables. Then pair up the words which have related meanings. recommendation money bread case information coin trip work baggage fact loaf uncountables countables

83.3

job

advice

travel

money coin

Correct the mistakes in these sentences. There may be more than one.

some

1 We had such a terrible weather that we left the campsite and found an accommodation in town instead. 2 In the south of England, most houses are made of stones, but in the north, bricks are more common. 3 I love antique furnitures, but I would need an advice from a specialist before I bought any. My knowledges in that area are very poor. 4 Her researches are definitely making great progresses these days. She has done a lot of original works recently. 5 What equipments do you need to go skiing? If you can give me any informations, I would be grateful. 6 Oil exports have produced a great deal of wealths for the country. 7 Package holidays often include transports from the airport to your accommodations. 8 I don’t have any experiences of working in education, but I would like to do some voluntary works in a school. 9 A poverty is the biggest problem in many countries. 10 I bought a new software that shows you the kind of weathers every country has each month of the year.

83.4

Can you add more items to the lists in C and E opposite? Food:

olive oil, salt, milk, honey

For making clothes, furniture, etc.: For buildings: For energy:

83.5

Over to you Imagine you are going away for a week’s holiday and you pack a suitcase with everything you need. Make a list of what you would pack. Which items on your list are uncountable nouns in English?

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

173

84 A

B

C

Words that only occur in the plural Tools, instruments, pieces of equipment

scissors

pliers

binoculars

scales

earphones

handcuffs shears

Things we wear

clothes

pyjamas

leggings

dungarees

tongs

tweezers

headphones

glasses/ spectacles

goggles

knickers/pants underpants/pants jeans tights

shorts

trousers

overalls

braces (swimming) trunks

Other useful words The graphics in this game are amazing! [pictures produced on a computer] When will the goods be delivered? [articles/items] The architect inspected the foundations [under the building] before declaring that the premises were safe. [the building itself] The military authorities have established their headquarters in the old Town Hall. The acoustics in the new opera house are near perfect. [quality of the sound] The contents /ˈkɒntents/ of the house were sold after her death. Looks are less important than personality in a partner. As you come to the outskirts of the village, there are traffic lights. Turn left there. [the beginning or end of the village] The stairs are a bit dangerous - be careful. The proceeds of the concert are going to the children’s fund. [money from selling tickets] A terrorist has escaped from prison. Her whereabouts are unknown. [where she is]

D

Words with plural form but used mostly with singular verbs Names of some games: billiards dominoes draughts darts bowls Names of subjects/activities: physics economics classics gymnastics

cards athletics

Common mistakes Some words look plural, or may be thought of as plural, but are not, e.g. news, spaghetti (an Italian plural form), series, means. The news is good. (NOT The news are good.) The spaghetti was delicious. (NOT The spaghetti were delicious.) There was a series of programmes on TV about Japan. Is there a cheap means of transport I could use to get there? 174

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 84.1

Make a list of subjects you studied at school or elsewhere. How many of the words are plural? Use a dictionary if necessary.

84.2

Which things listed on the opposite page can be used to: 1 2 3 4

84.3

cut a hedge? shears help you to read small print? cut paper? hold your trousers up?

5 6 7 8

protect your clothes if you’re repairing a car? look at distant objects? get a nail out of a piece of wood? keep a prisoner’s hands together?

Name the items on the clothes line and tick the words that are only used in the plural.

2 5 1 3

1

84.4

shirt

2

3

7

4 4

6 5

6

7

Fill the gaps with an appropriate plural-form noun.

pyjamas (to a child) Come on! Get your on! It’s time to go to bed. The of the rock concert are going to two charities. The in the new concert hall are superb. I’ve never heard such clear sound. The escaped prisoner is tall, dark and has a beard. His are unknown. You must use or if you want to listen to your music on a train. 6 The have forbidden the import of all foreign 7 Computer were first used in films in the 1970s. 1 2 3 4 5

84.5

Odd one out. In each group, one of the nouns is always used in the plural. Which one? 1 sock, trouser, slipper - trousers 2 billiard, squash, tennis

84.6

3 knife, scissor, razor 4 tracksuit, costume, dungaree

In this silly story, change the singular nouns to plural where appropriate. Change the verbs where necessary. I decided that if I wanted to be a pop star I’d have to move to London. I finally got a room, but it was on the outskirt of the city. The owner didn’t live on the premise, so I could make as much noise as I liked. The acoustic in the bathroom was fantastic, so I practised there. I made so much noise I almost shook the foundation! I went to the headquarter of the Musicians’ Union, but a guy there said I just didn’t have the right looks to be famous. Oh well, never mind!

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

175

85 A

Countable and uncountable nouns with different meanings Countable and uncountable nouns When we use a countable noun we are thinking of specific things that can be counted (e.g. two glasses). When we use an uncountable noun we are thinking of stuff or material or the idea of a thing in general (e.g. this door is made of glass). stuff/materials

things

glass

a glass / glasses

cloth

a cloth

fish

a fish

work

a work

Be careful - there’s broken glass on the road. I need a cloth to wipe the table. We had fish for dinner. Hamlet is one of Shakespeare’s most famous works. Here are some more nouns that can be used in both ways with different meanings.

B

countable

uncountable

There’s a black hair in my soup; it must be yours!

She has beautiful red hair.

Did you buy a paper this morning? [a newspaper]

The printer has run out of paper.

They are campaigning to help indigenous peoples of South America.

I love meeting people from different countries. [individuals]

Can I borrow your iron? My shirt is a bit creased. [instrument]

People used to think ships made of iron would sink. [metal]

I had some interesting experiences during my trip to Latin America. [things that happened to me]

She has little work experience. [knowledge or skill obtained from doing something]

The city has a yearly arts festival. [music, theatre, etc.] He studied arts not sciences at uni. [subjects such as languages or history; always plural and without the]

Have you been to the modern art museum? It’s wonderful. [usually refers to painting, drawing and sculpture]

I’ve seen that film three times. [occasions] We had some good times at university. [experiences]

Time passes very slowly if you have a boring job. [clock time, calendar time]

Food The names of food items often have a different meaning depending on whether they are used as countable or uncountable nouns (see fish above).

176

coffee/tea

a coffee and two teas

potato

Just two potatoes, please!

Would you like some chocolate?

Would you like a chocolate?

salt and pepper

a pepper

a hot dog with onion

an onion

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 85.1

Would you normally expect to find these things in most people’s houses, flats, garages or gardens? In which room or place? Answer for both meanings (countable and uncountable). 1 an iron / iron Yes, most people have an iron to iron their clothes; they might keep it in the kitchen somewhere. 2 3 4 5 6 7

85.2

Most people don’t normally keep iron (the metal) at home, but they might have things made of iron (e.g. a frying pan) in the kitchen.

a cloth / cloth a fish / fish glass / a glass a wood / wood pepper / a pepper paper / a paper

Which question would you ask? Could I have/borrow a(n) …? or Could I have/borrow some …? 1 cake Could I have some cake?

2 iron

3 pepper

5 paper

6 rubber

7 glass

4 chocolate

85.3

Complete the answers using the word in brackets. Use a(n) or the if the meaning is countable. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

85.4

Ohdear!I’vespiltwateronthefloor!(cloth)Nevermind.Here’s a cloth - just wipe it up. How did you get that puncture in your car tyre? (glass) I drove (child) Daddy, what are car tyres made of? (rubber) They’re made Have you worked in a primary school before? (experience) No, I don’t I wonder who won the general election in Sweden? (paper) We could buy (child) Mum, what’s the Mona Lisa? (work) It’s What’s your favourite ice-cream flavour? (chocolate) My favourite

What is the difference between (a) and (b) in each pair? Check in a dictionary if you’re not sure. 1 a b a 2 a b a 3 a b a 4 a b a

She was always a great lover of the arts. Are you an art lover? theatre, music, etc. Arts here means b Art here means (road sign) PLANT AND HEAVY MACHINERY CROSSING I’ve bought you a house plant. Plant here means b A plant here means There was a lot of damage to the car as a result of the accident. The film star won $500,000 in damages because the story in the newspaper was untrue. Damage here means b Damages here means I’ve had some bad times at the dentist’s! How many times have you been to the dentist’s this year? Times here means b Times here means English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

177

86 A

Making uncountable nouns countable Bit and piece You can make many uncountable nouns singular and countable by adding a piece of or a (little) bit of. Similarly, you can make such nouns plural with pieces of or bits of. Bit is less formal than piece and they are not always interchangeable. Bit can be used with all types of nouns. Piece tends to be used more with uncountable nouns. Bit suggests a smaller amount than piece. How many pieces of luggage have you got with you? The police collected bits of information from different sources. Chopin wrote some wonderful pieces of music. Before you go to England I should give you two bits of advice … He spends all his money buying new bits of computer equipment.

Common mistakes We say: What an attractive piece of furniture! (NOT What an attractive furniture!)

B

Words that go with specific uncountable nouns Weather

FORECAST rain sun lightning wind Today’s weather will be variable. In the north there are likely to be heavy showers (of rain). The sunny spell (of weather) that we have had this last week will continue in much of the south although there may be occasional rumbles of thunder and flashes of lightning in some areas with some quite loud claps of thunder in one or two areas. These will be followed by a few spots of rain but gusts of wind should soon blow them away and the sunshine will then return. See Unit 6 for more weather words. Groceries ‘I need a loaf of bread, a couple of slices of ham, two bars of chocolate, a tube of toothpaste, two cartons of milk and three bars of soap.’ (slice can also be used with toast, bread, meat and cheese) Nature Look at the ladybird on that blade of grass! What’s happened? Look at that cloud of smoke hanging over the town! We could see little puffs of smoke coming out of the volcano. Let’s go out and get a breath of fresh air. Put another lump of coal on the fire, please. (lump can also be used with sugar) Other words I had an amazing stroke of luck this morning. I’ve never seen him do a stroke of work. (only in negative sentences, more emphatic than a bit of work) I’ve never seen him in such a fit of temper before. The donkey is the basic means of transport on the island. Jeans must be the most useful article/item of clothing ever invented. There was an interesting item of news about France on TV last night.

C

A state of Nouns used with a state of are usually abstract and include chaos, tension, confusion, health, disorder, uncertainty, poverty, agitation, disrepair and flux [continuous change], e.g. The transport system is in a state of chaos.

178

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 86.1

Match the words on the left with the words they collocate with on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

86.2

h of

a b c d e f g h

lightning coal grass news rain clothing thunder luck

Change the uncountable nouns to countable nouns in the following sentences by using piece, bit or one of the more specific words from B. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

86.3

a stroke a shower an article a lump a flash a blade an item a rumble

Could you buy me some bread, please? Could you buy me a loaf of bread, please? My mother gave me some advice that I have always remembered. Suddenly the wind almost blew him off his feet. We had some terribly windy weather last winter. Would you like some more toast? He never does any work at all in the house. Let’s go to the park - I need some fresh air. I can give you some important information about that. We could see smoke hovering over the city from a long way away. I need to get some furniture for my flat.

Use words from C opposite to fit the clues for the puzzle below. 1 The reforms mean that the country’s education system is in a state of at the moment but hopefully things will soon settle down. 2 We are still in a state of as to who has won the election. 3 The country’s infrastructure is in a state of after the earthquake. 4 We fell in love with the house although it was in a dreadful state of 5 My granny wouldn’t be in such a bad state of now if she hadn’t smoked all her life. 6 Although this is supposed to be an affluent society, many people are still living in a state of

86.4

1

F L 2U X 3

4

5

6

Over to you Make up sentence clues like those in 86.3 to match this puzzle. 1

F

L

2

A

S

H

R

O

K

L

A

P

A

T

H

R 3

S

T

E

I 4

C L

5

B

R

E S

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

179

87 A

Collective nouns People Collective nouns are used to describe a group of the same people or things.

a group of people (smaller number)

B

a crowd of people (large number)

a gang of thieves (rather negative)

Words associated with certain animals A flock of sheep or birds, e.g. geese/pigeons; a herd of cows, deer, goats; a shoal of fish (or any particular fish, e.g. a shoal of herring/mackerel - note the use of singular here); a swarm /swO:m/ of insects (typically flying ones, e.g. a swarm of bees/gnats). A pack of … can be used for dogs, hyenas, wolves, etc. as well as for (playing) cards.

C

People involved in the same job/activity These nouns are used with singular or plural verbs, depending on your point of view. A team of reporters/rescue workers was/were at the scene of the disaster. The crew was/were saved when the ship sank. [workers on a ship/ambulance/plane] The company is/are rehearsing a new production. [group of actors] The cast is/are all amateurs. [actors in a film or theatre production] The public has/have a right to know the truth. [the people as a whole] The staff are on strike. (normally used with a plural verb; general word for groups who share a place of work, e.g. teachers in a school, people in an office)

D

Physical features of landscapes In the picture we can see a row of cottages near a clump of trees with a range of hills in the background. Out on the lake there is a small group of islands.

E

Things in general a pair of birds sitting on a branch [two of anything that are the same] a couple of strawberries [vague way of saying two, not necessarily exactly the same] a pile/heap of papers (or clothes, dishes, toys, etc.) a bunch of flowers (or grapes, bananas, etc.) a stack of chairs (or tables, boxes, logs, etc.) a set of tools (or pots and pans, dishes, etc.)

180

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 87.1

Fill each gap with a suitable collective noun. There are swarms of mosquitoes in the forests in Scandinavia in the summer. As we looked into the water, we saw a of brightly coloured fish. There was a of youths on the corner; they didn’t look very friendly. There’s a of cards on the bookshelf. Will you fetch them for me, please? A of biologists is studying marine life in this area. Look at that of birds on that tree. Both of them have beautiful markings. I wonder what they are? 7 Could you put a of spoons of sugar in this coffee for me, please? It’s very bitter. Yes, just two, that’s fine. Thanks. 1 2 3 4 5 6

87.2

In each case, one of the examples is wrong. Which one? Put a line through it. 1 2 3 4 5 6

87.3

Match the collective nouns on the left with the words on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

87.4

Company is often used for actors / swimmers / opera singers. Cast is often used for people in a play / a book / a film. Crew is often used for the staff of an ambulance / a plane / a hospital. Pack is often used for cats / dogs / wolves. Flock is often used for sheep / pigeons / pigs. Herd is often used for cows / fish / goats.

a clump of a range of a gang of a swarm of a row of a heap of a herd of a bunch of

c

a b c d e f g h

houses flies fir trees deer grapes mountains criminals bed linen

Rewrite these sentences using collective nouns. Don’t forget to change the verb to singular or plural where necessary. 1 There are some tables on top of one another in the next room.

There is a stack of tables in the next room. 2 3 4 5 6

87.5

There are a large number of people waiting outside. The people who work there are very well paid. A large number of sheep had escaped from a field. She gave me six identical glasses. She gave me five or six beautiful roses.

Some collective nouns are associated with words about using language. Underline any you can see in this text, check their meanings in a dictionary and make a note of them in your vocabulary notebook. THE journalists raised a host of difficult questions about the actions of the police during the demonstration. There had been a barrage of complaints about police violence. The Chief of Police replied that he was not prepared to listen to a string of wild accusations without any evidence. In the end, he just gave a series of short answers that left everyone dissatisfied.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

181

88

Containers and contents

A

bag

can carton

pack

B

182

basket

barrel

case (e.g. for glasses)

packet

crate

pan

box

bowl

bottle

glass

sack

pot

jug

jar

tin

mug

tub /tʌb/ tube /tʃuːb/

More information about these containers container

usually made of

typical contents

bag

cloth, paper, plastic

sweets, shopping, mail

barrel

wood and metal

oil, wine, beer

basket

wicker, metal

shopping, clothes, waste paper

bottle

glass, plastic

milk, lemonade, wine

bowl

china, glass, wood

fruit, soup, sugar

box

cardboard, wood

matches, tools, toys, chocolates

bucket

metal, plastic

sand, water

can

tin

cola, beer

carton

card

milk, juice

case

leather, wood, cardboard

jewellery, spectacles, wine

crate

wood, plastic

bottles

glass

glass

milk, water, wine

jar

glass, pottery

jam, honey, olives, instant coffee

jug

pottery

milk, cream, water

mug

pottery

tea, coffee, cocoa

pack

card

cards, six cans of cola/beer

packet

card, paper, plastic

tea, biscuits, cereal, crisps

pan

metal

food that is being cooked

pot

plastic, metal, pottery

yoghurt, plant, paint

sack

cloth, plastic

coal, rubbish

tin

tin

tomatoes, sardines, fruit

tub

wood, plastic, card

flowers, rainwater, ice cream

tube

soft metal, plastic

toothpaste, paint, ointment

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

bucket

Exercises 88.1

Complete the blanks in the shopping list without looking at the opposite page.

1 2 3 4 5

88.2

a tube two four a a biscuits

of toothpaste of milk of cola of tuna of chocolate

6 7 8 9

a a large a six

of yoghurt of matches of honey of crisps

Try the following quiz about the words on the opposite page. 1 Which two of the containers listed would you be most likely to find holding flowers in a garden?

a pot, a tub

2 Which three are you most likely to find in a cellar? 3 Which five of these would you be most likely to see in the drinks section of a large supermarket? 4 Which five would you be most likely to see on the breakfast table? 5 Which two containers might a postman carry the post in and which is bigger? 6 Which two are often used for carrying shopping?

88.3

Name the containers and their contents.

1

7

88.4

a jar of peanut butter

2

8

3

9

4

5

6

10

11

12

Think of other words which are often used with the following containers. 1 2 3 4

shopping, wastepaper, linen

basket box bottle bag

5 6 7

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

jug glass pot

183

89 A

B

Expressions with do and make Phrasal verbs with do and make phrasal verb

meaning

example

do without

manage without

We’ll have to do without a holiday this year as money is so short.

do away with

abolish, get rid of

It should be our ambition to do away with poverty in the world.

make for

move in the direction of

Let’s make for the city centre and look for a restaurant there.

make of

think (opinion)

What do you make of the new software?

make off

leave hurriedly

He made off as soon as he heard their car turn into the drive.

make up for

compensate for

The superb food at the hotel made up for the uncomfortable rooms.

Meanings of phrasal verbs Some phrasal verbs have a number of different meanings, e.g. do up can mean not only ‘fasten’ but also ‘renovate’ and ‘put into a bundle’. Similarly, make out can mean ‘claim’, ‘manage to see’ and ‘understand’; make up can mean ‘compose’ or ‘invent’; it can also mean ‘constitute’ or ‘form’, ‘put cosmetics on’, ‘prepare by mixing together various ingredients’ and ‘make something more numerous or complete’.

C

Collocations with do and make There are a lot of other common collocations based on do and make. Note that most combinations referring to activities, work or duty use do whereas those which lead to an end product (e.g. tea, a cake, a noise, a toy boat, a profit) use make. You do: your homework / the housework / some gardening / exercise / the washing-up / your best / the shopping / the cooking / business with … , and so on.

You make: a cup of tea / arrangements / an agreement / a suggestion / a decision / war / an attempt / a phone call / the best of … / an effort / an excuse / a mistake / a profit / a loss / love / the most of / a noise / a good or bad impression / a success of … / allowances for …1 / a gesture / a face / fun of … / a fuss of …2 / a go (a success) of … , and so on. 1 consider someone’s situation and not judge them harshly 2 give someone a lot of attention and treat them well

Common mistakes We say: When I do my homework, I try not to make too many mistakes. (NOT When I make my homework, I try not to do too many mistakes.)

184

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 89.1

Here are some different ways in which do up, make up and make out can be used. What is the meaning of the phrasal verb in each case? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

89.2

Take this prescription to the chemist and she’ll make it up for you. prepare it so you can use it Can you make out the little white house on the mountain side? A human being is made up of many, often conflicting, desires. The present was beautifully done up in gold paper. I just can’t make Joe out. He’s so strange. Let’s advertise the talk and hope we make up the numbers a bit. He made out that he had never loved anyone else. She believed him. We’re planning to do up our bathroom at the weekend. It’s looking rather old and dull.

Add the necessary prepositions or particles to complete this story.

up Last weekend we decided to start doing 1 our bedroom. We agreed that we could do 2 the old fireplace in the corner. As we began to remove it from the wall we found some old photographs done 3 in a bundle behind a loose brick. At first we could not 4 make what they were but we wiped them clean and realised they were all of the same young man. We spent an enjoyable evening making 5 stories to explain why the pictures had been hidden. 89.3

In each sentence below, there is an error with choice of particle. Correct the mistakes. 1 2 3 4 5 6

89.4

Complete the following sentences using an appropriate expression from C. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

89.5

away

I’m going to do out with my old laptop and buy a new one. It’s too old and too slow. This weekend we are planning to make to the seaside. Vast amounts of money do not always make of happiness. Your shoelaces are untied. Do them in or you’ll trip over. They like to make away that they are very important people. Thieves robbed the bank and made out with £1,000,000.

WAR !’ Pacifist posters in the 1960s used to say ‘MAKE LOVE NOT It doesn’t matter if you pass the exam or not, as long as you do Companies that once made a huge are now going bankrupt. I don’t like doing but someone has to clean, wash, iron and cook! You must make the fact that he’s only seven years old. Dressing smartly for an interview helps you to make Her company does a lot of in East Asia selling educational software. Do you do much ? Yes, I go to the gym three times a week. Over to you Which of these things do you think you could do without and why? mobile phone TV sunglasses laptop or tablet How often do you do the shopping, the cooking, the washing-up?

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

185

90 A

Expressions with bring and take Phrasal verbs with bring Each example is a typical spoken sentence and a more formal equivalent is provided in brackets. My father’s parents brought him up in the country because they thought that country life was better for children. [raised] Don’t give up. I’m sure you’ll bring it off in the end. [succeed] Cold winds always bring on her cough. [cause to start] The strike brought about a change of government. [caused to happen] Ford Motors are bringing out an interesting new model in the spring. [introducing] I hope they don’t bring back capital punishment. [re-introduce] They promised to bring down taxes but they have actually raised them. [lower] Inflation will probably bring down the government. [destroy, remove from power] Keep trying to persuade him and you’ll bring him round to your point of view. [persuade]

B

Phrasal verbs with take Doesn’t he take after his father! They even sound the same. [resemble] I wish I could take back what I said to her. [withdraw] It’s hard to take in his lectures - he speaks in such an abstract way. [absorb, understand] She was completely taken in by him and agreed to give him all her money. [deceived] Sales have really taken off now - we should make a good profit this year. [started to improve] The plane took off two hours late. [left the ground] She’s very good at taking off her teacher - she sounds just like her. [imitating] We’ll have to take on more staff if we’re to take on more work. [employ] [accept] Nelson is going to take over as manager in July. [start doing a job] She took to him at once and they soon became close friends. [formed an immediate liking for] When did you take up golf? [start (a hobby)]

C

Common expressions with bring and take The new regulations will be brought into force in May. [become law] His research brought some very interesting facts to light. [revealed] Matters were brought to a head when Lily was sacked. [reached a point where changes had to be made] It’s better that everything should be brought into the open. [made public] His new girlfriend has really brought out the best in him. [been good for him] Don’t let him take advantage of you. [unfairly use superiority] After 20 years of marriage he takes her for granted. [doesn’t appreciate her qualities] I took it for granted you’d come - you always do. [assumed] She immediately took control of the situation. [started organising] His unkind words took my breath away. [surprised] The story takes place in Mexico. [happens] Leaving his job before he’s found a new one is taking a risk. [doing something risky] It’s impossible to take such a silly suggestion seriously. [consider as serious] Don’t forget to take travel costs into account in the budget. [consider] He doesn’t seem to take pride in his work. [draw satisfaction from] You must take the opportunity to visit the castle while you’re here. [use the chance]

186

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 90.1

Complete these sentences with the appropriate preposition or particle.

back 1 The school reforms which plan to bring a more traditional style of exams for children are generally unpopular. 2 The bumpy journey brought labour and the baby was born on the bus. 3 I think the strikes will bring some changes in management. 4 If anyone can bring it , he can. 5 He won’t agree to it for me but she can always bring him 6 She brought six children all on her own. 90.2

Complete the bubble network below with phrasal verbs based on take. to up

over

TAKE

out

staff

off

insurance 90.3

on

Reword these sentences using expressions from C opposite. 1 The story of the film happens in Casablanca during the war.

The story of the film takes place in Casablanca during the war. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

90.4

Today’s newspaper has revealed some fascinating information about the President. The situation reached crisis point when the union called for a strike. You need to consider the historical context of the novel in your essay. The view from the top of the hill was astonishing. He capitalised on her weakness at the time and she gave it to him. If you’re going to succeed in business you must be prepared to not always do the safe thing. You shouldn’t assume that anyone or anything will always be the same.

Make a bubble network like the one in 90.2, based on phrasal verbs with bring.

children

up BRING

90.5

Which of the expressions in C mean the opposite of: 1 to keep quiet to bring into the open 2 to laugh at

90.6

3 to be as expected 4 to drop an old law

5 to be careless about 6 to be subordinate to

Over to you Answer the questions using one of the phrasal verbs in A or B opposite. 1 Where were you brought up? I was born and brought up in Scotland. 2 If you had time to take up a new sport or other leisure activity, what would it be? 3 Who do you take after more - your mother or your father? 4 What new law has been brought into force recently in your country? 5 What kind of teacher do you find brings out the best in you? 6 What changes would you like your country’s current government to bring about? 7 Can you think of someone who you’ve immediately taken to? 8 Have you ever taken on too much work? English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

187

91 A

Expressions with get Meanings of get Get is used frequently in spoken English. It has the following basic meanings: • receive, obtain or buy something, e.g. Please get me a sandwich when you’re in town. I got a text from John today. She got top marks in her exam. • change position - move or be moved, e.g. How are you getting home tonight? • change state - become or make, e.g. She’s ill but she’s getting better.

B

Specific meanings of get Get also has many other more specific meanings. It’s my turn to get dinner tonight. [prepare a meal] I don’t get it. Why did he speak like that? [understand] His behaviour really gets me at times. [annoy] I saw Harry’s new girlfriend at the party but I didn’t get to speak to her. [manage] Once we got to know each other, we became great friends. [became acquainted] The phone’s ringing and there’s someone at the door! You get the phone and I’ll get the door. [answer, respond to]

C

D

Phrasal verbs based on get phrasal verb

meaning

example

get across

successfully communicate an idea

It was difficult to get my point of view across to the committee.

get at

reach, find

I hope the inquiry will get at the truth.

get behind with

fail to do something by a certain time

I’ve got terribly behind with my work.

get down

depress

This weather is getting me down.

get down to

begin to give some serious attention to

It’s time you got down to some work.

get into

be successful with an application (e.g. to a college/school)

She did well in her exams and got into university.

get on

manage

However will we get on without you?

get on

advance, develop

Jo is getting on very well at school.

get out of

avoid a responsibility

I’ll try to get out of my next lesson.

get over

recover from

She’s getting over a bad attack of flu.

get round

spread

The news soon got round the village.

get round to

do something you’ve intended to do for a long time

I need to buy a new desk but I can’t get round to it. I’m so busy.

get through

come to a successful end

I’m glad she got through all her exams!

get through

use up all of

He got through his month’s salary in just one weekend.

get up to

to do (especially something bad)

The children are very quiet. I wonder what they’re getting up to?

Other expressions based on get You seem to have got out of bed on the wrong side today. [be in a bad mood] The meeting got off to a good/bad start with Elliot’s speech. [started well/badly] I’m organising a little get-together. I hope you can come. [informal meeting/party] When they broke up he got rid of everything of hers. [threw away / destroyed] I’m going to get my own back on her somehow. [take my revenge]

188

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 91.1

Replace the underlined get expressions with another way of expressing the same idea. Note that by doing this you are changing the text from being very informal to being slightly more formal.

receive

I don’t often get interesting junk mail. However, an unusual item came this morning. It was headed ‘Are things getting you down? Do you feel you’ll just never get to do all those things you dream of?’ And it went on, ‘If so, get this great new book today: Manage Your World by Simon Triksta. It will teach you how to get over those daily upsets, and will ensure that you get the contentment in your work that you long for and that you fulfil your dreams. Send €25 today to get Manage Your World and your key to success within ten days.’ Maybe I should get it!

91.2

Fill the gaps in the sentences below in the most appropriate way. 1 Although they had only told their parents about their engagement, the news soon got round the village. 2 She must have made a good impression last week because she has got to the second round of interviews for the job. 3 I have an essay to write but I’m finding it hard to get it. 4 I’ve been meaning to redecorate my room for ages but I just can’t get it. 5 What have you been getting since we last met? 6 Surely you haven’t got all the biscuits already? 7 The new political party was finding it difficult to get its message to the public. 8 I was ill last semester and I got seriously with my studies. If this continues, I probably won’t get university this year. 9 We’re having a geton Friday to celebrate Jan’s birthday. Would you like to come? 10 His progress on the guitar was slow at first, but he’s getting well now.

91.3

Match the situations on the left with the appropriate responses on the right. 1 Someone has been very impolite to one of your friends. 2 Someone is about to throw something away. 3 Someone is being negative about everything you suggest. 4 Someone has done something very cruel to you. 5 Someone says they can’t help with the clearing up after a party.

91.4

e

a You always try to get out of things! b You wait! I’ll get my own back on you one day! c Don’t get rid of that yet! d You got out of bed on the wrong side this morning! e Your rudeness really gets me!

Over to you Complete the following sentences in a way that is true for you. 1 I would hate to get rid of … 2 My … got off to a bad start because … 3 I find it very hard to get down to …

4 I wish I could get out of … 5 … is really getting me down.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

189

92 A

Expressions with set and put Phrasal verbs based on set Since his daughter’s birth, Robert had been setting aside1 money for her wedding. Now he and his wife were setting off2 to meet Carl, her new fiancé. Carl was a mountaineer who had set out3 several times to climb Mount Everest but had had to turn back because bad weather had set off4 avalanches. Now he was trying to set up5 a sports equipment business. Robert didn’t altogether like the sound of Carl but he was doing his best to set aside6 his negative feelings. 1

reserving 5 establish

B

2

beginning a journey 3 begun something with a particular aim in mind 4 caused 6 ignore (not think about)

Phrasal verbs with put Note: It would not normally be natural to use all of these expressions together.

Emma put her own name forward1 for election to the staff committee. Ten other people had also put in2 proposal forms but Emma was elected because she is very good at putting her ideas across3. She also has a talent for putting her opponents down4. At the first meeting she was largely silent though occasionally she would put in5 a remark. At the next meeting she was more involved. She supported the proposal that central heating should be put in6 in the staff canteen and agreed to help put together7 some new flatpack furniture for the canteen. She also voted for the local school being allowed to use the staff club to put on8 a play. She insisted that the play would not put staff out9 at all provided that the school put all their props away10 after each performance. She said that she would put up11 relatives coming from other towns to watch the play. She argued that the committee should put off12 making their decision about putting up13 staff club membership subscriptions until they had found out how staff felt about this. She agreed to put up14 posters encouraging all staff to come to the next committee meeting. Later that evening Emma made her mother laugh as she imitated other committee members she’s good at putting on15 all sorts of accents. ‘The chairperson really put me off16 with his constant sniffing,’ she said, ‘and I don’t know how they put up with17 the secretary’s rudeness.’ 1 proposed 6 installed 12 postpone

C

2 submitted

3 communicating

7 assemble

8 present

13 raising

14 display

4 making

someone look small 5 say something 9 inconvenience 10 tidied 11 give accommodation to 15 pretending to have 16 distracted 17 tolerate

Expressions with set and put He has set his heart/sights on becoming a ballet dancer. [longs to become] I’ve set myself a target of losing five kilos by the end of the year. [am aiming to lose] They sat up till the small hours setting/putting the world to rights. [discussing important problems] Did someone set fire to the house deliberately? [put a match to] The prisoner will be set free tomorrow. [released] Lottie had never set foot in Italy before. [been to] The Egyptian runner has set a new world record. [established an achievement record] Teachers have to try to set a good example for young people. [be a good example] to put your foot down: to be firm about something to put pressure on someone: to try to force someone to do something to put your mind to: to direct all your thoughts towards to put two and two together: to draw an obvious conclusion to put an end / a stop to something: to cause something to stop to put someone’s back up: to irritate someone a put-up job: something arranged to give a false impression

190

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 92.1

Put the following sentences into slightly more formal English by replacing the phrasal verbs with their formal equivalents. 1 They have recently set up a committee on teenage smoking.

They have recently established a committee on teenage smoking.

2 3 4 5

92.2

We try to set aside some money for our holiday every week. Set aside all your negative feelings and listen with an open mind. If we hadn’t set off so late, we would have arrived on time. The government’s unpopular proposals set off a wave of protests.

Write three nouns which could follow each of the verbs. Remember that their meanings might be different depending on the noun which follows. put in money / a comment / an effort put forward put off put across put up put on put away put up with

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

92.3

Write responses to the following statements or questions using any appropriate phrasal verb from A or B opposite. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

92.4

He’s always so rude. I wouldn't put up with it if I were you. This room is in a terrible mess. What time do we have to leave for the airport tomorrow? Any chance of a bed on your floor this weekend? Why have you suddenly lost interest in the project? What is Adam planning to do when he gets his business degree? How should we publicise our play? I’ve taken all the bits for my new desk out of the pack but now I don’t know where to start.

Using the expressions in C opposite, reword the following sentences without changing their meaning. 1 They have promised to liberate the hostages at noon. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

They have promised to set the hostages free at noon.

He’s bound to draw the obvious conclusion if you keep on behaving like that. Her aim is to become Prime Minister. I find her terribly irritating. If you try to make her change her mind it’ll make her even more determined. Please concentrate on the problem in hand. She is determined to get a seat in Parliament. She threw petrol on the rubbish and put a match to it. It’s time the teacher told the children to stop making so much noise. The man has officially eaten more burgers in one hour than anyone else. This is the first time I’ve ever been to the southern hemisphere. We spent most of our evenings discussing the problems of the world rather than studying. You really should be firm with him or there’ll be trouble later. If the teacher doesn’t behave properly, the children certainly won’t. His goal is to run the Athens marathon next year.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

191

93 A

Expressions with come and go Phrasal verbs based on come Did the meeting you were planning ever come off? [take place] When do the exam results come out? [be published, made public] I must tell you about an important point which came up at the meeting. [was raised] Please come round and see me sometime. [pay an informal visit] Nothing can come between him and football. [separate, be a barrier between] I came across a lovely old vase in that junk shop. [found by chance] How did you come by that bruise / that car? [receive, obtain] Computer prices have come down recently. [decreased] Sofia came up with a really good idea to raise money for charity. [thought of / suggested a plan or solution to a problem]

B

Collocations with come to and come into Come to often refers to the idea of ‘arriving at’. Come into often refers to the idea of starting or acquiring. come to + collocations

an agreement a conclusion a standstill [stop] an end

C

examples

a decision terms with [acknowledge and accept psychologically]

The two sides have at last come to an agreement. Traffic came to a standstill because of the snow. The war finally came to an end in 2005.

come into + collocations

examples

contact (with) a fortune [receive when someone dies] operation [start working] sight/view

He came into a fortune when his uncle died. The new motorway will come into operation next March. After two hours at sea, the island came into sight/view.

existence fashion

Phrasal verbs based on go Some of these have a number of different meanings. go on: What is going on next door? [happening] They went on working despite the noise. [continued] As the weeks went on, things improved. [passed] You go on, we’ll catch you up later. [go in advance] He’s always going on at me about my untidy hair. [criticising, complaining] go through: I wouldn’t like to go through that again. [experience, endure] Let’s go through the plans once more. [check] Unfortunately, the business deal we were hoping for did not go through in the end. [was not completed or approved] go for: He really went for her when she dared to criticise him. [attacked] Which course have you decided to go for? [choose] go with: Those shoes don’t go with that dress. [suit, match]

D

Other expressions based on go I hope they’ll make a go of the business but they are taking a big risk. [make a success of] He’s been on the go all day and he’s exhausted. [very busy, on the move] It goes without saying that we’ll support you. [clear without being said] Your work is good, as far as it goes. [but is limited or insufficient] The story goes that they were once very close friends. [It is said that … / It seems that …] They went to great lengths to keep it a secret. [took a lot of trouble] The business has gone bankrupt. [not got enough money to pay debts]

192

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 93.1

Which meanings do these underlined verbs have? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

93.2

Choose one of the expressions in B to complete each of the sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

93.3

I don’t need to say that we wish you all the best in the future. It goes without saying They took a lot of trouble to avoid meeting each other. I’ve been extremely busy all day and I’m longing for a shower now and to relax. I do hope he will be successful in his new business. Everyone says that they were together that night. The film is good up to a point but it doesn’t tackle the problem deeply enough.

Match questions on the left with the responses on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

93.5

to a decision. I found it really hard to make up my mind but in the end I came When his grandmother dies, he’ll come After four years of fighting, the civil war finally came Halfway up the steep hill, the bus came They say that long skirts are coming again. The telephone first came nearly 150 years ago. I found it very difficult to come my failure. As we drove round the corner the house came

Replace the underlined expressions with one of the expressions in D. 1 2 3 4 5 6

93.4

He went on composing music till his eighties. continued She was so suspicious that she used to go through his pockets every night. The dog went for the postman. We had planned a meeting but it never came off. I came across a photo of my grandmother the other day. I look just like her. I wish you’d stop going on at me! I was sure he’d go for a holiday in Greece rather than stay at home. Does this top go with these trousers? Nobody has come up with a solution to the problem so far.

Why don’t you and Ollie go on? How did he come by so much money? Did the plan go through? What’s the worst pain you’ve ever gone through? Why did that factory close down? When should I come round to your place? What’s going on over there?

c

a Any time after eight. b The firm went bankrupt. c We’ll catch you up. d A rich aunt of his died. e No, people voted against it. f It looks like a demonstration. g When I broke my wrist.

Over to you Complete the sentences in a way that is true for you. 1 I hope I make a go of

.

2 My exam results will come out

.

3 My … shoes go with my

. again.

4 I never want to go through 5 As my English course goes on,

.

6 It’s not easy to come to terms with

.

7 I’ve come to the conclusion that learning English

.

8 I came across a new English word recently. It was

.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

193

94 A

Expressions with other common verbs Look I look forward to hearing from you at your earliest convenience. (at end of formal letter) The police are looking into the matter. [investigating] They need to look at all the evidence before reaching a decision. [examine] She looks down on anyone she thinks is inferior to her. [despises; opp look up to = admire] It’s hard to be positive but do try to look on the bright side. [be optimistic]

B

See Sue tries to see about/to arrangements for the conference at least a year ahead. [deal with] We all went to see Jana off at the airport. [accompany someone who is leaving] It didn’t take Tom long to see through her. [understand she was trying to deceive] That can’t be Hamid. He’s in Paris this week. I must be seeing things. [imagining it]

C

Run I ran into an old friend yesterday - I had no idea she was in town. [met by chance] Her patience has run out and she has told him she won’t help him any more. [come to an end] We’ve run out of milk. [there is none left] Let’s run over the plans again to make sure we’ve thought of everything. [quickly go through] Things may be hard now but it’ll be worth it in the long run. [in the distant future] The trains have stopped running because of the avalanche. [operating]

D

Turn Everyone was very surprised when she turned down the promotion and explained that she was leaving the company. [rejected] Naoko turned up last night. I haven’t seen her for years! [appeared] I’m going to turn over a new leaf this year and answer all my letters the day I get them! [start doing something in a better way] The fire bell turned out to be a false alarm. [was discovered]

E

Let He has been let down so many times in the past - I hope he won’t be disappointed again. Don’t let go of the rope or she’ll fall and hurt herself. The accused was let off with a fine. [received a small punishment for a crime] When she let it slip that she had been given a pay rise, the other workers were very angry. [say something, sometimes without meaning to]

F

Break No one likes people who break their promises. [don’t do what they say they’ll do] The speaker broke off in the middle of a sentence. [suddenly stopped talking] I’m dreading breaking the news to him. He’s going to be very upset. [telling someone something] When he left her, he broke her heart. [made her very sad] The sprinter broke the record for the 100 metres. [ran faster than anyone had run before]

194

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 94.1

Use the expressions on the opposite page to help you fill in the gaps in the text below. Use one word only in each gap. Let’s run 1 over the plans for tomorrow’s disco just once more. First, I must see 2 the food arrangements while you make sure that none of the people who’ve said they’ll help are going to break their 3 . I don’t 4 imagine that many people will turn until later but Beata and Roshan said they’ll come early and I’m sure they won’t let us 5

94.2

Rewrite the following sentences. Use an expression containing the word in brackets in an appropriate form. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

94.3

Complete the sentences in an appropriate way. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

94.4

Eva is always optimistic. (look) Eva always looks on the bright side. I met Julio by chance at the station yesterday. (run) Nadia didn’t tidy her room yesterday even though she said she would. (break) I thought I was hallucinating when I saw a monkey in the garden. (see) The police didn’t charge the boy, only giving him a warning. (let) Stupidly, I mentioned that Sabrina was planning to move abroad. (let) An enormous crowd came to hear the President speak. (turn) My aunt despises people who don’t have a good job. (look) Dan has promised to improve his behaviour. (turn) Natalie has always admired her older cousin. (look)

to hearing from you soon. I look forward It can be hard to see through someone’s lies if they Halfway up the mountain he let go It’ll be better in the long run if you He felt terribly let down when She didn’t turn up I’m afraid we’ve run out In my last year at school I decided to look into I agreed to see about It’s your turn Over to you 1 Have you ever turned down an offer or invitation that you later regretted? 2 If you were about to buy a house, what sort of things would you want to look at first? 3 Have you ever done something because you felt it might be useful in the long run? 4 What - if anything - stops public transport from running in your country? 5 Do you think it is possible for someone’s heart to be broken? 6 Have you ever resolved to turn over a new leaf? In what way(s)? 7 Do you have any particular jobs that you must see to today? If so, what? 8 Has your home ever been broken into? What happened? 9 Can you think of something that has happened to you recently that turned out very differently from how you had expected? English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

195

95 A

Formal and informal words 1 What is formality? Formality is all about your relationship with the person you’re speaking or writing to. If you use formal language, it may be because you wish to show respect, politeness, or to put yourself at a distance (for example, ‘official’ language, or academic language). Informal language can show friendliness, equality or a feeling of closeness and solidarity with someone. You should never use informal language just to sound fluent or clever.

B

Scales of formality Some groups of words can be put on a scale from formal to neutral to informal.

C

formal

neutral

informal

offspring abode / residence goodbye go amiss

children house / flat / home bye go wrong

kids place bye-bye / cheerio go pear-shaped

Words of Latin and Greek origin Many longer words that come from Latin and Greek are quite formal. Here are some with their neutral and/or informal equivalents, which are often shorter words. I’ll go and email Kieran immediately. [neutral equivalent: at once; informal equivalent: right away] The researchers utilise the most modern equipment. [neutral equivalent: use] This problem frequently occurs with older software. [neutral equivalent: often happens] The study established a link between stress and ill-health. [neutral equivalent: showed/proved] This book provides us with a picture of ordinary life in the Middle Ages. [neutral equivalent: gives] The government attempted to reduce unemployment by supporting new businesses. [neutral equivalent: tried] Physicists seek answers to fundamental questions about the universe. [neutral equivalents: search for / look for; basic]

D

Formal phrases Many phrases are typical of formal contexts such as academic or official language. What should the government do in terms of1 helping young people? Students, in particular2, need support to complete their studies, on account of3 the high fees and living costs they have to meet. Should students be given financial support on the basis of4 their family circumstances? And how should the government act in relation to5 youth unemployment? The definitions give less formal or neutral equivalents. 1 as regards, about

E

2 especially

3 because of

4 according to

Formality in notices, instructions, etc. You will often see rather formal words in signs, notices and directions. Make sure you know the meaning of the words used so that you could tell someone what the notice says using less formal words.

THIS STAIRWAY

DO NOT

IS CLOSED

ALIGHT WHILE

UNTIL FURTHER

THE BUS

NOTICE.

IS IN MOTION.

LIFT CAPACITY SIX PERSONS OR MAX 500 KILOS

196

5 as regards, about, in connection with

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Articles deposited must be paid for in advance.

DO NOT ADDRESS THE DRIVER UNLESS THE BUS IS STATIONARY.

We regret we no longer accept cheques.

Tickets must be purchased before boarding the train.

Exercises 95.1

Make the underlined words neutral, using words from B opposite. 1 2 3 4 5

95.2

Make the underlined words more formal, using words from C opposite. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

95.3

The link between smoking and lung cancer was shown decades ago. established Anyone looking for employment in the film industry faces a tough time. Social scientists often use official statistics in their research. How often does the temperature fall to below zero? If there is a fire, sound the fire alarm right away. Do not try to put the fire out. Poverty is a basic issue in the world today. This problem happens when the computer’s hard drive becomes full. The doctor gave the patient a new drug that had not been fully tested.

Complete the sentences with words from the opposite page. 1 2 3 4 5

95.4

children She had no offspring and left all her money to her niece. The plan went pear-shaped and they abandoned the idea. His abode was a small, rather old building on the edge of town. Cheerio for now. I’ll call you again tomorrow at 9.30. Where are the kids? Are they in the garden?

on It would be wrong to make a decision the basis of incomplete information. The Internet can be a dangerous place. Children, in , need to be protected. What do we need terms equipment to do this experiment? Several questions arose during the discussion relation the economy. He had to cancel his lecture on of illness.

Find words on the opposite page for the following. 1 the opposite of stationary in motion 2 the opposite of to board 3 a) to be sorry b) to buy d) get on 4 a formal word for people 5 a formal word for stairs

95.5

c) to speak to

If you look up an informal word in a monolingual dictionary, you will often find a neutral equivalent as part of the definition or explanation. For example, the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of English entry for kid says: ‘informal: a child or young person’. Use a dictionary to find neutral or more formal words for these: 1 kip sleep 2 a pal 3 a mate

95.6

4 swot 5 ta! 6 brainy

7 gross 8 dodgy

Over to you How do you mark whether a word is formal or informal in your vocabulary notebook? If possible, compare your way with someone else’s. See also Unit 96 for other formal and informal words and expressions.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

197

96 A

Formal and informal words 2 Monosyllabic informal words Informal versions of words are often short and monosyllabic (consist of one syllable).

The cops have arrived. [police] The house has two loos. [toilets] It cost me ten quid. [pounds] I’ll help you peel the spuds. [potatoes] My bike’s been stolen. [bicycle] I always go by tube. [word used for the London Underground] His dad spent ten years in the nick. [prison] I’ll get a cab from the station. [taxi]

B

Clippings Shortening a word tends to make it less formal, though these forms are acceptable in a wide range of contexts. I’ll meet you in the lab(oratory). She works for a tech(nology) company. What’s on telly tonight? [television] Have you seen that mag(azine)? We should put an ad(vertisement) / an advert(isement) in the (news)paper. Can I use your mobile (phone)? I need to (tele)phone my brother. There’s milk in the fridge. [refrigerator] Her sister’s a vet(erinary surgeon). Would you like to be a celeb(rity)? [famous person]

C

Slang Slang is extremely informal language. Slang helps to make speech vivid, colourful and interesting but it can easily be used inappropriately. Slang is mainly used in speech but it is also often found in the popular press and in literature. Slang changes very quickly, so some words go out of fashion, but you may meet them in novels and films. Some slang expressions may cause offence to some people. Here are some examples you may hear or read. Expressions for money: dosh readies moolah Expressions for food and drinks: nosh grub sarnie [sandwich] cuppa [cup of tea] People obsessed with computers or other equipment: nerd geek anorak Jobs: quack [doctor] shrink [psychiatrist] the old bill [the police] squaddie [soldier of a low rank]

Language help If you are interested in slang, you can find more examples in films or in the tabloid press but it is probably safest to keep it in your passive rather than your active vocabulary.

198

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 96.1

Make this conversation more informal by changing some of the words. Refer to the opposite page if necessary. JIM: ANNIE: JIM: ANNIE: JIM: ANNIE:

96.2

Replace the underlined words with more formal equivalents. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

96.3

soldiers The train was full of squaddies going home for the weekend. I’ve got a bad stomach ache - I think I’ll make an appointment with the quack. He spent two years in the nick for stealing cars. The cops arrived shortly after the accident. There’ll be plenty of nosh at the party so we don’t need to eat beforehand. He’s quite a celeb in the world of poetry. I’m dying for a cuppa. I haven’t had one since breakfast. I’d love to get a motorbike but I just don’t have the moolah.

Replace the informal words in these sentences with more formal words. 1 2 3 4 5

96.4

Annie, can you lend me ten pounds? quid What for? I’ve got to go and see my parents, and my bicycle’s not working, so I’ll have to get a taxi. Can’t you telephone them and say you can’t come? Well, I could, but my mobile phone’s not working, and I want to go because they always have lots of food, and the refrigerator at our flat is empty, as usual. Can’t you go by underground? Anyway, you’re in luck, I’ve got some money, so here you are.

advertisements

(formal email) I should like to enquire about the cost of ads on your website. (exam essay) The Internet and telly are probably the biggest influences on young people today. (recipe in a cookery book) Next, slice the spuds and place them on top of the meat. (exam essay) Papers face stiff competition these days from TV and internet news. (formal university publicity) The Faculty offers courses in vet science. Lab facilities are available 24 hours a day.

Another way of making informal words is by using short forms ending in -y or -ie. Can you work out the meanings of the following underlined words?

breakfast 1 Let’s have brekkie before we leave tomorrow. 2 It’s a nice day. Let’s have a barbie and eat in the garden. 3 D’you want a biccy with your coffee? 4 Jenny turned up at the party with her new hubby. 5 Oh, let me see your holiday piccies! … Is that you in the big straw hat? 6 They serve really nice veggie food. He’s a brickie.

96.5

Over to you Which English words do you know that are very informal or are slang? Where did you read or hear them? If possible, compare with a friend or classmate.

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199

97 A

Similes As ... as As … as similes are easy to understand. If you see the phrase as dead as a doornail, you don’t need to know what a doornail is, simply that the whole phrase means ‘totally dead’. But remember fixed similes are usually informal and often humorous. Those marked * are negative and could offend. Use all these expressions with care and keep them generally as part of your receptive vocabulary. Creating a picture in your mind can often help you remember the simile:

as blind as a bat*

as thin as a rake*

as strong as an ox

as quiet as a mouse

Some can be remembered as pairs of opposites. as heavy as lead /led/ ≠ as light as a feather as drunk as a lord* ≠ as sober as a judge as black as night ≠ as white as snow (particularly used in fairy tales) Some can be remembered by sound patterns. as good as gold (this is used about children’s behaviour) as cool as a cucumber as busy as a bee Some other useful phrases using as ... as: The bed was as hard as iron and I couldn’t sleep. I’ll give this plant some water. The soil’s dry as a bone. He’s as mad as a hatter*. He crossed the Atlantic in a bathtub. She told the teacher, as bold as brass, that his lessons were boring. You’ll have to speak slowly and clearly - he’s as deaf as a post*. Don’t worry. Passing this exam is as easy as pie. She knew the answer as quick as a flash. The Princess’s skin was as white as snow. [beautifully white] When he saw it, his face went as white as a sheet. [pale with fear/horror] The fish was bad and I was as sick as a dog. [vomiting] She ran off with my money - I felt as sick as a parrot. [bad feeling of disappointment/frustration]

When I told him, his face went as red as a beetroot.

Language help You can usually make a simile using as … as can be, e.g. I need a drink; I’m as thirsty as can be.

B

Like My plan worked like a dream and the problem was soon solved. [worked very smoothly and well] Be careful the boss doesn’t see you - she has eyes like a hawk. [sees everything] No wonder he’s fat. He eats like a horse and drinks like a fish*. Did you sleep well? Yes, thanks, like a log. Sorry, I forgot to ring him again. I’ve got a mind/head like a sieve! [be very forgetful] The boss is like a bear with a sore head today. [in a very bad temper] She goes around like a bull in a china shop*. [behaving in a very clumsy, insensitive way] Criticising the government in his presence is like a red rag to a bull. [certain to make him very angry]

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English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 97.1

Complete the as … as similes. 1 2 3 4 5

97.2

Different similes contain the same word. Fill the gap with the appropriate words. 1 2 3 4 5 6

97.3

Rosie is as mad as a hatter - you wouldn’t believe the crazy things she does. You’re not eating enough - you’re as thin as a . He never says a thing - he’s as quiet as a . You’ll have to shout - she’s as deaf as a . I’m afraid I can’t read this small print - I’m as blind as a without my glasses.

I feel great now. I slept like a log. No! It’s as easy as off a log. After eating that bad cheese I was as sick as a I knew she had deceived me. I felt as sick as a The old man’s hair was as white as Her face suddenly went as white as a

.

Match the simile beginnings on the left with the endings on the right. There are two that are not on the opposite page. Try and guess them. 1 quick

a daisy

c

b ox

2 red as

3 flat

as a(n)

c flash d beetroot

4 fresh 5 strong

97.4

.

. .

e pancake

Simile word puzzle. Fill in the answers, as in the example. Across 1 bold 3 mad 6 white 7 fresh 9 dry 10 quiet

Down 1 blind 2 light 3 iron 4 pie 5 cool 8 cold

1 2 4

3 5

6 7

8 9

10

97.5

What can you say about … 1 2 3 4 5

a person who sees everything and never misses a thing? He/She's got eyes like a hawk. a plan or course of action that works very well? someone who eats and drinks a great deal? someone with a very bad memory? someone who has been very active and busy all day?

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201

98 A

B

Proverbs Advice and warnings proverb

paraphrase

Don’t count your chickens before they hatch.

Don’t depend on something happening, because it may not.

Don’t put all your eggs in one basket.

Don’t invest all your efforts or attention in just one thing.

Never judge a book by its cover.

Don’t judge people/things by their outward appearance.

Never look a gift-horse in the mouth.

Never refuse good fortune when it is there in front of you.

Take care of the pennies and the pounds will take care of themselves.

Take care of small sums of money and they will become large sums.

We’ll cross that bridge when we come to it.

We’ll deal with that problem when it actually happens.

Key elements Proverbs can be grouped by key elements, for example, animals and birds. When the cat’s away, the mice will play. [people will take advantage of someone else’s absence to behave more freely] You can lead a horse to water but you can’t make it drink. [you can try to persuade someone, but you can’t force them] One swallow doesn’t make a summer. [one positive sign does not mean that all will be well; a swallow is a bird that returns to Britain in late spring]

C

Visualising As with learning all vocabulary, visualising an element of it often helps.

There’s no smoke without fire. / Where there’s smoke, there’s fire. [rumours are usually based on some degree of truth]

People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones. [don’t criticise others’ faults if you suffer from them yourself]

Too many cooks spoil the broth /brɒθ/. [too many people interfering is a bad way of doing things; broth = a kind of soup]

Many hands make light work. [a lot of people helping makes a job easier]

Language help Speakers tend to use proverbs to comment on a situation, often at the end of a true story someone has told, or in response to some event.

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English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 98.1

Find proverbs on the opposite page that you could use in these situations. 1 Someone says they have just been offered a free two-week holiday, but are hesitating whether to take up the offer. Never look a gift-horse in the mouth. 2 Someone thanks you and your friends for helping to load heavy boxes into a van. 3 Someone says they can’t be bothered applying to different universities and will just apply to one. 4 Three different people have made different arrangements for the same meeting, and so everyone comes at different times and the result is total confusion. 5 Someone is worried about a journey you are making with them and keeps saying things like ‘What’ll happen if the plane is delayed?’, ‘What’ll we do if our luggage gets lost?’

98.2

Answer these questions about the proverbs on the opposite page. Give an explanation for your answer. 1 Another common proverb is All that glitters is not gold. Which proverb has a similar meaning? Never

judge a book by its cover. They both warn against trusting how something looks.

2 Which proverb has an opposite meaning to Many hands make light work? 3 Another common proverb is Absence makes the heart grow fonder. Which proverb has an opposite meaning? 4 Which two proverbs warn against anticipating the future? 5 Another common proverb is A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. Which proverb has a similar meaning?

98.3

People often refer to proverbs by only saying half of them and leaving the rest for the listener to ‘fill in’. Complete the proverbs in these dialogues. 1 A: B: A: 2 A: B: A: 3 A: B: A: 4 A: B: A:

98.4

What proverbs do these pictures make you think of?

1

98.5

Joel’s always criticising people who are selfish, yet he’s terribly selfish himself. shouldn't throw stones. Yes, well, people who live in glass houses … Exactly. The people in the office have been playing computer games all day since the boss fell ill. Well, you know what they say: when the cat’s away … Right, and they’re currently doing that. I didn’t believe those rumours about Nick and Tara, but apparently they are seeing each other. You shouldn’t be so naive, you know what they say, where there’s smoke … Mm, I suppose you’re right. Amazing, he’s made a fortune from just one little shop! Well, I think it’s a case of take care of the pennies … Sure, he’s always been very careful with his money.

One swallow doesn't make a summer.

2

3

4

Over to you Try translating some proverbs word for word from your language into English. Then, if you can, ask a native speaker if they can tell you an English proverb with the same or a similar meaning. English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

203

99

The language of signs and notices Signs and notices in English often use words and expressions that are rarely seen in other contexts. Look at the signs and notices below with their ‘translations’ into more everyday English. 1

6

Young people under 18 years old can only come in if they are with an adult.

Get off here for Buckingham Palace.

2

7

People who walk on this private land will be taken to court. 3

12

8

4

Buy a ticket and put it in a place where it can easily be seen.

There is no way out at the other end of this road for cars.

You can be taken to court and made to pay £1,000 for dropping rubbish.

14

You may not enter without permission or if you do not work here. 10

You can buy lunch here now.

Start going more slowly now.

13

9

5

What is in this packet is officially considered bad for your health.

You are not allowed to feed the animals.

Please don’t use mobile phones in the theatre/hall.

204

11

Cyclists should get off their bikes here. 15

Please put the things you are going to buy / have bought here.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Only people with special cards giving them permission are allowed to fish here.

Exercises 99.1

Where would you expect to see each of the notices on the opposite page? EXAMPLE 1

99.2

Match the words on the left with their meanings on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

99.3

on a bus

to prosecute a penalty a purchase a trespasser to refrain to alight from to prohibit an auditorium to dismount a minor a vehicle

c

a b c d e f g h i j k

a young person under the age of 18 to get off a bicycle or a horse to bring a legal case against not to do something to forbid something a means of transport a punishment something which has been or is to be bought to get off a means of public transport a large place where an audience sits someone who goes on private land without permission

Where might you see each of these notices? Explain what they mean. 1

5

9

2

6

10

3

7

11

4 8

99.4

What notice would a café-owner or a shop-owner put up if they wanted to:

Breakfast now being served 1 indicate that their café was now open for breakfast? 2 let people know that the staff can speak Spanish? 3 prohibit people under 18 from entering unless they are with an adult? 4 ask customers not to enter the kitchen or the work area? 5 announce that they will take people who steal anything to court? 6 ask people politely not to handle the food or goods?

99.5

Over to you Look at the notices in your own language that you see around you every day. How would they be expressed in English? Try to find out, if they are not included in this unit. Also, look out for any signs in English in non-English-speaking countries. See if you can work out what they mean. English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

205

100 A

Headline English The grammar of headlines Newspaper headlines try to catch the reader’s eye by using as few words as possible. • Grammar words like articles or auxiliary verbs are often left out, e.g. EARLY CUT IN INTEREST RATES FORECAST. • A present simple form of the verb is used, e.g. MAYOR OPENS HOSPITAL. • The infinitive is used to express the fact that something is going to happen in the future, e.g. PRESIDENT TO VISIT FLOOD AREAS.

B

Short dramatic words Newspapers usually prefer words that are shorter and sound more dramatic than ordinary English words. The words marked * can be used either as nouns or verbs. newspaper word

meaning

newspaper word

meaning

aid*

help

key (adj)

essential, vital

axe*

cut, remove

link*

connection

back (verb)

support

move*

step towards a desired end

bar*

exclude, forbid

ordeal (noun)

painful experience

bid*

attempt

oust (verb)

push out, remove

blast*

explosion

plea (noun)

request

blaze*

fire

pledge*

promise

boost*

incentive, encourage

ploy (noun)

clever activity

boss*, head*

manager, director

poll*

election, public opinion survey

clash*

dispute

probe*

investigation

curb*

restraint, limit

quit (verb)

leave, resign

cut*

reduction

riddle (noun)

mystery

drama

tense situation

strife (noun)

conflict

drive*

campaign, effort

talks (noun)

discussions

gems (noun)

jewels

threat

danger

go-ahead

approval

vow*

promise

hit (verb)

affect badly

wed (verb)

marry

Newspaper headlines often use abbreviations, e.g. PM for ‘Prime Minister’, MP for ‘Member of Parliament’. (See Unit 78 for more abbreviations.)

C

Jokes in headlines Some newspapers also enjoy making jokes in their headlines. They do this by playing with words or punning, e.g. a wet open-air operatic concert was described as:

An announcement that a woman working at the Mars chocolate company had got an interesting new job was:

Note: the word ‘Briton’ is almost exclusively found in newspapers. 206

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Exercises 100.1

Match the headlines on the left with the appropriate topic on the right. 1 PM BACKS PEACE PLAN

100.2

4 QUEEN'S GEM RIDDLE

d

2 MP SPY DRAMA

5 Star Weds

3 SPACE PROBE FAILS

6 Key witness death threat

a) b) c) d) e) f)

marriage of famous actress royal jewels in mystery person who saw crime in danger proposal to end war satellite is not launched politician sells secrets to enemy

Explain what the following headlines mean in ordinary English. 1

2 SHOP BLAZE 5 DEAD

MOVE TO CREATE MORE JOBS

3

GO-AHEAD FOR WATER CURBS

Five people died in a fire in a shop. 4

100.3

Woman quits after job ordeal

5

POLL PROBES SPENDING HABITS

Bid to oust PM

7

Princess vows to back family

The words marked * in the table opposite can be either nouns or verbs. Note that the meaning given is sometimes in the form of a noun. In the headlines below you have examples of words from the table used as verbs. Look at the underlined verbs and explain what they mean. You may need to use more than one word. 1 PM TO CURB SPENDING limit 2 BOOK LINKS MI5 WITH KGB 3 CHANCELLOR CUTS INTEREST RATES

100.4

6

4 BOMB BLASTS CENTRAL LONDON 5 PM PLEDGES BACKING FOR EUROPE 6 PRESIDENT HEADS PEACE MOVES

Explain the joke in these headlines. 1

SURGICAL CUTS Number of surgeons at hospital to be reduced.

3

DRAMATIC PAWS A new version of the musical Cats opens.

The headline is a play on two meanings of ‘cuts’ (reductions; by the surgeon’s knife). 2

100.5

HAMMER HIT HARD Businessman Joe Hammer badly affected by the recent economic downturn.

4

HOT HEIR Prince gives speech about climate change.

Over to you Look out for headlines in English in newspapers or on websites. Try to explain them in ordinary English, and see if you can find more examples of jokes.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

207

101 A

US English English in the USA English in the USA differs from British English. Pronunciation is the most striking difference but there are also differences in vocabulary and spelling as well as some differences in grammar. Americans say the fall, while British English speakers say autumn; American speakers say on the weekend; British English prefers at the weekend. Yet, generally, British and American speakers have little difficulty in understanding each other.

B

American English spelling American English spelling is usually simpler. For example, British English words ending in -our and -re end in -or and -er in American English, e.g. colour/color, centre/center. Many verbs ending in -ise in British English end in -ize in US English (realise/realize). There are differences in individual words too, e.g. British jewellery is jewelry in American English.

C

US words and their British equivalents Travel and on the street

In the home

American English

British English

American English

British English

gas(oline) truck baggage sidewalk crosswalk line vacation parking lot trunk (of car) hood (of car) freeway/interstate one-way trip round trip railway car subway

petrol lorry luggage* pavement zebra crossing queue holiday car park boot bonnet motorway single return railway carriage underground

garbage, trash elevator eraser apartment closet yard drapes flashlight French fries Scotch tape cookie candy bathroom, rest room** diaper pantyhose

rubbish lift rubber flat wardrobe garden curtains torch chips Sellotape biscuit sweets toilet, WC nappy tights

* baggage is also common in British English, especially in the context of air travel ** wash room is commonly used in Canada

Language help American and British pronunciations are often different. You can hear the British and American pronunciation of words on the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary at Cambridge Dictionaries Online.

D

Different meanings Here are some words and phrases which could cause confusion when used by Brits and Americans talking together because they mean something different in each ‘language’. undershirt (AmE) vest (BrE)

underpants (AmE/BrE) pants (BrE)

check (AmE) bill (BrE)

vest (AmE) waistcoat (BrE)

the second floor (BrE) the second floor (AmE) the first floor (BrE) the ground floor (BrE) the ground floor/the first oor (AmE)

pants (AmE) trousers (BrE) bill (AmE) note (BrE)

208

wash the dishes (AmE/BrE) wash up (BrE)

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

wash up (AmE) wash your hands (BrE)

Exercises 101.1

If you saw words spelt in the following way, would you expect the writer in each case to be British or American? Why? 1 favor American (ends in -or) 2 centre

101.2

closet, wardrobe

5

2

3

4

6

7

8

Translate the following into British English. 1 2 3 4 5

101.4

5 colour 6 jewelry

What are (a) the American and (b) the British words for the following things?

1

101.3

3 hospitalized 4 a movie theater

We went there in the fall. We went there in the autumn. Pass me the cookies. It’s in the closet. Open the drapes. We’ve run out of gas.

6 7 8 9 10

Our bags are in the trunk. One-way or round trip? Let’s take the subway. We’ve been working in the yard. I hate waiting in line.

Can you avoid some of the most common confusions arising between British and American speakers? Try the following quiz. 1 Where would you take (a) an American visitor or (b) a British visitor who said they wanted to wash up kitchen the kitchen or the bathroom? (a) bathroom (b) 2 You have just come into an unknown office block. If (a) an American or (b) a Brit says that the office you need is on the second floor, how many flights of stairs do you need to climb? (a) (b) 3 If (a) an American or (b) a Brit asks for a bill, is he or she more likely to be in a bank or a café? (a) (b) 4 Would a man wear a vest under or over his shirt (a) if he is British or (b) if he is from the USA? (a) (b)

101.5

Complete the sentences in two ways, an American way and a British way.

parking lot / car park 1 We can park the car in the behind the station. 2 I’ve written the wrong number here. Can I borrow your ? I’ll correct it. 3 All that food is no good any more - we’d better throw it in the 4 We can take the up to the fifth floor. 5 Don’t cross here - it’s dangerous. There’s a further down the street. 6 The car wouldn’t start so we opened the to see if we could find what was wrong. 101.6

Over to you If you were going on holiday/vacation to the US, which of the words listed opposite do you think it would be most important for you to know? English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

209

Answer key 1.1

Unit 1 Possible answers: 1 trousers, clothes, tights 2 furniture, information, advice, luggage

3 teach, read, write, put 4 tooth, foot, mouse, goose

1.2

2 3 4 5 6

1.3

2 to coin a phrase, new words, a term 3 a royal family, palace, welcome 4 a subtle suggestion, shade, difference

1.4

1 i (it can mean men or it can be used to address a group of people which includes both men and women) 2 f (it means a person who is legally under-age) 3 i (it means Wonderful! / Amazing!) 4 f (it means to get off a bus) 5 i (it means very upset) 6 f (it means someone who has committed a serious crime) 7 i (it means to annoy or disturb someone) 8 i (it means to lose concentration)

1.5

2 3 4 5

the final e is pronounced as a syllable the ch is pronounced like a k rather than like the ch in church the w is silent (not pronounced) the stress is on the first syllable in the noun and the second syllable in the verb the stress is on the first syllable in photograph, the second in photographer and the third in photographic

words in the shade word family - lampshade, eye shadow synonyms of express - state, say parts of speech - preposition, conjunction words with a silent b - dumb, limb

1.6

d

2 to coin new words

3 screwdriver

r i p

4 to drip

Unit 2 2.1

210

topic

words

working too much / too hard

stress exhaustion overwork burnt out snowed under with work be under pressure

friendship

hang out with sb

media

tabloid

podcast

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

casual acquaintance upload a video

be close to sb

blogosphere

count on sb

journalist

blog

2.2

nouns

verbs

adjectives

collocations

fixed phrases

latecomer

rush

breathless

set a clock

out of breath

alarm clock

oversleep

exhausted

deep sleep

in a hurry

nightmare

dash

fast asleep

yawn

heavy sleeper

2.3

2 shots

2.4

noun

verb

adjective

person

perfection

perfect

perfect

perfectionist

information

inform

informative

3 dissatisfied

4 deprived of

politics

economics

2.5

3.1

economise

5 spicy

political

politician

economic/economical

economist

6 chilly

Possible ways to organise your vocabulary include relating new words to your own personal experience (e.g. if you learn new colour words, what things do you have in those colours - a purple sweater, an orange mug?). You can also divide your notebook (whether paper or digital) into topic areas (e.g. words to do with food, with travel, etc.). You could keep a digital notebook on your computer or mobile device; lists or words you type in can then be sorted alphabetically or searched very quickly.

Unit 3 2 passport

3 leaning

3.2

2 elegant 3 urgently

4 eyebrow 5 record (verb)

3.3

1 The officer supplied each soldier with a map. 2 The Minister denied having received any money from the oil company. / The Minister denied that he/ she had received any money from the oil company.

3.4

3.5

4 liberty

sad

thing ✓

damp

lucky

awkward

content

compulsory

(conj) conjunction

6 brother

6 thermometer 7 extract (noun)

person ✓

(pron) pronoun

5 revision

8 lifestyle

person

thing ✓

✓ ✓

(prep) preposition

UK United Kingdom or British English usage noun [C] countable noun verb [T] transitive verb noun [U] uncountable noun verb [I or T] verb which can be transitive or intransitive

4.1

Unit 4 The picture is a good clue to help you understand tortoise. You may recognise the word shell in shelled (as in egg shell, for example). Similarly, your knowledge of long and life together with the context should enable you to work out what longevity and lifespan mean. The whole context of the sentence should help you to work out the meaning of attain and tended. Some of the underlined words may be similar to words in your own language, which can be another useful way of working out the meaning of a word you have not seen before. The meanings of the underlined words are provided here for you to check your answers. shelled: with a shell or hard protective cover reptile: kind of animal that lays eggs and uses the heat of the sun to keep its blood warm

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

211

(e.g. crocodiles, snakes) famed: well-known (famous) longevity: living a long life attain: reach lifespan: time from birth to death tended: cared for hibernate: go into a sleep-like state throughout the winter (as some animals and insects do)

4.2

Possible answers: (These answers all give correct information in more detail than you needed to provide in your own answers.) 2 A vole must be a kind of small animal, something like a mouse perhaps. 3 A chisel could be a kind of tool that can be used for chipping away at something or for breaking it. I think it’s probably something that could be used by sculptors but that bigger ones might also be used for destroying structures. 4 A tureen must be a kind of very large bowl, a bit like a pot, used for soup. 5 To clamber probably means something like climbing with difficulty. 6 Ratty must be a bit like bad-tempered.

4.3

Possible answers: 2 3 4 5 6

4.4

I find Caitlin a very kind person. I’ve been terribly busy with work ever since I got back from holiday. We walked down a street with trees along both sides of it towards the station. The little boys were fascinated by the machine used for mixing cement. More and more shops now have their own special credit cards that can only be used in one specific chain of shops and offer you a discount if you use one of them.

2 anger that can’t be controlled 3 drinks before dinner 4 a report that comes out either twice every month or every two months (both meanings of bi-monthly exist) 5 the person who used to be my boss (and no longer is) 6 feelings that are hostile to tourists 7 to break the telephone connection (e.g. by unplugging it from the wall or by doing something at the telephone exchange so that calls can no longer be made, possibly because a bill has not been paid) 8 letters that have not been delivered to the people they were addressed to

Unit 5 5.1

-(i)an

-ic

-ish

-i

-ese

(other)

Latvian Arabian* Brazilian Korean

Icelandic Arabic*

Irish Turkish Danish

Israeli Pakistani

Chinese Vietnamese

Thai Swiss Dutch Arab*

*Arabian is used to refer to the Arabian Peninsula and to Saudi Arabian(s). Arab can also be used as an adjective in expressions such as the Arab world, Arab states, Arab countries.

212

5.2

2 d

5.3

2 Britons have highest tax rate in Europe 3 Maltese Prime Minister visits Washington

3 e

4 f

5 a

6 b

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

4 Police arrest Dane on smuggling charge 5 Iraqi delegation meets Pakistani President

5.4

Possible answers: 2 Penélope Cruz 3 Nelson Mandela

6.1 6.2

4 Kylie Minogue 5 Luciano Pavarotti

6 U2 7 Bubba Watson

Unit 6 2 late 3 thaw

4 daytime 5 It melts

6 frost 7 misty

2 flood(s)

3 heavy/torrential rain

8 strong, high 9 severe 4 drought

6.3

I think it would be interesting to live in a tropical climate. However, I don’t like humid weather. I even dislike the muggy days which we get in the UK. Some people love boiling hot days, and I don’t mind heatwaves occasionally, but when it’s stifling, it’s just impossible. Maybe I should stay at home and forget about moving to a hot climate!

6.4

Possible sentences: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

7.1 7.2

It / The weather was very humid. There was a gentle breeze (blowing). The roads were icy. / There was ice on the roads. There was a flood. / There were floods everywhere. It / The weather was very misty (or foggy). We had a drought (or heatwave) last year. It was a very windy day. / There was a gale. There was heavy/torrential rain. / There was a (heavy) downpour. The sky was very overcast.

Unit 7 2 figure 3 feature

4 complexion 5 impression

6 auburn 7 wrinkles

8 elegant / smart / stunning / well-dressed 9 stunning

Suggested answers: 2 3 4 5

the bald one / straight-haired one. scruffy and untidy-looking/messy-looking. that slim, dark-haired woman over there. unattractive, in fact. (You could also say he/she was ‘rather plain’ or ‘rather ordinary’, if you felt they were neither attractive nor unattractive. ‘Ugly’ is a very strong word, and could be offensive.) 6 in her twenties and quite slim.

7.3

Suggested answers: Ian Prowse: thin-faced, dark, curly hair, fair skin Sandra King: dark, wavy hair, stocky build, round-faced Jasmin Kaur: thin-faced, long, dark hair Jack ‘Dagger’ Flagstone: bald, with beard and moustache; muscular build

8.1

Unit 8 Opposites: 2 a

8.2

3 c

4 e

5 b

2 likes 3 likes 4 dislikes Possible opposite impressions: 2 3 4 5

Molly’s usually brusque/blunt. Grace is quite unprincipled. Sam can be assertive. Nico’s quite assertive.

6 d 5 dislikes

6 dislikes

7 dislikes

8 likes

6 I find Marcus self-assured. 7 Don’t you think James is enquiring? 8 Freya is peculiar.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

213

8.3

brusque - curt crafty - cunning direct - frank down-to-earth - sensible gifted - talented honest - trustworthy impolite - rude miserly - tight-fisted tense - wound up

8.4

2 pessimistic 3 assertive

8.5

Possible questions:

4 inquisitive 5 extravagant

6 argumentative 7 sensitive

8 sociable

2 blunt - If a friend asks you if you like her awful new dress, would you say ‘No’? 3 sensible - If you won a lot of money, would you put it in the bank rather than spend it on a luxury you have always wanted? 4 intelligent - Can you give the next letter in this sequence S, M, T, W, T, F? (If you are not sure of the answer, think of the days of the week.) 5 even-tempered - If someone spills soup on some new clothes of yours, do you just sigh and say ‘That’s life’? 6 original - Do you never wear blue jeans? 7 obstinate - Do you become even more determined to do something if people try to persuade you not to do it? 8 stressed out - Do you find it hard to sleep at night because problems are going round in your head?

9.1

Unit 9 2 … as nails 3 … as gold

4 … in the right place 5 … piece of work

6 … awkward customer

9.2

2 the teacher’s pet 3 a big-head

9.3

2 3 4 5

9.4

a your nerves (always with possessive, my, our, John’s, etc.) b the neck (always used with the)

9.5

2 middle-of-the-road

4 top of the class 5 a lazy-bones (or you could say this person is bone-idle)

… a good head for figures. … have a head for heights … has her head screwed on. … has his head in the clouds.

6 … burying your head in the sand. 7 … head and shoulders above … 8 … keeps his head.

3 over the top

4 round the bend

Unit 10 10.1

2 3 4 5

10.2

Possible answers: 1 2 3 4

214

Mike was my roommate at university / Mike and I were roommates … We were classmates in 2006, weren’t we? She’s not really a friend; she’s just a workmate. Abbie is always arguing with her housemates.

(also possible) Jon/Erica is Ericaʼs/Jonʼs colleague. Ben Park and Joe Nash are partners. Ben/Joe is Joe’s/Ben’s partner. Tania and Georgie are roommates. Georgie/Tania is Taniaʼs/Georgieʼs roommate. Nick and Claire have been seeing each other for a year. Nick and Claire see each other regularly. Nick and Claire got together a year ago.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

10.3

10.4

1 2 3 4 5 6

tagged shared invited accept defriend/unfriend comments

Possible answers: 1 A teenage music fan might like/dislike his/her parents, or idolise a pop star, possibly loathe or can’t stand a strict teacher, or possibly look up to him/her, and probably be good friends with a mate. 2 A personal assistant and another personal assistant could be colleagues who get on well, or who don’t see eye to eye. They might look up to the boss, or perhaps they can’t stand or despise him/her. They might be attracted to or fancy a very attractive workmate. 3 A 45-year-old may be someone who can’t stand teenagers or likes/dislikes them, and who looks down on, despises or loathes an ex-husband/wife who was cruel.

10.5

11.1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

I fell out with my parents last night. It wasn’t my fault. We had a quarrel but now we’ve made it up. Do you think Josh and Nuala are having an affair? I do. I get on very well with all my colleagues at work. Jo’s attractive, but her mate just leaves me cold completely. Maria seems to find it difficult to make friends among her classmates. I met my boyfriend at a party and we got together soon after.

Unit 11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

in the shed or garage in the toilet or bathroom in a cupboard or a drawer - or on the table of course, if they are in use in a wardrobe in the living room (often down the side of the sofa!) in the kitchen or utility room usually in every room in front of one of the entrance doors (front or back) in the kitchen, probably in a drawer or cupboard in the attic/loft or in the cellar or in the shed

11.2

1 attic/loft

11.3

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

11.4

2 landing

3 hall

4 utility room

5 cellar

peeler (table) mat corkscrew loft (attic is also possible) shed/garage, terrace/patio (or balcony if not on the ground floor; or verandah, if it is covered) landing bungalow drive (or driveway)

Suggested answers: 2 3 4 5 6

A dustpan and brush (perhaps followed by a vacuum cleaner) A (phone) charger Use the remote (control) Use a chopping board A (coat) hanger

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

215

12.1

Unit 12 Suggested answers: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

The person’s car broke down / would not start. Someone’s washing machine broke down. The handle came off / fell off something. (for example, a door/drawer) Perhaps someone tripped and/or fell and grazed their knee/leg/hand/arm/head. The batteries are dead / have run out, for example, in a radio or a camera. Perhaps someone has mislaid their glasses/books/papers/false teeth. Someone has burnt something they were cooking. Someone’s computer has crashed.

12.2

2 stain - the other two are types of minor injury 3 bump - the other two can be used about batteries

12.3

Suggested answers: car

banged ruined cracked broken down dented stopped blocked

vase

4 leak - the other two are types of damage to solid objects 5 dent - the other two involve liquids

elbow ✓

clock

printer

sink

a meal ✓

✓ ✓ ✓

✓ ✓ ✓

Example sentences: I banged my elbow and now I’ve got a bruise. The meal was ruined - she’d put far too much salt in the pie. This vase is cracked. Her car has broken down. She’s going to be delayed. My printer has broken down again because it’s got a paper jam I can’t fix. A minibus reversed into me and dented the car. My clock has stopped. The battery has probably run out. The sink is blocked again. Shall we call a plumber?

12.4

Possible answers: 2 I didn’t look where I was going as I walked through the low doorway and banged/bumped my head. 3 The wind blew the door shut and I realised I’d locked myself out. 4 I would ring her but I’m afraid I’ve mislaid her number. She wrote it down for me. 5 I can’t take a photo, my camera’s broken down / stopped working. 6 I tried to run over the rocks but I tripped and fell and bruised/grazed my leg / twisted my ankle. 7 I accidentally sat on my bag of crisps and they all got crushed.

13.1

216

Unit 13 2 Earthquake - an aftershock is a trembling movement of the earth that can happen after an earthquake. Note how disasters of various kinds can strike, e.g. The hurricane struck the coastline at noon. 3 Hurricane / typhoon / tornado / tropical storm / violent storm / wind - if you board up your house you cover the windows and doors with wooden boards to protect them. 4 War or a battle of some kind - gunfire refers to the sound of guns being used.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

5 Probably a plane crash - people who witness such accidents or incidents often describe the explosion as a fireball or ball of fire. 6 Probably a flood - if your house is flooded, the natural thing to do is to go to the upper floor(s) or the roof to escape the water. 7 Drought - if the plants and trees are dried up, they are probably dying because they have no water, and since the earth is cracked [hard, with a pattern of deep lines over it], it suggests it is very dry. 8 Probably landslides - these happen in mountain areas, they can carry trees and other vegetation with them and one of the problems they can cause is making roads impassable until they can be cleared.

13.2

verb

noun: thing or idea

explode

explosion

survive

survival

injure

injury

starve

starvation

erupt

eruption

noun: person

survivor

13.3

1 getting worse (spreads means gets bigger / covers a wider area) 2 a disaster was avoided (the bomb was defused - made safe) 3 getting better (the oil is receding - going away from where it was heading, for example, towards a beach) 4 getting worse (a time bomb is something that is set to explode at some definite time in the future) 5 disaster avoided (an emergency landing is a landing when the pilot has to land the plane immediately - perhaps he/she has no proper control over the plane, e.g. if there is an electrical fault) 6 disaster has occurred / is occurring (if you heed a warning, you take note, and do something; here the warning was ignored)

13.4

2 refugees

13.5

2 cholera or typhoid

14.1

3 casualties 3 rabies

4 survivors

5 dead, wounded

6 migrants

4 AIDS

Unit 14 2 nursery school 6 comprehensive

14.2

ALMUT: JOE: ALMUT: JOE: ALMUT:

14.3

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3 crèche 7 public

4 admission 5 grammar 8 sixth-form college 9 higher education

I’ve got one more exam tomorrow. I hope I pass. I’m worried. Really? What makes you think you won’t do well? Well, I’ve skipped a couple of classes this term. Hm. If you fail, are you allowed to resit the exam? Yes, but I don’t want to. Next year I want to go to university, not do/take my A levels again!

The school-leaving age is 18 in many countries. I’m glad you passed your exam. She has to sit a Biology exam next week. Is school compulsory till 18 in your country? Do we have to submit our work to the teacher by Friday? I’ve made a lot of progress in my English recently. Thanks to the LMS, teachers can monitor their students’ activities.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

217

14.4

15.1

2 grammar schools 3 public schools 4 distance learning

Unit 15 2 master’s (degree) 3 PhD

4 undergraduate 5 graduate

6 postgraduate

15.2

2 credits 3 graduate

4 dissertation 5 research

6 field

15.3

2 halls (of residence) 3 lecturers

4 Tutorials 6 lectures 5 lecture theatre or lecture hall

15.4

2 3 4 5

16.1 16.2 16.3

Unit 16 2 executive 3 director 2 job

4 unskilled worker 5 administrator 3 work

5 job

He’s taken early retirement. This is a person who works shifts / does shiftwork. (You can also say ... is a shiftworker.) She’s been promoted. I got the sack (or I was fired or I was dismissed - more formal). He/She works nine-to-five / He/She has a nine-to-five job. You’re a workaholic.

16.4

2 judge - profession 3 electrician - trade

16.5

2 living

17.1

4 work

6 supervisor

Suggested answers: 2 3 4 5 6 7

218

entry requirements tuition fees scholarships societies admissions office student union student loan entry requirements

3 work

4 plumber - trade 6 carpenter - trade 5 lecturer - profession 4 offered

5 take it on

Unit 17 1 What did Ryan Archer put forward to his bank manager? He presented a business plan. 2 What is special about the computers his firm makes? They are custom-built (or custom-made/designed). 3 When did he launch his business? A year later. 4 What did he roll out two years later? An expanded range of computers. 5 How many computers does his firm manufacture now? About 200 a year. 6 What was Ryan Archer’s priority from the start? Personal service and customer care. 7 Why didn’t he do any market research? He felt there were enough potential customers. 8 Why was he not sure if the machines would sell? There was a recession at the time. 9 Was it all worth the risk? Yes. His firm’s order books were soon full. 10 Going forward, what are his plans? He’s planning a new range of computers, which will launch next year.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

17.2

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

The business didn’t make a profit in its first year. There are a lot of potential customers for this product. Their order books were full last month. It is sometimes difficult to access new markets if you don’t have contacts. We should pay attention to the feedback our clients post on our website. Customer care is a priority for our company. We need to expand our business in Latin America. It’s important to build contacts before you enter a new country.

17.3

2 3 4 5 6 7

The new range of products will launch next month. We hope it will sell! The firm specialises in custom-built laptops for business travellers. Going forward, we expect to increase our sales in Japan and China. It’s important to get feedback from our clients. We’re facing competition from American firms. We hope to do more business in North Africa in the future.

Possible sentences:

17.4

18.1

2 3 4 5

The order books were half-empty, so the company had to close down. Market research showed that potential customers wanted a wider range of software. Custom-built cars are much more expensive than ordinary ones. The firm faced stiff competition from Chinese companies.

Unit 18 2 hang-gliding 3 motor racing

4 showjumping 5 windsurfing

6 darts 7 snooker / billiards

8 snowboarding

18.2

2 bow

18.3

1 2 3 4

long-distance, trophies set marathon holds

18.4

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Are you a good tennis player? We’re trying to get a local team together. My brother is an expert canoeist. He’s won medals. My father is a good golfer. He’s also an expert mountaineer. Is there a shop near here that sells sports equipment? I need a fishing rod. I’d love to be a good archer, but my eyesight isn’t very good. Are you a sprinter or a long-distance runner? My favourite Olympic sports are fencing and the high jump.

18.5

2 discus (throw)

19.1

3 racket

4 stick

5 bat 5 6 7 8

6 dart

qualify made it to / reached knocked out, round competitive

7 paddle

8 cue

9 oar

9 spectators, referee 10 sprinters

3 javelin

Unit 19 2 3 4 5

poetry painting architecture literature, a novel - though it could be any piece of writing divided into chapters, e.g. an academic textbook

19.2

2 still life

19.3

2 3 4 5

3 abstract

4 landscape

The Dutch artist Rembrandt was a master of the art of portrait painting. On Saturdays there’s a market in the city square where they sell all sorts of arts and crafts. Which would you rather be good at - art or music? I saw some interesting abstract works of art at the City Gallery. English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

219

19.4

1

c r i h a 3 r e 4p a l c o t t e r 8s e r 2

9

20.1

i

c

s

r

o d

u

c

t

x

l i e t b e s r a 10 r e y

e

t

r

6

s e t

t

7

2 comedian

s t

s

e l

l

v

i

e

s

3 directors

20.2

2 3 4 5

20.3

2 script 3 costumes 4 sets

20.4

Possible questions:

21.1

5

w

e r

Unit 20

2 3 4 5

220

t

p u b l i o n c a c t t i n g o n

4 entertainers

5 productions

6 appearance

She’s got a diploma in dance from the Performing Arts Academy. I’ve got some tickets for the opera. Interested? Shall we go to the cinema this evening? There are several good things on. I much prefer (the) theatre to (the) ballet, don’t you? 5 cast 6 performances 7 venue

8 stage 9 critics 10 reviews

Would you like a ticket for the Beethoven concert tonight? What kind of films do you like best? Was it a good production? What are they showing at the Arts Cinema at the moment? / What’s on at the cinema?

Unit 21 Henry: playlist, tracks Anna: sync, stream, playlists

21.2

2 3 4 5

21.3

2 Natalie

21.4

Do you have a good ear for music? Do you play a musical instrument by ear? Can you pick out a tune on an instrument you’ve never played before? We are looking for volunteers to take part in an experiment to investigate people’s natural musical abilities. You don’t need to be a trained musician and you don’t need to be able to read music. If you just make music at home or with friends for fun, whatever kinds of music you are into, whether it’s classical music, jazz, pop, we want to hear from you. We believe there are many talented musicians out there and we want to learn more about how you do it.

the drummer the bass (player) (if it is obvious that you are talking about a band, you don’t need to say bass player) the keyboard player the lead guitar / the lead guitarist 3 Emma

4 Lauren

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

5 Liam

6 Ross

22.1 22.2

Unit 22 2 savoury

22.4

23.1

23.2

23.3

23.4 23.5

4 sour

5 sugary / sickly

6 bitter

Suggested answers: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

22.3

3 salty

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

The fish is overcooked / overdone. This melon is unripe / isn’t ripe. This dish is very bland / tasteless. The soup is too salty. I just want something light. / I don’t want anything (too) heavy. This dish is very stodgy. The chicken is undercooked / underdone. Are the vegetables organic? The restaurant usually has some specials. Oscar thought the peanuts were moreish. Tina needed a napkin. Jordi is a non-meat-eater. Okas ordered à-la-carte. Phoebe said you don’t need to book a table / make a reservation. Krishnan ordered a couple of side dishes. Emily and her friends cancelled the booking / the reservation. Hannah had a starter.

2 Please help yourselves. 3 Say when. When! 4 Would you like some dessert / a sweet / some pudding / some afters?

Unit 23 2 3 4 5

estuary peak, summit source shore (NB coast is only where the land meets sea, not a lake)

6 strait 7 peninsula 8 ridge

Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world. In the north, the densely forested basin of the River Amazon covers half the country. In the east, the country is washed by the Atlantic. The highest mountain chain in South America, the Andes, does not lie in Brazil. Brazil’s most famous city is Rio de Janeiro, the former capital. Today the capital of Brazil is Brasilia. 2 3 4 5

the Volga Venezuela (the Angel Falls) New Zealand A delta is at the mouth of a river where the river divides and flows into the sea in a number of different channels. The Nile, Danube, Mississippi, Ganges and Mekon all have deltas. 6 The Straits of Gibraltar are at the western entrance to the Mediterranean and the Cape of Good Hope is at the southern tip of Africa. Horizontal words: glacier, geyser, volcano, sea, gulf, plain, bay Vertical words: gorge, delta, island, cape, peak, lake, current, peninsula, crops, shore 1 sandy beach / shore 2 steep gorge / cliff 3 shallow stream / bay

4 rocky coast / mountain 5 turbulent river / sea 6 dangerous volcano / current

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

221

24.1

Unit 24 2 3 4 5

the ozone layer globalisation hazardous waste the polar ice caps

24.2

2 carbon footprint 3 climate change 4 fossil fuel

24.3

2 Disposable 3 reduction

25.1

6 7 8 9

carbon dioxide destruction of the rainforests smog acid rain

5 green party 6 greenhouse effect 7 nature reserve 4 destroy 5 pollutant

6 global 7 dispose

10 an endangered species 11 water pollution 12 global warming

8 organic food 9 ozone depletion 10 waste disposal 8 endanger 9 environmentally

Unit 25 Suggested answers: 2 It lies on an island between two channels of the River Lee. 3 It has a very complex one-way traffic system. Moreover, its buses are extremely crowded. 4 St Anne’s Church was built on a site where another church stood previously. That church was destroyed during a siege of the city. 5 In the French Gothic style. 6 Probably not as they do not cater specifically for tourists. 7 The Crawford Gallery is worth visiting because it regularly puts on interesting exhibitions of modern art. 8 Well-off people live in fashionable residential areas overlooking the harbour, while others live in suburbs on the edge of the city.

25.2

2 3 4 5

25.3

Possible answers (for Cambridge):

population area site overlook

6 7 8 9

distance market tends worth

10 exhibitions 11 facilities 12 outskirts

All the items should be ticked except for skating rink and opera house.

25.4

Possible answers: 2 3 4 5 6

leisure, shopping, city centre art, music, community college basketball, squash, royal court night, tennis, social club employment, accommodation, press agency

25.5

2 tennis court / sports centre 3 taxi rank 4 registry office

25.6

2 pollution 3 overcrowding

25.7

Possible answers (for Cambridge):

5 estate agent 6 art gallery 7 library

8 take-away 9 adult education centre / college

4 vandalism 5 traffic jams

The most picturesque parts of Cambridge are beside the river. Cambridge is one of England’s most historic towns. The town could hardly be called spacious as most of its streets are very narrow. Some of the eighteenth-century buildings are particularly elegant. 222

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

The most magnificent building in the town, in my opinion, is the Pepys Library. Cambridge is very lively at night because so many young people live there. When the university is on vacation the town can suddenly seem quite deserted. The market is particularly bustling on Saturdays. The shopping centre always seems to be packed with people. We are lucky in that nowhere in the town is filthy; everywhere is quite clean. Some of the suburbs have become quite run-down in recent years.

26.1

Unit 26 2 pollen

3 whiskers

4 petals

5 hoof

26.2

animal words: mane, fox, worm, horn, claw, owl plant words: petal, oak, willow, thorn, bark, stem

26.3

2 claws, bark 3 blossom/flower 4 grow

26.4

2 e

26.5

2 a crab because it has a shell (it is a shellfish)

27.1

5 stems 6 bud 7 thorns

3 f

4 b

5 c

6 a 3 a cat

4 laid

5 both

6 a pigeon

Unit 27 2 heel, soles 3 laces 4 cardigan / hoody

27.2

2 jeans

27.3

Possible answers:

5 slippers 6 hem, buttons 7 hood

3 shorts

4 pairs

2 baggy trousers, T-shirt 3 checked shirt, trousers 4 woollen scarf, socks

27.4

2 national costume 3 designer sunglasses

27.5

2 matches

28.1

8 twigs (or perhaps branches) 9 Bats 10 Snails

8 pyjamas 9 helmet 10 bikini

5 pair (of tights)

5 suede shoes, bag 6 denim skirt, jacket 4 a mask 5 inside out

3 suits

4 fit

Unit 28 Possible answers: 2 a bruise 3 a black eye 4 sickness and/or diarrhoea

5 sunburn 6 possibly a pain in their side, or they might feel breathless

28.2

2 Seth

28.3

2 e

28.4

2 C 3 A 4 D 5 B 6 F Incorrect sentence: They operated me immediately. Correct form: They operated on me immediately.

28.5

1 b 2 a He contracted AIDS in 2001. 3 I picked up a bug but I got over it.

3 Casper 3 b

4 f

4 Zoe 5 a

6 c

b She suffered a stroke.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

223

29.1

Unit 29 1 glasses, spectacles 2 X-rays (or X-ray machines) 3 they invented/used crutches

29.2

2 3 4 5 6 7

29.3

Suggested answers: 2 3 4 5 6

29.4

30.1

224

4 contact lenses 5 in a wheelchair

Glasses were invented to correct difficulties with vision. Medical technology has made rapid advances in the last decade. There is now a vast range of devices that make life better for people with medical problems. Artificial hips are highly efficient. Some disabled athletes can run as fast as able-bodied ones using prosthetic legs. Scientists are working on robotic arms that can be controlled directly by the personʼs brain.

to help disabled people to move around to help a disabled or injured person to walk to measure someone’s temperature to help someone see better to enable a doctor to see inside someone’s body

1 Doctors will be able to identify diseases at an early stage in the future using sophisticated scanners. 2 Doctors will be able to diagnose a patient’s illness from a distance. Patients will send information automatically to their doctor. 3 Keyhole surgery means doctors no longer need to open a patient’s body when they operate on* them. (*missing preposition) 4 Information on large computer databases will help doctors treat diseases and give them new tools to cure illnesses.

Unit 30 2 Certain foods are considered by scientists to be good for our bodies. 3 Foods with a high fat content may cause health problems. 4 Some foods may cause long-term health problems.

30.2

2 Fizzy drinks 3 oily fish

30.3

2 c

3 a

4 b

30.4

2 b

3 a

4 d

30.5

2 3 4 5 6

30.6

2 Children who are obese / who suffer from obesity need to exercise more. 3 Her job is very stressful / causes her a lot of stress and is very tiring. 4 How can we keep fit / maintain a good level of fitness? The answer is to get regular exercise / to exercise regularly.

4 Processed foods 5 mental health

Many fruits are a good source of vitamin C and provide major health benefits. Oily fish should form part of a healthy diet. Which do you prefer to eat as a snack if you’re hungry, fruit or nuts? A: There’s a new Chinese restaurant in town. B: Good! I love Chinese food. There has been a sharp rise in the number of people suffering from depression.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

31.1

Unit 31 2 e

31.2

3f

4b

5a

6c

road

rail

air

sea

steering wheel coach tram chauffeur van lorry

express coach platform

jumbo jet helicopter runway wing ground staff cockpit

port gangway liner deck

Coach can refer to a type of bus or the individual carriages on a train.

31.3

2 voyage

31.4

The flight from Huascal to Puerto Amlugo was severely delayed (six hours!). I was worried I’d get stuck at the airport (and hoped that the airline would put me up in a nice hotel ) but anyway the flight wasn’t cancelled and we finally took off. The weather was awful, and we experienced a lot of turbulence. In fact, the flight was so bumpy that I got airsick (very unpleasant!). But the cabin crew were very friendly and helpful, which made me feel better. The landing was not so bad and soon we were at the terminal collecting our baggage. I slept well last night - I think I’ve got over the jetlag I had after my 12-hour flight from Europe.

3 flight

4 travel

5 trip

6 journey

I didn’t have a reservation for the Eurostar train from Paris to London, but they put me on standby and I got a seat on a later train. It was a good journey, everything ran smoothly and it arrived on time. In London, I enquired if there was a sleeping car on the train to Scotland so I could travel overnight. The alternative was a hotel and the early morning train at 6.30 am (too early for me!). When I get to Scotland I want to go to some of the islands. I hope the sea is calm. I hate rough seas I always get seasick!

Unit 32 32.1

adjective

noun

verb

fascinating

fascination

fascinate

delightful

delight

delight

exhilarating glamorous

exhilaration glamour

exhilarate glamorise

luxurious

luxury

luxuriate

32.2

2 unspoilt / picturesque

32.3

2 3 4 5

32.4

2 a luxurious hotel 3 a picturesque village 4 a breathtaking/stunning view

pitched exclusive package cruising

3 exhilarating

4 luxurious

5 breathtaking / stunning

6 inconvenient / remote 7 memorable 8 winding 5 a unique opportunity 6 an exhilarating walk

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

225

33.1

Unit 33 2 The software interprets your speech and enables you to turn it into text. Science: voice technology 3 We’re interested in workplaces and how people interact with their working environment. Science: ergonomics 4 People are often worried. They feel that the creation of an exact copy of an animal is not morally right. Science: cloning 5 We study how human cells can be used to rebuild our bodies and to repair them when they are injured. Science: stem cell research 6 My work is concerned with the structure and function of the organic molecules associated with living organisms. Science: molecular biology 7 Many people refuse to eat genetically modified foods. They consider GM foods to be unnatural. Science: genetic engineering 8 By manipulating DNA, we can alter hereditary features. Science: genetic engineering

33.2

2 a smartphone 3 a digital photo frame 4 a high-definition (HD) camcorder

33.3

2 e

33.4

2 3 4 5

34.1

4 a

2 spreadsheet 3 laptop 4 microchip

5 memory stick 6 desktop computer 7 icon

2 virus 3 laptops 4 hard disk

34.3

Suggested answers:

35.2

6 d

7 f

8 b

Insert the disk to install the software. We can combine these chemicals. You should utilise the strongest material. We analysed the problem and concluded that it was a computer virus.

34.2

35.1

5 h

Unit 34

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

226

3 g

5 a 3D TV 6 a tablet

5 graphics 6 database 7 cursor

8 cursor 9 tablet

8 app(lication) 9 Word-processing 10 (micro)chip

Back it up. Delete the repeated paragraph. Click on the icon for that program. Upgrading the computer. You can undo what you just did. You can download it. That the new software won’t run / That you can’t run the new software.

Unit 35 2 attachment 3 password 4 bookmark 2 3 4 5

blog access, down Skype subscribe

5 browser 6 internet service provider / ISP 7 search engine 6 links 7 virtual 8 interactive

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

8 server 9 navigate 10 cloud

35.3

36.1

2 3 4 5

False - it stands for Frequently Asked Questions. True False - it is a type of website. True

6 False - they will get it by email. 7 False - you log off. 8 True

Unit 36 2 post 3 request

4 status 5 subscribe

6 follow

36.2

2 posts 3 likes

4 share 5 rate

6 views 7 commented

36.3

2 profile picture 3 timeline

4 notification 5 direct message

36.4

2 privacy 3 public

4 tag 5 direct

37.1

6 account 7 default

Unit 37 2 cartoon 3 current affairs programme 4 sitcom

5 soap (opera) 6 weather forecast 7 detective drama / detective series

8 talk show 9 game show 10 sports programme

37.2

1 2 3 4

37.3

tabloid: celebrity news, scandals, competitions and prizes, sensational crimes, huge headlines quality: complex political debate, in-depth reviews of books, long articles

37.4

1 2 3 4 5 6

38.1

subtitles, dubbed podcast commercials satellite dish, receive

5 6 7 8

media (people usually just say media rather than mass media) means broadcasts stream

The documentary investigated the food industry and focused on school meals. The programme was shot / made (or filmed) on location in Northern Finland. CNN broadcasts news programmes around the world. They’re televising the cup final next week. The drama is set in Paris in the 1880s. Do you ever tweet about news events?

Unit 38 2 independence 3 polling

4 running 5 elected

38.2

2 constituencies 3 MP (Member of Parliament)

38.3

2 a

38.4

2 a representative 3 the ruler

3 f

4 g

5 b

6 policy 7 federation 4 majority 5 Prime Minister 6 h

7 e

4 the presidency 5 the government

8 rule 6 coalition 7 election

8 d 6 the electorate 7 to represent

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

227

39.1

Unit 39 2 Harry is accused of kidnapping. 3 Ophelia is accused of murder.

4 Noah is accused of smuggling. 5 Tom is accused of burglary / theft.

6 Mike is accused of fraud.

39.2

1 2 3 4 5 6

arrested charged crime scene evidence accomplice witnessed

39.3

2 3 4 5 6

Many prisoners end up getting time off for good behaviour. The police have charged the driver of the red sports car with speeding. The two girls are suspected of taking sweets from the shop without paying. Sam was found guilty today but the judge will decide on his sentence tomorrow. The jury passed a verdict of guilty on the accused.

39.4

2 3 4 5 6

40.1 40.2

The police think Bert is guilty but they have no proof. In court the accused pleaded not guilty. The murder case is still under investigation (by the police). Any victim of crime can join this support group. The detective suspected the jealous lover of killing the woman / (that) the jealous lover killed the woman. 7 The bank robbers are currently on trial (at a court) in London. 8 Nathan is hoping to be released from prison soon.

Unit 40 2 d

3 f

2 credit limit 3 competitive

4 a

5 c

6 b

4 deposit 5 overdraft facility

40.3

2 a duty-free shop 3 VAT (value added tax)

40.4

Answers with possible reasons:

6 raise, finance 7 combine, payment

4 inheritance tax 5 corporation tax

8 mortgages, repayments

6 income tax

2 If they want to build up the amount of money they have or they have money they don’t need immediately. 3 Because Joel has been spending more than he can afford to spend and he will have to pay interest on the overdraft. 4 If they need their money immediately to pay for something. 5 You can transfer money into and out of your account online, pay bills, check your account, etc. 6 Using a cash machine is usually quicker than going into the bank, but there is a greater risk that someone may watch you and mug you and take your money, or the machine may take your card if you’ve forgotten your PIN (personal identification number). 7 Probably happy, because she has a positive amount in her account. 8 Probably insecure, because his income may go up and down and he may not be able to match his outgoings. 9 Less money - the bank has taken money from your account. If the bank puts money into your account, they credit your account. 10 You will find it easier to borrow money from banks, because they will feel confident that you will pay the money back.

228

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

41.1 41.2 41.3 41.4

42.1

42.2

Unit 41 2 silk 3 a bizarre design 2 A

3 C

2 pretty 2 3 4 5

4 A 3 half

4 faulty 5 a genuine Monet 5 C

6 B

4 nowhere

43.1

5 reasonably

6 unusually

It’s easy to follow. Yes, it is effective. They are more likely to be tense rather than relaxed. You’d be pleased because the teacher is saying that it is of a good standard.

Unit 42 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

e 3 b 4 h 5 a/g/i 6 a 7 a/g/i 8 f 9 d Many people believe in life after death. I was in favour of the proposed changes. What does she think of the new teacher? This is absurd, in my opinion / from our point of view / to my mind. He’s quite wrong, in my opinion. Well, that’s just silly, in my opinion / from our point of view / to my mind. I have my doubts about how honest he is. Is Alex likely to be opposed to the plans for the new airport?

Possible answers: 2 firm / strong 3 middle-of-the-road / moderate

42.3

6 china 7 rubber

2 3 4 5 6

4 obsessive 5 conservative / traditional

6 odd / weird / eccentric

I’ve always doubted that ghosts exist. I have always held (the view) that people should rely on themselves more. Claudia maintains that the teacher has been unfair to her. I was convinced (that) I had been in that room before. He feels we should have tried again.

Unit 43 Who feels ...

name

Who feels ...

name

1 fed up with something?

Max

5 miserable?

George

2 depressed?

Carlos

6 thankful?

Pilar

3 content?

Katie

7 confused?

Stefan

4 grateful?

Sara

8 delighted?

Agnes

43.2

2 3 4 5 6

43.3

positive: contented, thrilled negative: sick and tired, anxious, frustrated, confused

43.4

2 I am quite / absolutely sick and tired of her selfish behaviour. I’ve had enough! (quite sounds more formal when it means the same as absolutely) 3 It’s all so complicated. I feel a bit / quite confused. Can you help me? 4 I was absolutely thrilled when I heard the wonderful news! 5 It made me feel quite / a bit frustrated that I still couldn’t play any songs after six weeks of guitar lessons. 6 You always seem so absolutely contented with life. How lucky you are!

I always get nervous just before an exam. I was furious when they refused to give me my money back. I was thrilled to see my old school friend again after so long. The news about Rory’s illness really upset me. At first, I was enthusiastic about the course, but it’s just not very good.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

229

44.1

Unit 44 2 fond of 3 keen on

4 appeal to 5 fell in

8 passionate about, cares for

44.2

2 I can’t stand jazz. 3 Do you fancy Ethan? 4 She’s keen on rowing and golf. 5 I can’t bear very salty food. 6 His art appeals to me. 7 Gina fascinates me. / I find Gina fascinating. 8 He is totally captivated by her. / She has totally captivated him. 9 I’m not looking forward to the exam.

44.3

2 b

44.4

2 I can’t bear selfish people. I despise anyone who never considers others. 3 Her manner repelled me at first and I couldn’t stand being in the same room as her, but now I’ve begun to like her more. 4 I felt a strong desire to find out what had happened to my old school friends. 5 Are you looking forward to starting your new job? 6 I felt absolutely disgusted by his unkind remarks about Sylvia. (Remember, if something or someone is disgusting/fascinating/boring, you feel disgusted/fascinated/bored.)

45.1

3 a

4 b

Unit 45 2 3 4 5

whispered shouted stuttered / stammered muttered (or shouted, if he was very angry)

6 7 8 9

shrieked screamed mumbling / muttering murmured / whispered

45.2

2 e

45.3

2 3 4 5

Andrew said happily. Petra said / shouted / shrieked excitedly. Leo said / muttered / murmured bitterly. Lily said / murmured sadly.

45.4

2 3 4 5 6

I object to having to sit on the floor. I paid for a seat. Stop grumbling about your job all the time. He threatened to refuse to pay and to call the police. She begged us to help her. He confessed that he had broken / He confessed to breaking the window.

45.5

1 miserably (N) cheerfully (P) desperately (N) 2 a object to b insist on c complain about 3 reluctantly 4 with 5 nervously / shyly

46.1

3 a

4 f

5 b

6 c 6 Rory said anxiously. 7 Kallum said / shouted impatiently. 8 Anna said hopefully.

gladly (P)

Unit 46 2 peer

3 observe

46.2

2 sweet

46.3

Possible answers:

3 hot

2 stinking 3 foul-smelling / putrid

230

6 fell for 7 affectionate towards

4 glance 4 sour

5 stare

5 spicy

6 glimpse

6 salty

4 fragrant / sweet-smelling 5 pungent

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

6 scented / perfumed 7 musty

8 stinking

46.4

2 tapped 3 grasped

46.5

Possible answers: 2 3 4 5

46.6

4 pressed 5 poke

6 stroked 7 grabbed / snatched

That smells wonderful. Your hair looks great. It sounds brilliant. This tastes delicious.

8 handled

6 I feel good, thanks. 7 That sounds fantastic. 8 You look upset. What’s the matter?

Possible answers: Did you notice anything different about Kate today? She seemed a little odd to me. Rebecca is doing some research which involves observing a community of chimpanzees. As she entered the concert hall, Sandra thought she glimpsed Jan going out through a door on the other side of the auditorium. If people do not see very well, they can often be helped by glasses or contact lenses. Jack peered through the keyhole trying to see what was happening in the room. Every evening we sat on the hotel balcony gazing at the lake and the magnificent mountains around it. Why are you staring at me like that? Is my face dirty? Simona had to appear in court because she witnessed a traffic accident.

47.1

Unit 47 2 snore

3 sneeze

47.2

2 sighed / was sighing 3 snoring

47.3

2 suck

47.4

2 chew

47.5

2 grinning

48.1

3 bit

4 yawn

5 wink

4 cough 5 sneezing

6 take a deep breath 7 hold your breath

8 out of breath

4 swallowed

3 shake 3 licked

4 blink

5 wink

4 swallow

6 lick

5 shaking

6 trembling

7 perspiration

Unit 48 2 the cat’s whiskers

3 on the ball

4 have green fingers

5 take the biscuit

48.2

2 3 4 5 6

Giovanni is head and shoulders above the other kids when it comes to doing hard sums. Maria has a way with young children - they always love her. You’re streets ahead of me in understanding all this new technology; I’m impressed. Hassan plays chess brilliantly. Agata has the gift of the gab.

48.3

2 3 4 5

Tanya is usually on the ball. Rajiv thinks he’s the cat’s whiskers. Marek has green fingers. Unfortunately, you can’t have your cake and eat it.

48.4

2 3 4 5

No. She just wants you to give your opinion of it - good and/or bad. He disapproves of it. It’s not at all flexible. They’re worried.

48.5

2 3 4 5

I don’t understand why Sophie thinks she’s the cat’s whiskers / the bee’s knees. When it comes to sport, Andrey is among the worst in his school. Greta was to blame / at fault for the error in the accounting figures. He has the gift of the gab.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

231

6 Mick has a way with the secretaries; just look at how they react when he wants something done. 7 He often runs down his school. 8 She always picks holes in everything I say.

49.1

Unit 49 2 d

49.2

2 face

49.3

2 Karen

49.4

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

50.1

3 a

4 f

6 e

3 as Larry / as can be 3 Mark

4 bad mood

4 Lars

5 Andrea

5 in the dumps 6 Krishnan

I think you should keep a cool head and just be patient. He frightened the life out of me when he came in wearing that ghost mask! Everyone was shaking in their boots/shoes when they saw the door open all by itself. I was scared stiff / scared out of my wits before I did the bungee jump, but it was OK. She swelled with pride as her daughter received the gold medal. I think I got carried away by the idea of joining a rock band. It’s actually very hard work! I try to just take everything as it comes.

Unit 50 2 challenges

3 chaos

4 corner

5 dilemma

6 disaster

50.2

2 by e

50.3

2 3 4 5 6

I can’t face (the thought of) driving home in all this traffic. Keira seems to be lacking (in) confidence. Unfortunately, the project seems to have come to a dead end (at the moment). People who are deprived of / Being deprived of sleep can have health and other problems. Paula’s meeting with Angus had a profound effect on her.

50.4

2 3 4 5

stir things up see the light at the end of the tunnel get to the bottom of things got your act together

51.1

3 of g

4 of f

5 under h

6 on a

6 7 8 9

7 to d

8 in b

sit up and take notice get a grasp of take a back seat bury the hatchet

Unit 51 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

significant / substantial minute enormous / excessive Vast average tiny significant (substantial is also possible, but the emphasis here is on the fact that the difference was noticeable)

51.2

2 enormous

51.3

2 loads

51.4

Possible answers: 2 3 4 5 6

232

5 b

3 vast

3 was

4 substantial / considerable

4 loads / dozens

5 excessive

5 were

The two novels were totally different. His/Her behaviour was wholly unacceptable. That way of working produced utter chaos. I listened to the story in total disbelief. There should be a total ban on using mobile phones in cinemas.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

52.1

52.2

Unit 52 2 According to a UN study, two per cent of the world’s population owns over half of all household wealth. 3 Nought degrees Celsius equals thirty-two degrees Fahrenheit. 4 This article says that eight million, five hundred and fifty-six thousand, nine hundred and eighty-one people are currently living in London. 2 3 4 5

52.3

52.4

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

a square and a rectangle fifty-two twelve eight

6 thirty-three 7 nine 8 sixty-four

description

name of shape

adjective

round shape

circle

circular

shape with three sides

triangle

triangular

shape with eight sides

octagon

octagonal

shaped a bit like an egg

oval

oval

three-dimensional round shape

sphere

spherical

three-dimensional square shape

cube

cubic

Oxygen accounts for forty-six point six per cent of the earth’s crust. Seven nines are sixty-three. The temperature today is eighteen degrees Celsius. My bedroom is three multiplied by six metres. What is six to the power of nine? Eleven sixteenths of the students passed the exam. Two thirds times five cubed is eighty-three and a third.

52.5

53.1 53.2

Unit 53 2 age / era

3 stages / phases

5 phase

6 spell

Possible answers: 2 went on / dragged on 3 Age

53.3

4 stage (or era)

4 fly 5 elapsed

6 timeless 7 fleeting

8 momentary

Possible answers: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Hi! You’re just in time for tea/coffee. By the time you get this card, I’ll be in New York. Can you please come one at a time? / I’ll speak to you one at a time. Can you use the old computer for the time being, please? I’ll do my best to arrive/be on time. The weather can be very hot at times in (city name). I enjoy a game of tennis from time to time.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

233

54.1

Unit 54 Suggested answers: 2 … extremely tall 3 … a shortcut 4 … height

5 … widened it / … ’ve widened it 6 … heighten the feeling

54.2

2 3 4 5

54.3

2 e

54.4

2 expanded, contracted

54.5

1 at, of

55.1 55.2

to lengthen a very narrow range of goods a long-distance call shallow water 3 f

4 d

2 in

5 b

6 faraway/distant places 7 broad-minded 8 lower your hand 6 a

3 shrunk

4 stretches

3 from (or possibly at)

5 extended

4 from, to

Unit 55 2 c

3 f

4 d

5 b

6 a

Suggested answers: 2 You don’t have to buy the travel insurance; it’s an optional extra charge. 3 You can borrow the camcorder, but you will be liable for any damage to it. 4 We’ll have to sell the house. I’m afraid we have no choice/alternative; otherwise we will be bankrupt. 5 He didn’t want to give them the money, but they had guns; they forced him to hand it over. 6 No, he couldn’t choose to pay a fine; a prison sentence is mandatory for dangerous driving. 7 I didn’t want to do maths, but I had to. It’s compulsory/obligatory in all secondary schools. 8 If you’re unemployed, you’re exempt from paying tax.

55.3

2 100% 3 Nothing

55.4

2 an opportunity 3 possibility

56.1

56.2

4 No, you can choose. 5 Yours 6 It is probable that she will

Unit 56 2 racket is an ideal word here. 3 noises/sounds if you mean different sounds, but noise/sound is also possible here if you interpret ‘some’ to mean not a plural number, but one sound of ‘a certain, unidentifiable type’, e.g. ‘Some animal must have come into the garden last night - look at these footprints.’ (it’s not clear what sort of animal) 4 racket (din can also be used, often for discordant music) 5 noise is probably the best word since it means something negative and can be used uncountably (without a). Suggested words: 2 clatter / crash

234

4 doubtful 5 an absolute certainty

3 rustle

56.3

2 ringing

56.4

2 d

3 a

4 f

56.5

2 c

3 a

4 b

3 pattering 5 c

4 thud 4 hum 6 e

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

5 bang

6 roar

5 chime/chiming

7 rumble 6 clanged

8 screech

57.1

Unit 57 2 properties 3 belongings

4 estate 5 possessions

57.2

2 allocated 3 left

57.3

Suggested answers: 2 3 4 5 6

57.4

58.1 58.2

4 supplied 5 presented

6 property 6 catered 7 supported

8 inherited

Did he inherit the house? Will you sponsor me in a run/race for charity? Are you a tenant? Would you like to contribute/donate to cancer research? Do you supply/provide us with pens and things?

2 landlords 3 tenants

4 owner / proprietor 5 estate

6 property / properties 7 possessions

8 belongings

Unit 58 2 a

3 e

4 b

5 d

Possible answers: 2 an insect crawls; a baby does too before it can walk; there is a fast over-arm swimming style called ‘crawl’ 3 anything moving extremely fast, e.g. a bird or animal can shoot by, a plane can shoot overhead, a fish can shoot through the water 4 a bird’s or butterfly’s wings; a piece of washing on the line in the wind; a person’s eyelashes; a curtain in the wind 5 anything moving slowly on water, e.g. a boat, a piece of wood; a person can drift through life (moving without any sense of purpose or direction); your thoughts can drift to something or someone (it happens unintentionally); you can drift off to sleep (go to sleep slowly)

58.3

2 pace

58.4

2 at a very slow pace 3 stirred

58.5

Possible answers:

58.6

3 velocity

4 speed

5 rate

4 swayed a little 5 at a much faster speed

usage

grammar

quick

something that takes a short time, e.g. quick snack; quick phone call

adjective only; can be used with ‘to’, e.g. She was quick to respond

rapid

more formal; used for things like ‘rapid increase/decline’

adjective only

swift

more restricted generally; used for things like ‘swift-flowing stream’; swift response/ decision/reaction

adjective only; can be used with ‘to’, e.g. He was swift to point out how wrong I was

Possible situations: 1 If you are very late for something. 2 If you want to be late for something, e.g. something unpleasant. 3 If you aren’t in a hurry. You can also say this about your studies, if you are not going either particularly fast or slowly. 4 If you were hiding from someone, e.g. under a bed or behind a door. 5 If you really don’t want to meet them or talk to them, or don’t want them to see you. 6 If it’s late and everyone else is asleep.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

235

59.1

Unit 59 2 coarse 3 slippery 4 prickly

5 rough 6 furry 7 jagged

59.2

2 3 4 5 6

59.3

2 a

59.4

Suggested answers: 2 3 4 5

60.1

8 shiny / polished / smooth 9 silky / smooth 10 rough / coarse

The cloth was rough to the touch. We sat in a shady part of the garden. Suddenly there was a dazzling light. The ground was very wet underfoot. My suitcase is as light as a feather. 3 d

4 f

5 b

6 c

change the colour to a brighter / more vivid colour wear sunglasses / shade your eyes / wear a cap polish them take things out or get a smaller rucksack

Unit 60 2 fulfilled 3 reach/attain/achieve

60.2

4 attain/realise/fulfil 5 realise/fulfil

6 reach 7 come

verb

noun

adjective

realise target fail trouble

realisation difficulty target failure trouble

realisable difficult targeted failed, failing troubling, troublesome, troubled

Comments: difficult has no adverb in English; we say ‘We did it with difficulty.’ targeted is used in sentences such as ‘The government has decided to give the extra funds to targeted groups in society’. [specifically chosen] failed: They have made three failed attempts to save the company. unfailingly: ‘failingly’ doesn’t exist, but ‘unfailingly’ does, e.g. She is unfailingly honest; you can trust her completely. troubling: We have seen some very troubling developments recently. [worrying] troublesome: They are a troublesome group of students. [cause trouble] troubled: I’ve been feeling rather troubled lately about my daughter. [worried]

60.3

2 She succeeded in rising to the top of her profession. 3 Do you ever have any trouble using this photocopier? I always seem to. 4 I’ve managed to work quite hard this last month. (accomplish usually has a direct object, e.g. ‘I’ve accomplished a lot this month.’) 5 I’m amazed that you can cope with all the work they give you. 6 Did you have much difficulty finding the book in the library? 7 Unfortunately, it seems as if all Johnny’s plans have come to nothing. 8 I’m afraid I haven’t had any success in contacting Lara today.

60.4

Possible answers: 2 3 4 5

236

Perhaps someone who invested £5,000 and lost it all. It could be about a business someone started, or about a project, or something that failed. It might be said to someone who is carrying a lot of heavy shopping bags. Perhaps it’s about the successful realisation of someone’s plan, e.g. for getting permission to do something where it seemed more likely that the result would not be successful.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

60.5

Possible answers: 1 I’d get it seen to / repaired. 2 Perhaps try again, or abandon it. 3 Perhaps ask for help and advice from the teacher.

61.1

Unit 61 2 In the meantime 3 Subsequently

61.2

2 at some point

61.3

2 No

62.1

4 Earlier on 5 Prior to 3 simultaneously

3 All summer

4 Hamburg

6 Following 7 during

8 moment

4 (at) the time (that) 5 Three weeks

6 Probably just part of it

Unit 62 2 In case of / In the event of (often seen in notices and regulations) 3 Unless 4 on condition that would be very suitable since this is legal/official language, or providing/provided that; so long as is also possible, but as long as sounds just a little too informal 5 Supposing / What if (less tentative, more direct and informal) / If

62.2

2 3 4 5 6

62.3

Possible answers:

If anyone rings, I don’t want to speak to them, whoever it is. Whatever I do, I always seem to do the wrong thing. It’ll probably have meat in it, no matter which dish you choose. They don’t cater for vegetarians here. However I do it, that recipe never seems to work. No matter how hard you try, you’ll never be able to do it all on your own.

2 You cannot enter unless you have a passport. / You can/may enter providing/provided (that) / on condition that you have a passport. 3 You can/may go to university as long as you get 70% or more in the exam. / Unless you get (at least) 70%, you cannot go on to university. 4 Children under 10 can’t go on the roller coaster unless they are accompanied by an adult. / Children under 10 can go on the roller coaster provided they are accompanied by an adult. 5 Visitors may enter the mosque on condition that they remove their shoes. / You can go in as long as you take off your shoes. (informal) 6 You can’t come in unless you’re over 18. / You may enter the club providing/provided (that) you are over 18.

63.1

63.2

Unit 63 Suggested answers: 2 3 4 5 6

The reason (why) I didn’t contact you was that I’d lost your phone number. I will not sign on the grounds that this contract is illegal. The government passed a new law with the aim of controlling prices. I wonder what her motives were in sending flowers to everyone. The high salary prompted her to apply for the job.

2 3 4 5 6 7

The announcement of higher taxes provoked / generated / led to a strong attack from the opposition. The new Act of Parliament produced / brought about / gave rise to great changes in industry. The train crash was caused by / was due to the failure of the electrical system. A violent storm caused the wall to collapse. Food shortages led to / provoked / caused / sparked (off) serious riots in several cities. The food shortages arose from / stemmed from bad economic policies.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

237

63.3

2 of

63.4

Possible answers:

3 with, of

4 in

5 from

6 with, to

7 to

2 Owing to the fact that the performance was cancelled, everyone got a refund. 3 The service was terribly slow. As a result / Consequently (more formal), all the customers got angry. 4 We missed the last bus. As a result, we had to walk home.

64.1

Unit 64 Possible answers and comments: 1 I accept (or more formal: I acknowledge) that you weren’t solely to blame, but you must take some responsibility. (Accept and acknowledge are most suitable here since the speaker is prepared to agree with one aspect but wants to go on to make another point to support his/her case.) 2 OK, I admit I was wrong, you were right; he is a nice guy. (This seems to be a situation where somebody is accusing someone of trying to get them to say they were wrong. Admit is ideal in this case.) 3 The company acknowledges that you have suffered some delay, but we do not accept liability. (Acknowledge is perhaps best here; it is often used in formal, legalistic situations like this because it simply says ‘We understand your message, but we do not necessarily accept any liability/blame/ responsibility’; admit might suggest the company does accept legal responsibility; accept is also possible though less formal.) 4 She accepted/conceded that we had done all we could, but she was still not content. (Concede usually suggests an argument or debate where people might ‘give’ small points to one another while still holding on to their basic position, and would seem to be a likely choice here; concede here suggests she did not really want to say it.)

64.2

Suggested answers: 2 After all 3 for all that / after all

64.3

4 It’s all very well 5 That’s all very well / That’s all well and good

Possible answers: 2 There’s a huge discrepancy between what she says and what she does. 3 Toby and Catalina are poles apart when it comes to saving money / on the question of saving money. 4 There’s a world of difference between being a student and being a teacher. 5 There’s a yawning gap between the standard of living in the north and in the south.

64.4

Possible answers: 2 3 4 5

64.5

238

The house itself is rather small. There is no sign that the government has solved the traffic problem. In most of the rest of Europe, you drive on the right. I’m not at all hungry, thanks.

2 on the other hand (it is true that it’s expensive, but if you look at it from another point of view, we need it) 3 on the other hand (it’s true that I’d like to leave my job but if I look at leaving from another point of view I realise I’d miss my colleagues) 4 on the contrary (it’s not true that he’s lazy) 5 on the contrary (it’s not true she speaks Japanese well) 6 on the other hand (it’s true that it looks attractive but it’s also true that it’s expensive)

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

65.1

Unit 65 Suggested answers and comments: 2 In addition to / As well as / Apart from / Besides (The choice is quite wide, but, depending on which one she chooses for 2, the writer would probably then choose a different one for 4, to avoid repeating herself.) 3 etc. / and so on (etc. is slightly more formal than and so on, and the writer may want to avoid sounding too informal.) 4 in addition to / as well as / apart from / besides 5 Furthermore / Moreover / Likewise (furthermore/moreover add her previous experience on to the rest; likewise not only adds the information but suggests it is of equal value to the other experience she has mentioned.) If she wanted to use what’s more, the writer would probably write it in full as what is more, so as not to sound too informal. However, what’s more / what is more can often sound a little abrupt and argumentative (as if you’re trying very hard to convince the reader) and might sound just a bit too strong here. Equally would not be suitable here, as it is best used when arguing points and presenting opinions (trying to convince someone of the equal value of a point added on to other points).

65.2

2 3 4 5

65.3

2 3 4 5 6 7

65.4

2 into the bargain

65.5

Suggested answers:

My cousin turned up along with some schoolmates of his. He owns a big chemical factory as well as running a massive oil business in the USA. In addition to being their scientific adviser, I act as a consultant to the Managing Director. It was raining and getting dark. On top of (all) that, we had very little petrol left in the tank. (it is not necessary to repeat also) 6 He’s a very good singer. What’s more / What is more, he has a degree in music. Besides having a good job, my ambition is to meet someone nice to share my life with. Alongside my many other responsibilities, I now have to be in charge of staff training. In addition to having / In addition to a degree, she also has a diploma. My father won’t agree. Likewise, my mother’s sure to find something to object to. She’s a good footballer and a good athlete to boot. He said he’d have to first consider the organisation, then the system, then the finance and so on and so forth. 3 in addition

4 on top of (all) that

To become a successful athlete you will need to be fit plus you will need to train hard every day. Furthermore / Moreover / What is more / Besides / In addition, you will need a very special type of determination as well as stamina. Additionally / In addition, you will need support from friends and family, financial support and so on (and so forth) / etc. And a good coach will help a great deal, motivating you as well as setting goals for you. Alongside / Apart from these things / On top of (all) that, you will need that indefinable thing: talent.

66.1

Unit 66 2 b

3 d

4 a

5 f

6 e

66.2

1 issue is best here because it is something everyone is debating and disagreeing on, but question and problem are also OK 2 problem / matter (or crisis if it is really serious) 3 question (mystery would also be possible) 4 topic 5 approach / response / solution / answer

66.3

2 a

3 c

4 e

5 d

6 b

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

239

67.1

67.2

Unit 67 ‘Well, where shall I start? It was last summer and we were just sitting in the garden, sort of doing nothing much. Anyway, I looked up and … you see, we have this, kind of, long wall at the end of the garden, and it’s … like … a motorway for cats. That big fat black one you saw, well, that one considers it has a right of way over our vegetable patch, so … where was I? I was looking at that wall, you know, daydreaming as usual, and all of a sudden there was this new cat I’d never seen before. It wasn’t an ordinary cat at all … I mean, you’ll never believe what it was …’ Suggested answers: 2 A: I’ll take care of these. B: Right. / Good. That’s everything. A: Right, / Good, / Anyway, see you next week. B: Right. / Good. That was a very useful meeting. 3 A: It was last Monday. I was coming home from work. I saw this funny old man approaching me. I stopped him … B: I bet it was Jim Dibble! A: Hang on! Let me tell you what happened first. 4 A: Which number is yours? B: Let me see … it’s that one there, yes, that one.

67.3

5 A: He’s looking exhausted. B: Really? A: I mean, look at his eyes – he looks so tired. 6 A: What do you mean, ‘cold’? B: Well, / You know, / I mean, she’s not friendly, very distant. Last week I gave her a nice smile and she scowled at me. A: Well, what do you expect? I’ve seen the way you smile at people; it puts them off. 7 A: Money isn’t the most important thing in life. B: Still, you can’t live without it! A: I suppose that’s true. 8 A: What are we going to do? B: Listen, I’ve got an idea. Why don’t we ask James to help? He’s a lawyer.

Suggested answers: 2 There are two reasons why I think he’s wrong: a, people don’t act like that, and b, Paul would certainly never act like that. 3 Now, I want you to pay attention, everyone. 4 He loses his temper very quickly. On the other hand, he’s got a great sense of humour. 5 You seem a bit sad today. Look, let me buy lunch for you to cheer you up. 6 A: So I’ll pick you up at 6.30. B: Great. See you then.

68.1

Unit 68 2 f

3 a

4 e

5 d

6 b

68.2

2 3 4 5 6 7

in other words For example / For instance Next as it were Lastly In summary / In sum (more formal) (In conclusion would not be suitable here, since it just means ‘this is the end of the text’, whereas this sentence provides a summing up of the arguments in the text.)

68.3

2 3 4 5

the following (introducing a list) in summary, to sum up, in sum further (as in further details/information) overleaf (meaning turn the page)

240

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

68.4

Sample letter: Dear Editor, With reference to the article in your newspaper about the closure of Newton Hospital, I would like to express my strong opposition to the proposal, for the following reasons. Firstly, the nearest other hospital is 50 kilometres away. Secondly, 200 people work at the hospital and they will lose their jobs and the whole region will suffer, that is to say the hospital makes an important contribution to the local economy. Finally, it is the only hospital in the region with a special cancer unit. But leaving aside the economic and medical questions, the hospital is obviously being closed for political reasons, and this is quite wrong. To sum up, the closure of our hospital would be a disaster both for the people and for the economy of this region. Yours sincerely, Anna Green

69.1

Unit 69 2 a word in edgeways 3 wrong end of the stick

4 make head or tail of 5 down

69.2

2 talk rubbish 3 start the ball rolling 4 get to / come to the point

69.3

2 talk

70.1

3 talking

4 talking

5 winded

6 sense

7 shop

8 back

Unit 70 2 coat hanger

70.2

2 thing

70.3

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

70.4

2 admission 3 laziness

70.5

5 to put it in a nutshell 6 get hold of the wrong end of the stick

3 pencil sharpener

3 person or thing

4 thing

4 projector

5 tin opener / can opener

5 person or thing

6 person

7 person

8 person

a windscreen wiper a classical violinist a professional photographer (note the stress change: photograph but photographer) an amateur actor a payee a dishwasher an organ donor an addressee

noun

4 productive 5 readable

6 childhood 7 washable

verb

adjective

eat

edible

fury

furious beautify

scarcity refusal

8 friendship

beautiful scarce

refuse modernise

modern

forgetfulness

forget

forgetful

action*

act

active

* The noun act exists (without a suffix) in expressions such as an Act of Parliament (i.e. a new law), or for talking about an act of a play (i.e. a section of the play).

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

241

71.1

Unit 71 2 inedible

3 illiterate

4 disorganised

71.2

2 unwrapping 3 disagree

71.3

2 antiseptic

71.4

2 indiscreet 3 insensitive 4 unconvincing

71.5

2 mispronouncing 3 are overworked but underpaid

72.1

4 disprove 5 unveiled

5 irresponsible

6 to unload 7 disconnected

3 multinational

4 auto-pilot

5 irrelevant 6 disobedient 7 unemployed

6 irreplaceable

8 unfolded 5 postgraduate

6 subway

8 inefficient 9 unlocked 10 ungrateful

11 disloyal 12 intolerant

4 a pseudo-science 5 her ex-husband

6 redo it

Unit 72 verb

person noun

abstract noun

convert

conversion

conduct

conductor

impress

impression

support

supporter

support

compress

compression

Conduction exists as an abstract noun meaning the process by which heat or electricity goes through a substance. Compressor exists as a concrete noun for part of a machine which forces air or gas into less space.

72.2

2 deported 3 adverts/advertisements 4 imposed

72.3

It isn’t easy to find exact synonyms for these words; the meanings are as follows: 2 argue against 3 hold back

72.4

5 inspector 6 diverted 7 introducing

4 work out 5 made public

8 composed 9 depresses 10 postpone

6 hold back

postpone - put off, oppose - go against, inspect - look at, deposit - put down, divert - turn away In each case the word based on the Latin root is more formal than its two-part verb equivalent.

73.1

Unit 73 2 3 4 5

amazement frustration kindness hostility

6 7 8 9

strength anger generosity politeness

73.2

2 3 4 5

recede believe relate strengthen

6 7 8 9

bore act see produce

73.3

2 3 4 5

amazement curiosity brotherhood chance

73.4

2 advice

242

6 7 8 9

10 11 12 13

4 darkness

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

14 reason 15 width

10 own 11 expect 12 adjust

replacement stardom reduction neighbourhood

3 injustice

happiness popularity weakness wisdom

10 11 12 13

sight freedom rage prosperity

5 kingdom

14 motherhood 15 ownership

73.5

Here are some ‘real’ quotations about these abstract nouns: 1 Freedom is an indivisible word. If we want to enjoy it, and to fight for it, we must be prepared to extend it to everyone. 2 Love is a universal migraine. [migraine = bad headache] 3 Life is a foreign language; all men mispronounce it. 4 Four be the things I’d be better without: love, curiosity, freckles and doubt. 5 Where there is no imagination, there is no horror.

74.1

74.2

Unit 74 2 3 4 5

an open-necked, tight-fitting shirt a long-legged, brown-eyed girl brand-new, open-toed sandals a well-dressed, suntanned boy

1 bluegreen-eyed brown2 bulletwater*-proof fire3 secondbusiness-class

4 absentbroad-minded narrow5 handhome-made man6 sugarduty-free

6 an easy-going, warm-hearted person 7 a curly-haired, quick-witted boy 8 a far-fetched story 7 tightloose-fitting 8 leftright-handed

*usually written as waterproof, without a hyphen

74.3

75.1

1 It was an old, run-down hotel that needed modernising. None of the rooms were air-conditioned and the so-called restaurant was just a coffee bar. Our room had an old, worn-out carpet that was dirty. 2 It’s a very built-up coast, with hotels and villas everywhere. 3 We managed to get a last-minute booking for a Mediterranean cruise. 4 Off-peak train travel is much cheaper than travelling at busy times, but long-distance travel by train can sometimes be more expensive than flying. 5 The route of the President’s drive to Parliament was top secret and he was driven in a bullet-proof limousine. 6 The workers went on all-out strike over a long-standing pay dispute and the airport was closed for three days. 7 She used to be quite well-off but she lost a lot of money and now she has a hard-up look about her. She got a part-time job to help pay the bills. 8 She has to have a sugar-free diet but it’s very time-consuming trying to make sure everything she buys has no sugar in it.

Unit 75 Here are some words which would fit appropriately into the bubble diagrams. money

health

social issues

bank account credit card luxury goods mail order pocket money income tax

blood donor heart attack contact lens birth control blood pressure hay fever food poisoning junk food mineral water

race relations arms race welfare state death penalty generation gap climate change

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

243

75.2

2 An alarm in a house which goes off if burglars try to get into the house. 3 Being poisoned or being made ill by food that you have eaten. 4 A gap between different generations making it difficult for parents and children to understand each other’s tastes and attitudes. 5 Changes in the climate of the world leading to phenomena like the polar caps reducing in size, glaciers melting and so on. 6 Scissors that are especially for use in a kitchen preparing food, etc. 7 Goods that are luxuries rather than necessities, e.g. cosmetics compared with basic foods. 8 Money that you carry in your pocket, i.e. small amounts of money that can be spent on what you wish. (It is usually used about money that parents give their children every week to spend on what the children themselves decide.)

9 The part of the state that provides welfare for the members of society who need it, e.g. money for those out of work or pensioners or sick. 10 An electronic telephone answering system used particularly by organisations and mobile phone users.

75.3 75.4

2 climate change 3 hay fever 4 the arms race

5 air traffic control 6 contact lens 7 the death penalty

8 package holiday 9 voice mail 10 pedestrian crossing

11 light bulbs 12 food poisoning

Possible answers: Here are some possible answers for this question. There are some other possibilities also. Check with a dictionary or a teacher if you are not sure whether your answers are correct or not. 2 soundbite 3 blood ties 4 teapot

75.5

5 mother country 6 inheritance tax 7 word-processing

8 level crossing 9 fast food 10 rat race

Possible sentences: 2 Leading politicians will always try to include one of these when they are making a speech. (sound bite) 3 They say these are thicker than water. (blood ties) 4 We were given a large silver one as a wedding present. (teapot) 5 José hasn’t lived in Chile since he was six but he still considers it his mother country. 6 They had a huge amount to pay after their father died. (inheritance tax) 7 The software package for doing this on my computer means I can be very efficient. (word-processing) 8 We’ve got one at the end of our village and you often have to stop to let the trains pass. (level crossing) 9 Burgers and pizzas are popular types of this. (fast food) 10 He couldn’t stand it any longer and moved to a Scottish island to be self-sufficient. (the rat race)

76.1

Unit 76 Possible answers: 2 3 4 5

nervous breakdown computer printout annual turnover final output / outcome

76.2

2 j

76.3

2 shake-up 3 walkout

244

3 i

4 f

6 sales outlet 7 positive feedback / outcome 8 city bypass

5 h

6 a

4 crackdown 5 breakout

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

7 c

6 workout 7 outbreak

8 b

9 d

8 Check-out

10 g

76.4

76.5

77.1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

burglaries (burglars break in to buildings) attempt to conceal information (or cover it up) obstacle in the way of progress (has set the speaker back) delay to traffic (something has held up / delayed the traffic) escape (to get away = to escape) audience (people can be said to turn out to attend something) stay in bed (to lie in = to stay in bed longer than usual) papers accompanying a talk (to hand out = to distribute) tidy (to clear out = to tidy a place by getting rid of things you don’t need)

2 Set-up means organisation, whereas upset means disturbance. 3 Outlet means a place where something is released, whereas let-out means a way of escaping from a difficult situation. 4 Outlay means an amount of money spent on something, whereas layout means the way something is arranged, e.g. the layout of a page or a room.

Unit 77 wine and dine rant and rave 2 3 4 5 6 7

part and parcel

rack and ruin

rough and ready

I was left high and dry, with no one to help me. The room’s a bit rough and ready but you’re welcome to stay as long as you like. She was in a bad temper and was ranting and raving at everybody. My hosts wined and dined me at the best restaurants. That old house in the country has gone to rack and ruin; nobody looks after it now. Working hard and being very disciplined is part and parcel of training to be a top athlete.

77.2

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

77.3

2 3 4 5 6

77.4

2 all or nothing

78.1

high and dry

First and foremost, I want to get a good, steady job. I’ve bumped into Karen on and off / off and on but I don’t meet her regularly. Her violin playing seems to be progressing in leaps and bounds. I’ve been running to and fro / back and forth all morning. The doctor said I needed a few weeks of rest and recreation / R and R. We’ll have to stay in a cheap hotel. We can’t afford to pick and choose. There are some nice hotels here and there along the coast. Mrs James was ill for a while, but now she’s out and about again. Robin’s office is on the next floor to mine, so we have to go up and down all day. correct wrong: black and white wrong: Sooner or later wrong: Ladies and gentlemen correct 3 back to front

4 sink or swim

5 slowly but surely

6 give or take

Unit 78 2 e

3 h

4 g

78.2

2 GM, WHO, DNA, carbs 3 PIN, ATM, IOU

78.3

2 AKA/aka 3 laser

78.4

1 2 3 4

5 a

4 high-tech 5 sonar

6 b

7 f

8 d

4 scuba 5 NATO, MI6, CIA

6 radar, sonar

6 satnav

RSVP PS RIP PTO English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

245

79.1

Unit 79 2 3 4 5 6 7

This printer isn’t working again! It’s a pain in the neck. It’s almost midnight! I’d better be making a move. I spent too much money last month and now I’m in the red. It’s time to change my laptop. It’s five years old and has seen better days. She is the absolute limit! She really takes the biscuit. Oh dear, Matthew completely misunderstood me. He always seems to get (hold of) the wrong end of the stick. 8 I’m sorry. I do some really stupid things. You must think I’m as daft as a brush. 9 I wonder what’s wrong with Ursula? She looks down in the dumps. 10 I don’t trust politicians. Most of them are just on the make.

79.2

2 barking up the wrong tree

79.3 79.4

2 a

3 a

4 b

3 poke your nose in(to)

5 b

6 a

Suggested answers: 2 very easy 3 very fit physically 4 treating me in a cold, unfriendly way

80.1

80.2

1 They sang a psalm to honour the memory of the world-famous psychologist as she was laid to rest in the family tomb. (Note that although the ‘r’ in ‘world’ is not really pronounced, in Standard British English, it affects the way the word is pronounced.) 2 The psychiatrist was knifed in the knee as she was walking home. 3 He should have whistled as he fastened his sword to his belt. (Note that the ‘h’ in ‘have’ is not really pronounced when following an auxiliary verb as in this sentence and the next one.) 4 You could have left me half the Christmas cake on Wednesday. The odd one out appears first. word /ɜː/, sword, cord /ɔː/ dome /əʊ/, come, some /ʌ/ plead /iː/, head, tread /e/ could /ʊ/, doubt, shout /aʊ/

6 cough /ɒ/, rough, tough /ʌ/ 7 wand /ɑ/, land, sand /æ/ 8 root /uː/, soot, foot /ʊ/

Possible answers: 2 now

80.4

5 very occasionally / very rarely 6 learnt how to use it or to understand it

Unit 80

2 3 4 5

80.3

4 as good as gold

3 who

4 off

5 go

The stressed syllables are underlined below. 1 2 3 4

transfer, transfer suspected, suspect conflicting, conflict upset, upset

5 6 7 8

increased, decrease permit, permits record, record conduct, conducting

80.5

2 catastrophe 3 handkerchief

80.6

2 zoology, zoologist, zoological 3 arithmetic, arithmetical, arithmetician (Note that suffixes like -ian and -tion work as if they are two syllables

4 chemical 5 subtle

6 receipt 7 height

8 recipe

with this ‘third syllable from the end’ stress rule, even though they are only pronounced as one syllable nowadays.)

4 psychology, psychologist, psychological 5 psychiatry, psychiatric, psychiatrist

80.7 246

2 cool

3 sword

4 apostrophe

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

5 climb

6 calm

81.1

Unit 81 2 g

3 h

4 f

81.2

2 wheezing 3 clip-clopping

81.3

1 purred 2 Click

81.4

5 b

6 c

4 whizzed 5 grumbling

3 groaned 4 crashed

7 e

8 a

6 dashed 7 spurted

8 bashed

5 mash 6 gash

Possible answers: 2 a piece of metal 3 angry 4 when feeling cheerful (Some people just can’t whistle, but people who can often whistle because they’re happy, or because they like a particular melody, or to attract someone’s attention or to call a dog.) 5 buses, planes and trains which are late, people who behave rudely! 6 spit it out (but that may not be possible in polite company!)

82.1

Unit 82 Note: These sentences do not sound natural. They are only used for the exercise. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

82.2 82.3

The main house (mouse) houses (browse) a collection of rare stamps. It’s no use (juice). I can’t use (snooze) this gadget. You sow (go) the seeds while I feed the sow. (cow) The violinist in the bow (so) tie made a bow. (now) He’s the lead (deed) singer in the group ‘Lead (head) piping’. What a row (plough) from the last house in the row! (though) Does he still suffer from his war wound? (tuned) I wound (round) the rope around the tree to strengthen it against the gale. It’s hard to wind (find) in the sails in this wind. (tinned)

2 waste

3 sole

4 pane

5 heir

6 allowed

7 sail

8 through, phase

9 peel

Possible sentences: Note: Most sentences in ‘real’ English avoid using pairs of homophones as they may be confusing and often don’t sound natural. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Whether we have a picnic tomorrow or not will depend on the weather. Let’s practise with these grammar exercises first and then do some vocabulary practice. It’s great to see such a lovely fire burning in the grate. Don’t whine so much just because the wine’s finished. Brake now or you’ll break that toy in the road. The archaeological site was a marvellous sight at sunset. Let us pray that we may never be prey to evil thoughts. Although she was a little hoarse it did not put her off horse-riding in the snow. The beautiful sight of the moon’s rays reflected in the lake did a great deal to raise her spirits.

82.4

2 a This is a play on words on the two meanings of draughts. One is the game played with round counters and a chess board and the other is a current of air as in ‘There’s a terrible draught coming from under the door.’ 3 d This is a play on words on two meanings of draw. The first means make a picture and the second means pull. 4 e This is a play on words on the meanings of dates. One refers to years such as 1966; the other to a sweet fruit from a kind of palm tree or to an evening spent together by two people (usually romantic). 5 b This is a play on words on two meanings of beating. A drummer beats a drum. There is also the expression ‘takes a lot of beating’ which means ‘is hard to improve on’.

82.5

2 pear and pair

3 waste and waist

4 toe and tow English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

247

83.1

Unit 83 Possible answers: 2 3 4 5 6

83.2

a job (or jobs) / homework (or some homework) research into / a study of (some) rice / (some) noodles (some) news / a surprise textiles / cloth

The words are paired up in this table. uncountables

countables

money

coin

bread

loaf

information

fact

advice

recommendation

travel

trip

work

job

baggage

case

83.3

2 In the south of England, most houses are made of stone, but in the north, brick is more common. 3 I love antique furniture, but I would need (some) advice from a specialist before I bought any. My knowledge in that area is very poor. 4 Her research is definitely making great progress these days. She has done a lot of original work recently. 5 What equipment do you need to go skiing? If you can give me any information, I would be grateful. 6 Oil exports have produced a great deal of wealth for the country. 7 Package holidays often include transport from the airport to your accommodation. 8 I don’t have any experience of working in education, but I would like to do some voluntary work in a school. 9 Poverty is the biggest problem in many countries. 10 I bought (some) new software that shows you the kind of weather every country has each month of the year.

83.4

Possible items: For making clothes, furniture, etc.: wool, cotton, rubber, plastic For buildings: cement, metal, wood/timber, glass For energy: gas, electricity, steam, solar power, petrol

84.1

Unit 84 In addition to those on the left-hand page, subjects and areas of study that are plural might include: arts/humanities, natural sciences, genetics, politics, ethics.

84.2

2 glasses/spectacles 3 scissors

84.3

2 socks

84.4

2 proceeds 3 acoustics

84.5

2 billiards

248

3 trousers ✓

4 braces 5 overalls

6 binoculars 7 pliers

4 dungarees ✓

5 underpants/pants ✓

4 whereabouts 5 headphones, earphones (either order) 3 scissors

4 dungarees

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

8 handcuffs 6 tights ✓

6 authorities, goods 7 graphics

7 jeans ✓

84.6

85.1

I decided that if I wanted to be a pop star I’d have to move to London. I finally got a room, but it was on the outskirts of the city. The owner didn’t live on the premises, so I could make as much noise as I liked. The acoustics in the bathroom were fantastic, so I practised there. I made so much noise I almost shook the foundations! I went to the headquarters of the Musicians’ Union, but a guy there said I just didn’t have the right looks to be famous. Oh well, never mind!

Unit 85 Possible answers: 2 a cloth: Yes, most people have a cloth somewhere in the kitchen to wipe things with. If the person likes making their own clothes, they may have some cloth in the house too. 3 a fish: If you have an aquarium, you may have a fish or several fish. If you are going to cook fish for dinner, you may have some in your kitchen or refrigerator or freezer. 4 glass: Most people would not keep the material (glass) in their house, but their windows are probably made of glass. Most people have glasses in their house to drink out of. 5 a wood: It’s not likely that people will have a wood (a small forest!) in their house, but they might keep some wood to use to make things or to repair things. 6 pepper: Most people probably have pepper (and salt) in their kitchen to put on their food. They may also have a green or red pepper, or several peppers in their kitchen or refrigerator. 7 paper: Yes, most people keep paper to write or print things on. Many people will have a paper or several papers in order to read the latest news.

85.2 85.3

2 Could I borrow an iron, please? 3 Could I have some pepper, please? 4 Could I have a chocolate, please? Suggested answers: 2 3 4 5 6 7

85.4

86.1 86.2

5 Could I borrow some paper, please? 6 Could I borrow your/a rubber, please? 7 Could I have a glass, please?

I drove over some broken glass. They’re made of rubber. No, I don’t have any experience of working in a primary school. We could buy a paper and find out. It’s a work of art by a famous Italian artist called Leonardo Da Vinci. My favourite flavour’s chocolate.

1 b Art here means painting, drawing and sculpture. 2 a Plant here means machines and large-scale industrial equipment. b A plant here means a botanical item (e.g. a plant with flowers). 3 a Damage here means that something is broken or destroyed in some way. b Damages here means money awarded to someone by a court of law for some harm that has been caused by someone or something (e.g. destroying someone’s reputation, or injuring them). 4 a Times here means experiences. b Times here means occasions.

Unit 86 2 e 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

3 d

4 b

5 a

6 c

7 f

8 g

My mother gave me a piece of advice that I have always remembered. Suddenly a gust of wind almost blew him off his feet. We had a spell of terribly windy weather last winter. Would you like another slice of toast? He never does a stroke of work in the house. Let’s go to the park - I need a breath of fresh air. I can give you an important piece/bit of information about that. We could see a cloud of smoke hovering over the city from a long way away. I need to get some pieces of furniture for my flat.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

249

86.3

1

f

l

2

u

x

n 3

c

h

a

o

s

e

p

a

i

l

t

h

e 4

d

i

s

r

r

t 5

h

e

a i n

6

p

o

v

e

r

t

y

y

86.4

Possible sentence clues: 1 2 3 4 5

87.1 87.2

Did you see that of lightning? She sells old of clothing at the market. Have you ever seen him do even a of work? What a loud of thunder. It sounded almost overhead. Let’s go and get a of fresh air. It’s so stuffy indoors.

Unit 87 2 shoal 3 gang

4 pack 5 team

6 pair 7 couple

Incorrect words: 2 a book 3 a hospital

4 cats 5 pigs

6 fish

87.3

2 f

87.4

2 3 4 5 6

87.5

THE journalists raised a host of difficult questions about the actions of the police during the demonstration. There had been a barrage of complaints about police violence. The Chief of Police replied that he was not prepared to listen to a string of wild accusations without any evidence. In the end, he just gave a series of short answers that left everyone dissatisfied.

88.1

88.2

250

3 g

4 b

5 a

6 h

7 d

8 e

There is/’s a crowd of people waiting outside. The staff are very well paid. A flock of sheep had escaped from a field. She gave me a set of glasses. She gave me a bunch of beautiful roses / a beautiful bunch of roses.

Unit 88 2 3 4 5

two bottles/cartons of milk four cans of cola a tin of tuna a packet/box (or tin) of chocolate biscuits

6 7 8 9

a pot of yoghurt a large box of matches a jar of honey six packets of crisps

2 barrel, bottle, sack (of coal/potatoes) 3 can, bottle, pack, crate, case (possibly also a barrel) 4 any of these: bottle/carton (of milk or juice), jug (of milk), mug (of tea or coffee), packet (of cereal), jar (of jam/marmalade/honey), glass (of milk or juice), bowl (of sugar)

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

5 bag and, sometimes, a sack - a sack is bigger and is more likely to be used when collecting post from a post office or letter box, while a bag may be used by the postman delivering mail 6 bag and basket

88.3

2 3 4 5 6 7

88.4

Possible answers:

a packet of washing powder a carton of cream a tube of hand cream a tin of sardines a tin of beans a bag of apples

8 9 10 11 12

2 chocolate/tool/match box 3 wine/milk/water bottle 4 carrier/shopping/mail bag

89.1

a box of tissues a packet of butter a pack of 6 cans of beer a bottle of washing-up liquid a box of matches

5 milk/cream/water jug 6 wine/whisky/liqueur /lɪˈkjʊə/ glass 7 flower/tea/coffee pot

Unit 89 2 3 4 5

manage to see consists of (make up with this meaning is usually used in the passive) tied up in a bundle understand (with this meaning make out is usually combined with ‘can’ or ‘could’ and ‘not’ or ‘never’) 6 making something more numerous or complete 7 claimed/pretended (make out implies that what is being claimed may well not be true) 8 renovate

89.2

2 away with

89.3

2 3 4 5 6

This weekend we are planning to make for the seaside. Vast amounts of money do not always make for happiness. Your shoelaces are untied. Do them up or you’ll trip over. They like to make out that they are very important people. Thieves robbed the bank and made off with £1,000,000.

89.4

2 3 4 5

your best profit (the) housework allowances for

90.1 90.2

3 up

4 out

5 up

6 an impression / a good impression 7 business 8 exercise

Unit 90 2 on

3 about

4 off

5 round

6 up

Possible answers: the new neighbours skiing

a company to up out

TAKE

over on o

insurance

90.3

2 3 4 5

staff your shoes

Today’s newspaper has brought to light some fascinating information about the President. The situation was brought to a head when the union called for a strike. You need to take account of the historical context of the novel in your essay. The view from the top of the hill took my breath away.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

251

6 He took advantage of her weakness at the time and she gave it to him. 7 If you’re going to succeed in business you must be prepared to take risks. 8 You shouldn’t take anyone or anything for granted.

90.4

Possible answers: the government

children

down

up

BRING

on

out a magazine

an allergy

90.5

91.1

2 to take seriously 3 to take your breath away

4 to bring a law into force 5 to take pride in

6 to take control of

Unit 91 Suggested answers: I don’t often receive interesting junk mail. However, an unusual item came this morning. It was headed ‘Are things depressing you? Do you feel you’ll just never manage to do / achieve all those things you dream of?’ And it went on, ‘If so, buy/order this great new book today: Manage Your World by Simon Triksta. It will teach you how to deal with / recover from those daily upsets, and will ensure that you achieve the contentment in your work that you long for and that you fulfil your dreams. Send €25 today to receive Manage Your World and your key to success within ten days.’ Maybe I should buy it!

91.2

2 through 3 down to

4 round to 5 up to

91.3

2 c

4 b

92.1

3 d

6 through 7 across

8 behind, into 9 together

5 a

Unit 92 2 3 4 5

We try to reserve some money for our holiday every week. Ignore all your negative feelings and listen with an open mind. If we hadn’t left home so late, we would have arrived on time. The government’s unpopular proposals caused a wave of protests.

92.2

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

put forward an idea / a proposal / a suggestion put off a football match / an appointment / customers put across your feelings / ideas / opinions put up an umbrella / prices / a picture put on a concert / an accent / clothes put away papers / books / files put up with someone’s temper / behaviour / bad manners

92.3

Possible answers: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

252

I haven’t had time to put things away yet. We’d better set out/off at 7 am. Yes, of course, I can put you up. The cost of it all has put me off. He is hoping to set up a business of his own. Let’s put up some posters. I’ll help you put it together.

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

10 on

92.4

Possible answers: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

93.1

He’s bound to put two and two together if you keep on behaving like that. She has set her sights on becoming Prime Minister. She really puts my back up. If you put pressure on her to change her mind it’ll make her even more determined. Please put your mind to the problem in hand. She has set her heart on getting a seat in Parliament. She threw petrol on the rubbish and set fire to it. It’s time the teacher put a stop to the noise. The man has set a record for eating the most burgers in one hour. This is the first time I’ve ever set foot in the southern hemisphere. We spent most of our evenings setting/putting the world to rights rather than studying. You really should put your foot down (with him) or there’ll be trouble later. If the teacher doesn’t set a good example, the children certainly won’t behave properly. He has set himself the target of running the Athens marathon next year.

Unit 93 2 3 4 5

check attacked happened / took place found by chance

93.2

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

When his grandmother dies, he’ll come into a fortune / a lot of money. After four years of fighting, the civil war finally came to an end. Halfway up the steep hill, the bus came to a standstill. They say that long skirts are coming into fashion again. The telephone first came into existence nearly 150 years ago. I found it very difficult to come to terms with my failure. As we drove round the corner the house came into sight/view.

93.3

2 3 4 5 6

They went to great lengths to avoid meeting each other. I’ve been on the go all day and I’m longing for a shower now and to relax. I do hope he will make a go of his new business. The story goes that they were together that night. The film is good as far as it goes but it doesn’t tackle the problem deeply enough.

93.4

2 d

94.1

3 e

4 g

6 7 8 9

5 b

criticising / complaining choose suit / match / look OK with thought of / suggested / found

6 a

7 f

Unit 94 2 to

3 promise(s)

94.2

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

94.3

Possible answers:

4 up

5 down

I ran into Julio at the station yesterday. Nadia broke her promise to tidy her room. I thought I was seeing things when I saw a monkey in the garden. The police let the boy off with a warning. Stupidly, I let it slip that Sabrina was planning to move abroad. An enormous crowd turned up to hear the President speak. My aunt looks down on people who don’t have a good job. Dan has promised to turn over a new leaf. Natalie has always looked up to her older cousin.

2 It can be hard to see through someone’s lies if they have a lot of charm. 3 Halfway up the mountain he let go of the rope and fell into a crevasse. 4 It’ll be better in the long run if you tell him now exactly how you feel. English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

253

5 6 7 8 9 10

95.1

He felt terribly let down when she refused to help him. She didn’t turn up until the party was nearly over. I’m afraid we’ve run out of sugar. In my last year at school I decided to look into the possibility of spending a year abroad. I agreed to see about booking our holiday flights. It’s your turn to load the dishwasher.

Unit 95 2 wrong

3 house/home

95.2

2 3 4 5

95.3

2 particular

95.4

2 to alight

95.5

2 3 4 5

96.1

seeking utilise frequently immediately, attempt 3 in, of

4 in, to

5 account

b) to purchase

a friend a friend study hard (e.g. for an exam) thank you / thanks

c) to address

d) board

4 persons

5 stairway

6 intelligent 7 unpleasant / disgusting 8 uncertain / doubtful or not good, not honest

Unit 96 JIM: ANNIE: JIM: ANNIE: JIM:

Annie, can you lend me ten quid? What for? I’ve got to go and see my parents, and my bike’s not working, so I’ll have to get a cab. Can’t you phone them and say you can’t come? Well, I could, but my mobile’s not working, and I want to go because they always have lots of grub/nosh, and the fridge at our flat is empty, as usual. ANNIE: Can’t you go by tube? Anyway, you’re in luck, I’ve got some dosh/readies/bread, so here you are. 2 doctor 3 prison

96.3

2 3 4 5

96.4

2 barbecue 3 biscuit

4 police 5 food

6 celebrity / famous person 7 cup of tea

8 money

(exam essay) The Internet and television are probably the biggest influences on young people today. (recipe in a cookery book) Next, slice the potatoes and place them on top of the meat. (exam essay) Newspapers face stiff competition these days from TV and internet news. (formal university publicity) The Faculty offers courses in veterinary science. Laboratory facilities are available 24 hours a day. 4 husband 5 pictures / photographs

6 vegetarian

Unit 97 2 rake

97.2

2 falling

97.3

1 1 4 5

254

5 children

6 fundamental 7 occurs 8 provided the patient with

3 a) to regret

96.2

97.1

4 Bye-bye

3 mouse

4 post

3 dog

4 parrot

5 bat 5 snow

6 sheet

c 2 d 3 e 4 a 5 b as quick as a flash 2 as red as a beetroot 3 as flat as a pancake [very flat] as fresh as a daisy [used about how people feel or look, not about e.g. bread or other foods] as strong as an ox

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

97.4

Across: 1 brass Down: 1 bat

97.5

98.1

2 3 4 5

3 hatter 2 feather

6 sheet 3 hard

7 daisy 4 easy

9 bone 5 cucumber

10 mouse 8 ice

Our plan worked like a dream. He/She eats like a horse and drinks like a fish. He/She has a mind/head like a sieve. He/She has been as busy as a bee all day.

Unit 98 2 Many hands make light work. 3 Don’t put all your eggs in one basket.

4 Too many cooks spoil the broth. 5 We’ll cross that bridge when we come to it.

98.2

2 Too many cooks spoil the broth, which suggests that problems can be caused if a lot of people are involved in a job, whereas Many hands make light work suggests that if there are more helpers then the job will be completed more easily. 3 When the cat’s away, the mice will play. Absence makes the heart grow fonder says that if you cannot be with someone or something you will love them/it more, whereas When the cat’s away, the mice will play suggests that others may take advantage of someone’s absence to behave in a way they would not otherwise do. 4 We’ll cross that bridge when we come to it and Don’t count your chickens before they hatch. The first one warns against anticipating future problems (they may never happen) and the second one warns against assuming you will get something good (that may never happen either). 5 Never look a gift-horse in the mouth. Both proverbs advise you to take advantage of good fortune when you have it in front of you.

98.3

2 When the cat’s away, the mice will play. 3 Where there’s smoke, there’s fire. 4 Take care of the pennies and the pounds will take care of themselves.

98.4

2 Never look a gift-horse in the mouth. 3 Don’t put all your eggs in one basket. 4 You can lead a horse to water but you can’t make it drink.

99.1

Unit 99 Possible answers: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

99.2 99.3

at the entrance to private land (e.g. a farm, a forest) in a theatre or hall in a park, on a beach outside or in the window of a café or restaurant outside a nightclub (possibly a gym or swimming pool) at a zoo or park by a dead-end street / cul-de-sac on a door at a supermarket check-out on a packet of cigarettes on a road or motorway at a car park or near parking bays on a street at a dangerous place or a place where pedestrians only are allowed at a river or lake

2 g

3 h

4 k

5 d

6 i

7 e

8 j

9 b

10 a

11 f

Suggested answers: 2 in a shop or restaurant: the staff can speak English 3 at the customs: for people who do not have goods that require them to pay duty English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

255

4 at a shop: the shop is probably closing down and wants to sell all its goods 5 at a sports event or cultural place or event: you must have a ticket to come in 6 at a hotel or guesthouse: the hotel/guesthouse is full, or at a shop, restaurant or factory meaning ‘no jobs are available’ 7 at a river or lake: you must not fish here 8 at a bicycle shop: you can buy or hire/rent a bicycle here 9 outside a house or at an estate agent’s: there is a flat which you can rent 10 for example, at an escalator: if you have a dog with you, you must carry it 11 on a train or bus: if there is an elderly, disabled or pregnant person, please give them this seat

99.4

Suggested answers: 2 3 4 5 6

100.1 100.2

Spanish spoken here No admission to unaccompanied minors No entry to unauthorised personnel Shoplifters/Thieves will be prosecuted Please refrain from handling food/goods

Unit 100 2 f

3 e

4 b

5 a

6 c

Suggested answers: 2 3 4 5 6 7

Steps are being taken with the aim of providing more work for people. Approval has been given to a plan to place restrictions on people’s use of water. A woman resigned from her job after undergoing some kind of unpleasant experience there. A public opinion survey has looked into how people spend their money. An attempt has been made to remove the Prime Minister from his/her position. The Princess has promised to give support to her family or to family values, in general.

100.3

2 makes a connection between 3 reduces

100.4

2 A hammer is a tool which hits nails into wood. The headline is a play on the businessman’s name and the headline use of hit to mean affect. 3 A dramatic pause is a phrase used to refer to a pause in speech made for dramatic effect. Cats have paws, a homophone of pause. 4 Hot air means a lot of talk with little meaning. The prince is talking about climate change, i.e. global warming. Heir is a homophone of air and the prince in the story is presumably the heir to the throne.

101.1

6 leads / is a major figure in

Unit 101 2 British (-re, not -er) 3 American (-z- not -s-)

4 American (-er, not -re) 5 British (-our, not -or)

101.2

2 elevator, lift 3 undershirt, vest

101.3

2 3 4 5 6

101.4

2 (a) one (b) two

101.5

2 eraser / rubber 3 trash / garbage / rubbish

256

4 explodes in 5 promises

4 flashlight, torch 5 diaper, nappy

Pass me the biscuits. It’s in the wardrobe. Open the curtains. We’ve run out of petrol. Our bags are in the boot.

7 8 9 10

6 American (not jewellery)

6 drapes, curtains 7 Scotch tape, Sellotape

Single or return? Let’s take the underground. We’ve been working in the garden. I hate waiting in queues / a queue.

3 (a) a bank (b) a café

4 (a) under (b) over

4 elevator / lift 5 crosswalk / zebra crossing

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

8 truck, lorry

6 hood / bonnet

Phonemic symbols Vowel sounds

Consonant sounds

Symbol Examples

Symbol

Examples

/i:/

sleep me

/p/

put

/i/

happy recipe

/b/

book

/I/

pin dinner

/t/

take

/U/

foot could pull

/d/

dog

/U/

casual

/k/

car kick

/u:/

do shoe through

/g/

go guarantee

/e/

red head said

/tS/

catch church

/@/

arrive father colour

/dZ/

age lounge

/ɜː/

turn bird work

/f/

for cough photograph

/O:/

sort thought walk

/v/

love vehicle

/æ/

cat black

/T/

thick path

/ʌ/

sun enough wonder

/D/

this mother

/ɒ/

got watch sock

/s/

since rice

/A:/

part heart laugh

/z/

zoo surprise

/S/

shop sugar machine

/eI/

name late aim

/Z/

pleasure usual vision

/aI/

my idea time

/h/

hear hotel

/OI/

boy noise

/m/

make

/[emailprotected]/

pair where bear

/n/

name now know

/[emailprotected]/

hear cheers

/ŋ/

bring

/@U /

go home show

/l/

look while

/aU/

out cow

/r/

road

/[emailprotected]/

pure fewer

/j/

young

/w/

wear

ˈ This shows that the next syllable is the one with the stress. ˌ This is used when some longer words have a second stress, less strong than on the main stressed syllable.

258

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

Index The numbers in the Index are unit numbers, not page numbers. The pronunciation provided is for standard British English. 3D /θridi/ 33 60s music /skstz mjuzk/ 21 a) ... b) /e ... bi 67

admission /ədmʃən/ 14, 15, 70, 99 admit /ədmt/ 64 admittedly /ədmtdli/ 64

abduct /əbdkt/ 39 able /ebəl/ 8 abode /əbəυd/ 95 above /əbv/ 68 abrupt əbrpt 8

adore /ədɔ/ 10

absent-minded /ˌbsəntmandd/ 74 absolute /bsəlut/ 55

adventure holiday /ədventʃə hɒləde/ 32

absolutely /ˌbsəlutli/ 43 absorbing /əbzɔbŋ/ 3 abstract /bstrkt/ 19 absurd /əbsd/ 48

adventurous /ədventʃərəs/ 25, 32 advert /dvt/ 96 advertise /dvətaz/ 72 advertisement /ədvtsmənt/ 72 advertiser /dvətazə/ 72 advice /ədvas/ 73, 83 aect /əfekt/ 66 aection /əfekʃən/ 73 aectionate /əfekʃənət/ 44 African /frkən/ 5

academic /ˌkədemk/ 15 accept /əksept/ 10, 64 access /kses/ 17, 35 accident /ksdənt/ 13 acclaim /əklem/ 48 acclaimed /əklemd/ 48 accommodation /əˌkɒmədeʃən/ 83 accomplice /əkmpls/ 39 accomplish /əkmplʃ/ 60 accomplished əkmplʃt 60 accomplishment /əkmplʃmənt/ 60 account /əkaυnt/ 36 accuse /əkjuz/ 39 ache /ek/ 28

adult education centre /dlt ˌedυkeʃən sentə/ 25 adulthood /dlthυd/ 73 advance /ədvɑnts/ 29

African-Caribbean /frkən ˌkrbiən/ 5 aer all /ɑftərɔl/ 64 aers /ɑftəz/ 22 against /əenst/ 42 age /ed/ 53 ageing /edŋ/ 30

alongside /əˌlɒŋsad/ 65 aloud /əlaυd/ 82 alter /ɔltə/ 33 alteration /ˌɔltəreʃən/ 70 alternative /ɔltnətv/ 55 although /ɔlðəυ/ 64 amazement /əmezmənt/ 73 ambassador /mbsədə/ 16 ambition /mbʃən/ 60 ambitious /mbʃəs/ 8 among (the best etc.) /əmŋ/ 48 amount /əmaυnt/ 51 analyse /nəlaz/ 33 anger /ŋə/ 73 angrily /ŋrli/ 45 ankle /ŋkl/ 28 annoyance /ənɔənts/ 50 anorak /nərk/ 96

antibiotic /ˌntibaɒtk/ 71

aggressive /əresv/ 8

achievable /ətʃivəbəl/ 60 achieve /ətʃiv/ 60 achievement /ətʃivmənt/ 60, 73 acid rain /sd ren/ 24 acknowledge /əknɒld/ 64 acoustics /əkustks/ 84

aim /em/ 60 air /eə/ 82 air con /eə kɒn/ 78

acquaintance /əkwentənts/ 10 acquit /əkwt/ 39 action /kʃən/ 70 active /ktv/ 23 activity /ktvəti/ 73 ad /d/ 96 addition /ədʃən/ 52 additionally /ədʃənəli/ 65 address /ədres/ 95

air pollution /eə pəluʃən/ 24

admire /ədmaə/ 10

all-out /ˌɔlaυt/ 74 allowance /əlaυənts/ 89 along with /əlɒŋ wð/ 65

anorexic /ˌnəreksk/ 7 answer /ɑnsə/ 66 Antarctica /ntɑktkə/ 5

agitation /ˌdteʃən/ 86 agreement /ərimənt/ 60, 89, 93 aid /ed/ 100 AIDS /edz/ 13

addressee /ˌdresi/ 70 adjustment /ədstmənt/ 73 administrator /ədmnstretə/ 16

all or nothing /ˌɔlɔnθŋ/ 77 allocate /ləket/ 57

air traic control /eə trfk kəntrəυl/ 75 air-conditioned /eəkənˌdʃənd/ 74 airport /eəpɔt/ 31 airsick /eəsk/ 31 airsickness /eəsknəs/ 31 AKA /ˌekee/ 78 à-la-carte /ˌləkɑt/ 22 alarm clock /əlɑm klɒk/ 75 album /lbəm/ 21 alight adj, v /əlat/ 95, 99 alive /əlav/ 80

antiseptic /ˌntiseptk/ antisocial /ˌntisəυʃəl/ anti-war /ˌntiwɔ/ 71 anxious /ŋkʃəs/ 43 anxiously /ŋkʃəsli/ 45 anyway /eniwe/ 67 apart from /əpɑt frəm/ apartment /əpɑtmənt/

71 71

65 32, 101

apostrophe /əpɒstrəfi/ 80 app /p/ 34 appal /əpɔl/ 44 appeal to /əpil tu/ 44 appear in /əpərn/ 20 application /ˌplkeʃən/ 15, 34 apply for /əpla fɔ/ 16 appoint /əpɔnt/ 38 apprenticeship /əprentʃp/ 73 approach /əprəυtʃ/ 66 Arab /rəb/ 5 Arabic /rəbk/ 5 archer /ɑtʃə/ 18

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

259

archery /ɑtʃəri/ 18 architect /ɑktekt/ 19 architecture /ɑktektʃə/ 19 area /eəriə/ 23 argue /ɑju/ 45 argument /ɑjəmənt/ 66 argumentative /ˌɑjəmentətv/ 8 arise from /əraz frɒm/ 63 arithmetic /ˌərθmətk/ 80 arithmetical /ˌrθmetkəl/ 80

autobiography /ˌɔtəbaɒrəf/ 71 autograph /ɔtərɑf/ 71 automatically /ˌɔtəmtkli/ 29 auto-pilot /ɔtəυˌpalət/ 71 average /vrd/ 51 awkward /ɔkwəd/ 9 AWOL /ewɒl/ 78 axe /ks/ 100

arms race /ɑmz ˌres/ 75 aromatic /ˌrəmtk/ 46 arrangement /ərendmənt/ 89 arrest /ərest/ 39 arrival /əravəl/ 70 arrogant /rəənt/ 8 art /ɑt/ 19, 85 art gallery /ɑt ləri/ 25

B&B /ˌbi ən bi/ 25 babysitter /bebiˌstə/ 75 bachelor’s degree 15

art lover /ɑt lvə/ 19 article /ɑtkəl/ 86

backfire /ˌbkfaə/ 60 badge /bd/ 27

artificial /ˌɑtfʃəl/ 41 artificial hip /ˌɑtfʃəl hp/ 29 artistic /ɑtstk/ 19

badly (aected) /bdl/ 50 baggage /bd/ 83, 101 baggy /b/ 27 bags of /bz əv/ 51

arts /ɑts/ 85 arts (the) /ði ɑts/ 19 arts and cras /ɑts ənd krɑfts/ 19 arts page /ɑts ped/ 19 as … as … /əz ... əz/ 97 ASAP /ˌe es e pi/ 78 Asia /eə/ 5 Asian /eən/ 5 aspect /spekt/ 66 assertive /əstv/ 8 assessment /əsesmənt/ 66 associated /əsəυʃietd/ 33 at fault /ət fɔlt/ 48 at last /ət lɑst/ 68 at once /ət wnts/ 95 at times /ət tamz/ 53 athletics /θletks/ 84 ATM /ˌetiem/ 78 atmosphere /tməsfə/ 24 attach /əttʃ/ 35 attachment /əttʃmənt/ 35 attain /əten/ 60 attainable /ətenəbəl/ 60 attainment /ətenmənt/ 60 attempt n, v /ətempt/ 89, 95 attic /tk/ 11 attitude /ttʃud/ 66 attract /ətrkt/ 10, 44 auburn /ɔbən/ 7 audience /ɔdiənts/ 20 auditorium /ˌɔdtɔriəm/ 99 Australia /ɒstreliə/ 5

260

authorities /ɔθɒrətzz/ 84 authority /ɔθɒrəti/ 73

back v /bk/ 100 back and forth /bk ən fɔθ/ 77 back to front /bk tə frnt/ 77 back up /bk p/ 34 backache /bkek/ 28

bailout /belaυt/ 76 balanced diet /blənst daət/ 22 bald /bɔld/ 7 ballet /ble/ 20 ballot paper /blət pepə/ 38 ban /bn/ 51 bandage /bndd/ 28 bang /bŋ/ 12, 56 bank account /bŋk əkaυnt/ 75 banker /bŋkə/ 16 banking /bŋkŋ/ 16 bar n /bɑ/ 86 bar v /bɑ/ 100 bark /bɑk/ 26 bark up the wrong tree 79 barrel /brəl/ 88 barren /brən/ 23 basement /besmənt/ 11 bash /bʃ/ 81 basic /besk/ 95 basket /bɑskt/ 88 bass /bes/ 21 bass guitarist /bes tɑrst/ 21 bat /bt/ 18, 26 bathing (baby) /bɑθŋ/ 82 bathroom /bɑθrυm/ 101

rdndənt/ 16 be oered a job /b ɒfəd ə dɒb/ 16 be oered work /b ɒfəd wk/ 16 be promoted /b prəməυtd/ 16 be set /b set/ 37 beach /bitʃ/ 23 beak 26 beam /bim/ 56 beard /bəd/ 7 beautiful /bjutfəl/ 7 beautify /bjutfa/ 70 because /bkɒz/ 63 bee’s knees (the) /biz niz ðə/ 48 beg /be/ 45 Belgian /beldən/ 5 belief /blif/ 42, 73 believe /bliv/ 42 belongings /blɒŋŋz/ 57 below /bləυ/ 68 belt /belt/ 27 besides /bsadz/ 65 best friend /best frend/ 10 bestseller /ˌbestselə/ 19 bewitching /bwtʃŋ/ 3 biannual /banjuəl/ 71 bicycle /baskəl/ 71 bid /bd/ 100 big-head /ˌbhed/ 9 big-headed /ˌbhedd/ 74 bike /bak/ 96 bikini /bkini/ 27 bilateral /baltərəl/ 71 bilingual /balŋwəl/ 5, 71 bill /bl/ 101 billiards /bljədz/ 18, 84 binoculars /bnɒkjələz/ 84 birth control /bθ kəntrəυl/ 75 biscuit /bskt/ 101 bit /bt/ 86 bite /bat/ 47 bitter /btə/ 22, 46 bitterly /btəl/ 45 bizarre /bzɑ/ 41 black /blk/ 7 black and white /ˌblk ən wat/ 77 black eye /blk a/ 28 blade /bled/ 86 blame /blem/ 48 bland /blnd/ 22 blast /blɑst/ 100

bay /be/ 23 be attracted to 10

blaze /blez/ 100 blended learning /blendd lnŋ/ 14

be into /b ntu/ 21

blink /blŋk/ 47 block /blɒk/ 12 blog /blɒ/ 35

be laid o /b led ɒf/ 16 be made redundant /b med

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

blonde /blɒnd/ 7

bring about /brŋ əbaυt/ 63, 90

blood donor /bld ˌdəυnə/ 75 blood pressure /bld ˌpreʃə/ 28, 29, 75

bring back /ˌbrŋ bk/ 90 bring down /ˌbrŋ daυn/ 90 bring into force /brŋ ntə fɔs/ 90 bring into the open /brŋ ntə ðə əυpən/ 90

blossom /blɒsəm/ 26 blue-eyed /bluad/ 74 blunt /blnt/ 8 blush /blʃ/ 47 board /bɔd/ 95 boast /bəυst/ 45 boiling /bɔlŋ/ 6 bonnet /bɒnt/ 101 book (a table) v /bυk/ 22 booking /bυkŋ/ 22 bookmark /bυkmɑk/ 35

bring o /ˌbrŋ ɒf/ 90 bring on /ˌbrŋ ɒn/ 90 bring out /ˌbrŋ aυt/ 90 bring out the best /brŋ aυt ðə best/ 90 bring round /ˌbrŋ raυnd/ 90 bring to a head /brŋ tu ə hed/ 90 bring to light /brŋ tə lat/ 90

boost /bust/ 30, 100 boot /but/ 101 boredom /bɔdəm/ 73

bring up /ˌbrŋ p/ 90 Briton /brtən/ 5 broad /brɔd/ 54 broadband /brɔdbnd/ 35

boss /bɒs/ 100 bossy /bɒsi/ 8

broadcast /brɔdkɑst/ 37 broaden /brɔdən/ 54

bother /bɒðə/ 60 bottle /bɒtəl/ 88 bough /baυ/ 26

broadminded /ˌbrɔdmandd/ 8, 54 broad-shouldered /brɔd ʃəυldəd/ 74

bow /bəυ/ 18 bowl /bəυl/ 88 bowls /bəυlz/ 84

business plan /bzns pln/ 17 business-class /bzns klɑs/ 74 bustling /bslŋ/ 25 button /btən/ 27, 33 buzz /bz/ 81 bypass /bapɑs/ 76 cab /kb/ 96 cabinet /kbnət/ 38 Cabinet of Ministers 38 cable /kebəl/ 35 calm /kɑm/ 31, 73, 80 camcorder /kmˌkɔdə/ 33 campsite /kmpsat/ 32 campus /kmpəs/ 15 can /kn/ 88 cancel (a reservation) /kntsəl/ 22 candidate /knddət/ 38 candy /kndi/ 101 canned music /knd mjuzk/ 21 canoeist /kənust/ 18 can’t bear /kɑnt beə/ 44 can’t face the thought of /kɑnt fes ðə θɔt ɒv/ 50 can’t stand /kɑnt stnd/ 10, 44

brotherhood /brðəhυd/ 70, 73 brownish /braυnʃ/ 7

capacity /kəpsəti/ 95 cape /kep/ 23

box /bɒks/ 88 bra /brɑ/ 27 braces /bresz/ 84

browse /braυz/ 35 browser /braυzə/ 35 bruise /bruz/ 12, 28

capital /kptəl/ 23 captivate /kptvet/ 44 captivating /kptvetŋ/ 3

brainless /brenləs/ 8 brainy /breni/ 8 brake /brek/ 82

brusque /brusk/ 8 brutal /brutəl/ 70 bucket /bkt/ 88

capture /kptʃə/ 20

branch /brɑntʃ/ 26, 33, 38 brand-new /brnd nju/ 74 breadth /bretθ/ 54, 73 break /brek/ 28, 50, 82 break (the news) /brek/ 94 break down /brekdaυn/ 12 break o /brekɒf/ 94

buckle /bkəl/ 27 bud /bd/ 26 Buddhism /bυdzəm/ 70 bug /b/ 28 build /bld/ 17 building 19

caravan /krəvn/ 32 carbon footprint /kɑbən fυtprnt/ 24

break out /ˌbrekaυt/ 13 breakdown /brekdaυn/ 76 breakout /brekaυt/ 76 breakthrough /brekθru/ 76 break-up /brekp/ 76 breath /breθ/ 47, 86 breathe /brið/ 47 breathless /breθləs/ 28

car hire /kɑ ˌhaə/ 25 car park /kɑ pɑk/ 25, 75, 101

built-up /ˌbltp/ 74 bulky /blki/ 59 bullet-proof /bυltpruf/ 74 bump /bmp/ 12 bumpy /bmpi/ 31 bunch /bntʃ/ 87

brick /brk/ 83 briefly /brifl/ 68 bright /brat/ 8, 59

bungalow /bŋələυ/ 11 bunk bed /bŋk bed/ 32 burglar alarm /blər əlɑm/ 75 burglary /bləri/ 39 burn /bn/ 12, 80 bury the hatchet /beri ðə htʃt/ 50 bury your head in the sand 9 bus service 25

brightness /bratns/ 59 brilliantly /brliəntli/ 48

bus stop /bs stɒp/ 75 business /bzns/ 17, 31

breathtaking /breθˌtekŋ/ 32 breed /brid/ 26 breeze /briz/ 6

carbs /kɑbz/ 78 card /kɑd/ 80 cards /kɑdz/ 84 cards on the table 50 care for /keə ˌfɔ/ 44 carelessness /keələsns/ 73 caring /keərŋ/ 44 carpenter /kɑpəntə/ 16 carton /kɑtən/ 86, 88 cartoon /kɑtun/ 37 case /kes/ 39, 88 cash machine /kʃ məʃin/ 40 cast /kɑst/ 20, 87 cast (a vote) /kɑst/ 38 castle /kɑsəl/ 80 casual /kjuəl/ 10 casually /kjuəli/ 27 casualty /kjuəlti/ 13 Catalan /ˌktəln/ 5 catastrophe /kətstrəfi/ 80

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

261

catch /ktʃ/ 3 catch-up TV 37

citizens’ advice bureau /stzənz ədvas bjυərəυ/ 25

cater /ketə/ 57 cat’s whiskers /kts hwskərz/ 48 cause /kɔz/ 63 cease /sis/ 2 celeb /səleb/ 96 cell /sel/ 33

city /sti/ 25 City Hall /sti hɔl/ 25 civil servant /svəl svənt/ 16 civil war /svəl wɔ/ 13 claim /klem/ 66 clang /klŋ/ 56, 81 clap (of thunder) /klp/ 86 clash /klʃ/ 100 classical /klskəl/ 2, 21 classics /klsks/ 84

cell(phone) /sel(fəυn)/ 78 cellar /selə/ 11 cellist /tʃelst/ 70 cello /tʃeləυ/ 2 center /sentər/ 101 Central America /sentrəl əmerkə/ 5 centre /sentə/ 101

commercial /kəmʃəl/ 37 commercialise /kəmʃəlaz/ 70 commit /kəmt/ 39 committed /kəmtd/ 42 companionship /kəmpnjənʃp/ 73 company /kmpəni/ 87 competition /ˌkɒmpətʃən/ 17 competitive /kəmpettv/ 18, 40 complain /kəmplen/ 45 complexion /kəmplekʃən/ 7 complication /ˌkɒmplkeʃən/ 70 compose /kəmpəυz/ 72 composer /kəmpəυzə/ 72

CEO /ˌsi i əυ/ 17 certainty /stənti/ 55

click /klk/ 34, 81 cli /klf/ 23 climate change /klamət

chalk n /tʃɔk/ 80 challenge /tʃlnd/ 50

ˌtʃend/ 24, 75 climb /klam/ 80

/ˌkɒmprhentsv skul/ 14 compromise /kɒmprəmaz/ 60

chamber /tʃembə/ 38 chance /tʃɑnts/ 55, 73 change into /tʃend ntə/ 27

clip-clop /klpklɒp/ 81 clone /kləυn/ 33 close-fitting /kləυs ftŋ/ 27 closet /klɒzt/ 101

compulsory /kəmplsəri/ 14, 55 computer technology /kəmpjutə teknɒlədi/ 75

cange out of /tʃend aυt ɒv/ 27 chaos /keɒs/ 50, 86 character /krəktə/ 19 characterise /krəktəraz/ 41 characteristic /ˌkrəktərstk/ 41 charge /tʃɑd/ 39 charge (interest) /tʃɑd/ 40 check n /tʃek/ 101 checked /tʃekt/ 27 check-out /tʃekaυt/ 76 cheerfully /tʃəfəli/ 45 cheerio /ˌtʃəriəυ/ 95 chemical /kemkəl/ 33 chemist’s /kemsts/ 25 chest pains /tʃest penz/ 28 chew /tʃu/ 47 childhood /tʃaldhυd/ 70, 73 childminder /tʃaldˌmandə/ 16 chime /tʃam/ 56 chip /tʃp/ 12, 34 chips /tʃps/ 101 chocolate 85 choice /tʃɔs/ 55 cholera /kɒlərə/ 13 cholesterol /kəlestərɒl/ 30 chopping board /tʃɒpŋ bɔd/ 11 Christmas /krsməs/ 80 chubby /tʃbi/ 7 cinema /snəmə/ 20 circle /skəl/ 52 circular /skjələ/ 52 circumference /səkmfrənts/ 52

262

clatter /kltə/ 56 claw /klɔ/ 26 clever /klevə/ 8

come up /ˌkm p/ 93 comedian /kəmidiən/ 20 comment /kɒment/ 10, 36

cloth /klɒθ/ 83, 85 clothes /kləυðz/ 84 cloud /klaυd/ 35, 86 club /klb/ 18, 25 clump /klmp/ 87 coal /kəυl/ 83 coalition /kəυəlʃən/ 38 coarse /kɔs/ 59 coast /kəυst/ 23 coat hanger /kəυt ˌhŋə/ 11, 70 coee /kɒfi/ 85 collapse /kəlps/ 50 collar /kɒlə/ 27 colleague /kɒli/ 10 collection /kəlekʃən/ 73 college /kɒld/ 14, 25 collocation /ˌkɒləυkeʃən/ 1 color /klər/ 101 colour /klə/ 101 comb /kəυm/ 80

composition /ˌkɒmpəzʃən/ 72 comprehensive school

computerise /kəmpjutəraz/ 70 concede /kənsid/ 64 concert hall /kɒnst hɔl/ 25 conclude /kənklud/ 33, 68 conclusion /kənkluən/ 93 condition /kəndʃən/ 48, 62 conduct n /kɒndkt/ 80 conduct v /kəndkt/ 72, 80 confess /kənfes/ 45 confident /kɒnfdənt/ 8 conflict n /kɒnflkt/ 80 conflict v /kənflkt/ 80 confused /kənfjuzd/ 43, 51 confusion /kənfjuən/ 86 Congress /kɒŋres/ 38 consciousness /kɒntʃəsns/ 73 consequence /kɒntskwənts/ 63 consequently /kɒntskwəntli/ 63 conservation /ˌkɒnsəveʃən/ 24 conservative /kənsvətv/ 42 consider /kənsdə/ 30

combination /ˌkɒmbneʃən/ 73 combine /kəmban/ 33 come across /km əkrɒs/ 93 come between /km btwin/ 93 come by /km ba/ 93

considerable /kənsdərəbəl/ 51 consolidate /kənsɒldet/ 40 constituency /kənsttʃuəntsi/ 38

come down /ˌkm daυn/ 93 come into /ˌkm ntə/ 93 come o /ˌkm ɒf/ 12, 60, 93 come out /ˌkm aυt/ 93

contact lens /kɒntkt ˌlenz/ 29, 75 contemporary /kəntempərəri/ 25 content n /kɒntent/ 30 content adj /kəntent/ 43

come round /ˌkm raυnd/ 93 come to /ˌkm tu/ 93

contented /kəntentd/ 43 contents /kɒntents/ 84

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

consume /kənsjum/ 30 contact /kɒntkt/ 10, 17, 35

contest n /kɒntest/ 80 contest v /kəntest/ 80 contract v /kəntrkt/ 28, 52

crush /krʃ/ 12 crutches /krtʃz/ 29 cube /kjub/ 52

contribute /kəntrbjut/ 57 conventional /kənventʃənəl/ 41 conversion /kənvʃən/ 11 convert v /kənvt/ 72 convict v /kənvkt/ 39 conviction /kənvkʃən/ 42 convince /kənvnts/ 42 cookie /kυki/ 101 cool /kul/ 80 co-opt /kəυɒpt/ 80 cop /kɒp/ 96 cope /kəυp/ 60 copy /kɒpi/ 19 corkscrew /kɔkskru/ 11

cubic /kjubk/ 52 cue /kju/ 18 cu /kf/ 27 cumbersome /kmbəsəm/ 59 cunning /knŋ/ 8 cupboard /kbəd/ 80 cupid /kjupd/ 80 cuppa /kpə/ 96 curb /kb/ 101

corporation /ˌkɔpəreʃən/ 17 corporation tax /ˌkɔpəreʃən tks/ 40 costume /kɒstjum/ 20 cottage /kɒtd/ 11 cotton wool /kɒtən wυl/ 75 cough /kɒf/ 47

curiosity /ˌkjυəriɒsəti/ 73 curly /kli/ 7 curly-haired /kli heəd/ 74 currency /krəntsi/ 83 current account /krənt əkaυnt/ 40 current aairs /krənt əfeəz/ 37

crew-cut /krukt/ 7 crime /kram/ 39 crisis /krass/ 66 critic /krtk/ 19 critical /krtkəl/ 48 critically /krtkli/ 48 criticise /krtsaz/ 48 crop n /krɒp/ 23 crowd /kraυd/ 87 cruel /kruəl/ 8 cruise /kruz/ 32

deliberations /dˌlbəreʃənz/ 39 delicate /delkət/ 41

delta /deltə/ 23 democracy /dmɒkrəsi/ 38

cutback /ktbk/ 76

creep along /ˌkrip əlɒŋ/ 58 crew /kru/ 31, 87

delete /dlit/ 34

custom-built /kstəm ˌblt/ 17 customer /kstəmə/ 9 customer care /kstəmə keə/ 17

court /kɔt/ 39 crab /krb/ 26 crack /krk/ 12 crackdown /krkdaυn/ 76 cray /krɑfti/ 8 crash /krʃ/ 12, 34, 81

creativity /ˌkrietvəti/ 73 crèche /kreʃ/ 14 credit /kredt/ 15 credit card /kredt kɑd/ 75 credit limit /kredt lmt/ 40 credit rating 40

déjà vu /ˌdeɑvu/ 46 delay /dle/ 31

delicious /dlʃəs/ 70 delighted /dlatd/ 43 delightful /dlatfəl/ 32

customs /kstəmz/ 40 cut /kt/ 80, 100

creation /krieʃən/ 33

defriend /ˌdifrend/ 10 degree /dri/ 14

cursor /ksə/ 34 curt /kt/ 8 curtains /ktənz/ 101

could /kυd/ 80 couple /kpəl/ 87

crate /kret/ 88 crawl /krɔl/ 58 create an account 36

decision /dsən/ 89, 93 declare /dkleə/ 99 decorative /dekərətv/ 39 decrease n /dikris/ 80 decrease v /dkris/ 80 dedicated /dedketd/ 42 deep /dip/ 54 deepen /dipən/ 54 deer /də/ 26 default /dfɒlt/ 36 defend /dfend/ 39

cut-price /ˌktpras/ 74 Cypriot /spriət/ 5 da /dɑft/ 8 da as a brush 79 damage n, v /dmd/ 13 damp /dmp/ 6 dance /dɑnts/ 20 Dane /den/ 5 dark /dɑk/ 7, 56 darkness /dɑkns/ 56 dart /dɑt/ 18 darts /dɑts/ 84 Darwinist /dɑwnst/ 42 dash /dʃ/ 81 data processing /detə prəυsesŋ/ 75 database /detəbes/ 29, 34 dawdle /dɔdəl/ 58 daytime /detam/ 6 dazzling /dzlŋ/ 59 dead /ded/ 12, 13 dead end 50 deafening /defnŋ/ 46 death penalty /deθ penəlti/ 75 death’s door 49 debt /det/ 40, 80 debtor /detə/ 80 decade /deked/ 29 decent /disənt/ 41

denim /denm/ 27 dense /dens/ 59 density /densti/ 59 dent /dent/ 12 deny /dna/ 3 department store /dpɑtmənt ˌstɔ/ 25 dependent /dpendənt/ 51 deport /dipɔt/ 72 deportation /ˌdipɔteʃən/ 72 deportee /ˌdipɔti/ 72 depose /dpəυz/ 72 deposit /dpɒzt/ 40, 72 depress /dpres/ 72 depressed 28, 43 depression /dpreʃən/ 30 deprivation /ˌdeprveʃən/ 50 deprive s.o. of sth /dprav smjwn ɒv smθŋ/ 50 depth /depθ/ 54, 73 desert n /dezt/ 80 desert v /dzt/ 80 deserted /dztd/ 25 design /dzan/ 19 designer /dzanə/ 16, 27 desire n, v /dzaə/ 44 desktop computer /desktɒp kəmpjutə/ 34 desperately /despərətli/ 45 despise /dspaz/ 10, 44 destruction /dstrkʃən/ 24 detached /dttʃt/ 11

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

263

detective /dtektv/ 37 determined /dtmnd/ 8 detest /dtest/ 44

disrepair /ˌdsrpeə/ 86 disrupt /dsrpt/ 50 disruption /dsrpʃən/ 50

drums /drmz/ 21 dub /db/ 37 due to /du tu/ 63

development /dveləpmənt/ 29 device /dvas/ 29, 34 devoted /dvəυtd/ 44

dissect /dsekt/ 33

dull /dl/ 59 dumb /dm/ 8, 80

diagnose /ˌdaənəυz/ 29 dialect /daəlekt/ 5 dialogue /daəlɒ/ 20 diameter /damtə/ 52 diaper /dapə/ 101 diarrhoea /ˌdaərə/ 28 dictatorship /dktetəʃp/ 38 die /da/ 28 dierent 51 diicult /dfkəlt/ 60 diiculty /dfkəlti/ 29, 60, 66 digital /ddtəl/ 33 dilemma /dlemə/ 50, 66 dim d?m 8, 56, 59 diploma /dpləυmə/ 14 diplomat /dpləmt/ 15 direct /drekt/ 8 direct debit /drekt debt/ 40 direct message 36 direction /drekʃən/ 20 director /drektə/ 16, 20 disagree /ˌdsəri/ 71 disagreement /ˌdsərimənt/ 73 disappear /ˌdsəpə/ 71 disapprove /dsəpruv/ 71 disaster /dzɑstə/ 50 disbelief /ˌdsblif/ 51 disbelieve /ˌdsbliv/ 71 disconnect /ˌdskənekt/ 71 discontented /ˌdskəntentd/ 43 discourage /dskrd/ 71 discourteous /dsktiəs/ 8 discrepancy /dskrepəntsi/ 64 discus /dskəs/ 18 disease /dziz/ 29 disguise /dsaz/ 27 disgust /dsst/ 44 dish /dʃ/ 37 disk /dsk/ 33 disk drive /dsk ˌdrav/ 34 dislike /dslak/ 71 dislocate /dsləυket/ 28 dismount /dsmaυnt/ 99 disorder /dsɔdə/ 86 disorganised /dsɔənazd/ 71 display /dsple/ 33, 99 dispose /dspəυz/ 24 disprove /dspruv/ 71 disqualify /dskwɒlfa/ 71

264

dissertation /ˌdsəteʃən/ 15 dissimilar /ˌdssmlə/ 71 distance /dstənts/ 54 distance learning /dstənts ˌlnŋ/ 14 distant /dstənt/ 54 divert /davt/ 72 divide /dvad/ 64 division /dvən/ 52 dizzy /dz/ 28 DNA /ˌdiene/ 39, 78 do an exam / 14 do business /du bzns/ 17, 89 do for a living 16 do housework 11 do the hoovering 11 do the ironing 11 do the washing-up 11 do well 14 do without /du wðaυt/ 55, 89 do your best /du jɔ best/ 89 documentary /ˌdɒkjəmentəri/ 37 dominoes /dɒmnəυz/ 84 donate /dəυnet/ 57 donation /dəυneʃən/ 70 done in /dn n/ 49 donor /dəυnə/ 70 dosh /dɒʃ/ 96 doubt /daυt/ 42, 80 doubtful /daυtfəl/ 55 down /daυn/ 35 down in the dumps 49, 79 download /ˌdaυnləυd/ 2, 34 downpour /daυnpɔ/ 6 down-to-earth /ˌdaυntuθ/ 8 dozen /dzən/ 51 drag on /dr ɒn/ 53 drama /drɑmə/ 37, 100 drapes /dreps/ 101 draughts /drɑfts/ 84 drawback /drɔbk/ 76 dread /dred/ 44 dream /drim/ 60 dress up /dres p/ 27 dri /drft/ 58 drinkable /drŋkəbəl/ 70 drive /drav/ 11, 58, 100 drop /drɒp/ 51 dropout /drɒpaυt/ 76 drought /draυt/ 6, 13 drummer /drmə/ 21

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

dungarees /ˌdŋəriz/ 84 during /dυərŋ/ 61 dustpan and brush /dstpn ən brʃ/ 11 Dutch /dtʃ/ 5 duty /duti/ 40 duty-free /ˌdutifri/ 40, 74 eagerness /iəns/ 73 earache /ərek/ 28 earlier /liə/ 68 earlier on /liə ɒn/ 61 early morning /li mɔnŋ/ 31 early stage /li sted/ 29 earn /n/ 2 earphones /əfəυnz/ 84 earring /ərŋ/ 75 earthquake /θkwek/ 13 East Asia /ist eə/ 5 easy-going /ˌiziəυŋ/ 8, 74

ook /ibυk/ 19 ard /ikɑd/ 35 eccentric /ksentrk/ 8, 42 ecological /ˌikəlɒdkəl/ 24 ecologically sound /ˌikəlɒdkli saυnd/ 24 economical /ˌikənɒmkəl/ 8 economics /ˌikənɒmks/ 84 economist /kɒnəmst/ 16 economy /kɒnəmi/ 23 edible /edbəl/ 70 educate /edυket/ 72 eect /fekt/ 50 eort /efət/ 89 egg /e/ 26 elapse /ilps/ 53 elect /ilekt/ 38 electrician /lektrʃən/ 16 elegant /elənt/ 7, 25, 27 elevator /elvetə/ 101 email /imel/ 2 employee /mplɔi/ 70 employer /mplɔə/ 70 enable /nebəl/ 33 enchanting /ntʃɑntŋ/ 3 end /end/ 93 end-of-year exam / 14 endangered /ndendəd/ 24 enemy /enəmi/ 3 engrossing /nrəυsŋ/ 3 enjoyment /ndɔmənt/ 70

enormous /nɔməs/ 51 enquiring /nkwaərŋ/ 8 ensue /nsju/ 63

expand /kspnd/ 17, 54 expect /kspekt/ 6

entertainer /ˌentətenə/ 20 enthralling /nθrɔlŋ/ 3

expectation /ˌekspekteʃən/ 73 expenses /kspentsz/ 40 experience /kspəriənts/ 83, 85 experiment 33

enthusiastic /nˌθjuzistk/ 43 entire /ntaə/ 41 entrance exam / 14

explosion /kspləυən/ 13 export n /ekspɔt/ export v /kspɔt/ 72, 80

entrancing /ntrɑntsŋ/ 3 entry /entri/ 99 entry requirement / 15 envious /enviəs/ 8 environment /nvarənmənt/ 24 environmentally friendly

express /kspres/ 72

enter /entə/ 35

ex-smoker /eks ˌsməυkə/ 71 extend /kstend/ 54

federation /ˌfedəreʃən/ 38 feedback /fidbk/ 17, 76 feel /fil/ 28, 42, 46, 59 fencing /fentsŋ/ 18 field /fild/ 15 fiend /find/ 80 filthy /flθi/ 26 finally /fanəli/ 68 finance /fannts/ 40 find work 16

extract v /kstrkt/ 33, 71

fine n, adj /fan/ 39, 59, 67 fine art(s) /fan ɑt/ 19 fingerprint /fŋəprnt/ 39 Finn /fn/ 5 fire /faə/ 16

extravagant /kstrvəənt/ 8 extreme /kstrim/ 42 extroverted /ekstrəvtd/ 8

firefighter /faəˌfatə/ 16 firm /fm/ 3, 17, 42 first /fst/ 68

ex-wife /eks waf/ 71 face n, v /fes/ 7, 48

first and foremost /fst ən fɔməυst/ 77

facility /fəsləti/ 40 fact /fkt/ 66 fail /fel/ 14 fair /feə 7, 82

first floor /fst flɔ/ 101

establish /stblʃ/ 33, 95 estate /stet/ 57 estate agent /stet edənt/ 25 estuary /estʃuəri/ 23 etc /etsetərə/ 65

faith /feθ/ 73 fake /fek/ 41

first-born /fstbɔn/ 74

ethnic group /eθnk rup/ 5 Europe /jυərəp/ 5

fall in love /fɔl n lv/ 44 fall o /fɔlɒf/ 12 fall out with /fɔl aυt wð/ 10

/nˌvaərənˌmentəli frendli/ 24 epidemic /ˌepdemk/ 13 episode /epsəυd/ 37 equally /ikwəli/ 65 equipment /kwpmənt/ 83 era /ərə/ 53 eraser /rezə/ 101 ergonomics /ˌənɒmks/ 33 erupt /rpt/ 13

European /ˌjυərəpiən/ 5 evaluation /ˌvljueʃən/ 66 even-tempered /ˌivəntempəd/ 8 evidence /evdənts/ 39 ex /eks/ 10 exaggeration /ˌzdəreʃən/ 49 exam /zm/ 14 exceptional /eksepʃənəl/ 32 excessive /eksesv/ 51 excise /eksaz/ 40 excitement /ksatmənt/ 70 exclusive /ksklusv/ 32 excommunicate

extinct /kstŋkt/ 24 extract n 19

first impression /fst mpreʃən/ 7 first language /fst lŋwd/ 5 first of all /fst ɒv ɔl/ 68 first-class /fst ˌklɑs/ 74 first-hand /ˌfsthnd/ 74 firstly /fstli/ 68

fall /fɔl/ 101 fall down /fɔl daυn/ 12 fall for /fɔl fɔ/ 44

fallout /fɔlaυt/ 76 falter /fɔltə/ 60 famine /fmn/ 13 fanatical /fəntkəl/ 42 fancy /fntsi/ 10, 44 FAQ /ˌefekju/ 35, 78 far /fɑ/ 54 faraway /ˌfɑrəwe/ 54 fare /feə/ 82 far-fetched /ˌfɑfetʃt/ 74 farm /fɑm/ 80 fascinate /fsnet/ 44 fascinating /fsnetŋ/ 3, 32 fashion /fʃən/ 93 fast /fɑst/ 12

first-rate /ˌfstret/ 48 fish /fʃ/ 85 fishing line /fʃŋ lan/ 18 fit /ft/ 27, 30, 86 fit as a fiddle 49 fitness /ftnəs/ 30 (in a) fix 50 fizzy /fzi/ 30 flash /flʃ/ 33 flashlight /flʃlat/ 101 flat /flt/ 11, 12, 32 flaw /flɔ/ 33 fleeting /flitŋ/ 53 flexibility /ˌfleksəbləti/ 70 flexible /fleksbəl/ 41, 70 flexi-time /fleksitam/ 16

fasten /fɑsən/ 80 fat /ft/ 7, 30 faulty /fɔlti/ 41

flicker /flkə/ 56 flock /flɒk/ 87 flood fld/ 6, 12, 13 flour /flaυə/ 83 flow /fləυ/ 58 flower /flaυə/ 26

exhale /ekshel/ 71 exhausted /zɔstd/ 28 exhilarating /zləretŋ/ 32

faze /fez/ 82 fear /fə/ 13, 73 feather /feðə/ 26

flowery /flaυəri/ 27 flu /flu/ 82 flutter /fltə/ 58

existence /zstənts/ 93 exotic /zɒtk/ 32

feature fitʃə/ 7, 33

flux /flks/ 86 fly /fla/ 53

/ˌekskəmjunket/ 71 excursion /kskʃən/ 32 excuse n /kskjus/ 89 executive /zekjətv/ 16 exempt /zempt/ 55 exercise n, v /eksəsaz/ 30, 89

fed up /ˌfedp/ 43

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

265

focus on /fəυkəs ɒn/ 37 foe /fəυ/ 3 foggy /fɒi/ 6

fulfilment /fυlflmənt/ 60 full of yourself 8

fold /fəυld/ 60 folk /fəυk/ 2, 21 follow 36

fundamental /ˌfndəmentəl/ 95 funding /fndŋ/ 15 fur /f/ 26 furious /fjυəriəs/ 43, 70 furiously /fjυəriəsli/ 45 furry /fri/ 59 further /fðə/ 68, 95 further education /fðər

following /fɒləυŋ/ 61, 68 fond of /fɒnd ɒv/ 44 food poisoning /fud pɔzənŋ/ 75 foolish /fulʃ/ 8 foot /fυt/ 23

get on /et ɒn/ 91 get on sb’s nerves 9 get on well (with someone) /et ɒn wel/ 10 get your act together 50 get out of /et aυt ɒv/ 91 get over /et əυvə/ 28, 91 get rid of /et rd ɒv/ 91 get round /et raυnd/ 91

football pitch /fυtbɔl ˌptʃ/ 25 footballer /fυtbɔlə/ 18 for a time /fɔr ə tam/ 53 for example /fɔr zɑmpəl/ 68 for instance /fɔr ntstənts/ 68 for the time being /fɔr ðə tam biŋ/ 53

ˌedυkeʃən/ 14 further to /fðə tu/ 65

gale /el/ 6

get round to /et raυnd tu/ 91 get through /et θru/ 91 get /et tu/ 91 get to know /et tə nəυ/ 91 get to the bottom of things 50 get to the point 69

force into /fɔs ntə/ 55 forgetful /fəetfəl/ 70 forgetfulness /fəetfəlns/ 70

game show /em ʃəυ/ 37 gang /ŋ/ 87

get up to /et p tu/ 91 get work 16

garbage /ɑbd/ 101 garden /ɑdən/ 101 garden centre /ɑdən sentə/ 25 gardening /ɑdənŋ/ 89

get-together n /et təˌeðə/ 91

gas /s/ 24, 101 gash /ʃ/ 81

gied /ftd/ 8 gig // 78

gaze /ez/ 46 geek /ik/ 96 gems /demz/ 100

gigabyte /əbat/ 34 ginger-haired /dndər heəd/ 7

forgivable /fəvəbəl/ 70 formerly /fɔməli/ 61 fortune /fɔtʃun/ 93 forward /fɔwəd/ 2 fossil fuel /fɒsəl fjuəl/ 24 foul-smelling /faυl smelŋ/ 46 foundations /faυndeʃənz/ 84 fox /fɒks/ 26 fragile /frdal/ 41 fragrant /frerənt/ 46 frank /frŋk/ 8 fraud /frɔd/ 39 freedom /fridəm/ 73 freeway /friwe/ 101 freeze /friz/ 6 French /frentʃ/ 5 French fries /frentʃ fraz/ 101 frequently /frikwəntli/ 95 fridge /frd/ 96 friend /frend/ 3, 10, 80 friend request 36 friendliness /frendlns/ 73 friendship /frendʃp/ 70 frighten the life out of sb 49 frog /frɒ/ 26 from time to time /frɒm tam tə tam/ 53

furthermore /ˌfðəmɔ/ 65 fuss /fs/ 89 gain /en/ 2 gain admission 14

general anaesthetic /denərəl ˌnəsθetk/ 29 general election /denərəl ilekʃən/ 38 generate /denəret/ 63 generation gap /ˌdenəreʃən p/ 75 generosity /ˌdenərɒsəti/ 73 generous /denərəs/ 8 genetic engineering /dənetk ˌendnərŋ/ 33 genetically modified /dənetkli mɒdfad/ 33 gentle /dentəl/ 6 genuine /denjun/ 41 German /dmən/ 5 gesture /destʃə/ 89 get /et/ 91

get together v /ˌet təeðə/ 10 geyser /izə/ 23 gi of the gab 48

give and take /ˌvəntek/ 77 give away /vəwe/ 57 give or take /v ɔ tek/ 77 give out /v aυt/ 57 give rise to /v raz tu/ 63 give sb a talking to 69 glacier /lsiə/ 23 gladly /ldli/ 45 glamorous /lmərəs/ 32 glance /lɑnts/ 46 glare /leə/ 59 glass /lɑs/ 85, 88 glasses /lɑsz 84, 85 glimpse /lmps/ 46 glitter /ltə/ 56 global warming /ləυbəl wɔmŋ/ 24

get across /et əkrɒs/ 91 get at /et t/ 91

globalisation /ˌləυbəlazeʃən/ 24 gloomily /lumli/ 45 gloomy /lumi/ 56 glow /ləυ/ 56

frustrated /frstretd/ 43 frustration /frstreʃən/ 73

get away /et əwe/ 32 get behind with /et bhand wð/ 91

GM /ˌdiem/ 33, 78 go amiss /əυ əms/ 95 go bankrupt /əυ bŋkrpt/ 93

fulfil /fυlfl/ 60 fulfilling /fυlflŋ/ 60

get carried away /et krid əwe/ 49

go for /əυ fɔ/ 93 go o /əυ ɒf/ 22

frost /frɒst/ 6 frown /fraυn/ 47

266

function /fŋkʃən/ 33

get down /et daυn/ 91 get o to a good start /et ɒf tu ə υd stɑt/ 91

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

go on /əυ ɒn 53, 93 go pear-shaped /əυ peəʃept/ 95 go through /əυ θru/ 93 go under /əυ ndə/ 60 go wrong /əυ rɒŋ/ 60 go-ahead /əυəhed/ 100 goal /əυl/ 60 goggles /ɒəlz/ 84 going forward /ˌəυŋ fɔwəd/ 17 golf course /ɒlf ˌkɔs/ 25 good /υd/ 67 good as gold /υd əz əυld/ 9, 79, 97 good ear 21 good for 30 good friend 10 good-looking /ˌυdlυkŋ/ 7 goodness /υdns/ 70 goods /υdz/ 84 good-tempered /ˌυdtempəd/ 74 google /uəl/ 35 gorge /ɔd/ 23 govern /vən/ 38 government /vənmənt/ 38 GPS /ˌdipies/ 33 grab /rb/ 46 graduate n /rdjuət/ 15 graduate v /rdjuet/ 15 grammar school /rmə skul/ 14 grant /rɑnt/ 14 graphics /rfks/ 34 grasp /rɑsp/ 46, 50 grass roots /ˌrɑsruts/ 75 grate /ret/ 82 grateful /retfəl/ 43 grater /retə/ 11, 70 graze /rez/ 12 great /ret/ 41, 82 Greek /rik/ 5 green /rin/ 24 green fingers 48 greenhouse effect /rinhaυs fekt/ 24 gregarious /reəriəs/ 8 grey /re/ 7 grin /rn/ 47 gripping /rpŋ/ 3 groan /rəυn/ 45, 81, 82 ground floor /raυnd ˌflɔ/ 101 group /rup/ 87 grow /rəυ/ 26 grow out of /rəυ aυt ɒv/ 27 growl /raυl/ 81 grub /rb/ 96 grumble /rmbəl/ 45, 81

grumpy /rmpi/ 81 guesthouse /esthaυs/ 32 guilty /lti/ 39 guitar /tɑ/ 2, 21 gulf /lf/ 23 gymnast /dmnst/ 18 gymnastics /dmnstks/ 18, 84 hair /heə/ 7, 85

heaps /hips/ 51 hearing /hərŋ/ 46

half-witted /ˌhɑfwtd/ 8 hall /hɔl/ 11, 15 hall of residence 15

heatwave /hitwev/ 6

hallway /hɔlwe/ 11

heel /hil/ 27

hand down /hnd daυn/ 57 hand out /hnd aυt/ 57

height /hat/ 54 heighten /hatən/ 54 heir /eə/ 80, 82

hand over /ˌhnd əυvə/ 57 handcuffs /hndkfs/ 84 handle /hndəl/ 46 handmade /ˌhndmed/ 74 handsome /hndsəm/ 7 hang on /hŋ ɒn/ 67 hang-gliding /hŋˌladŋ/ 18 happy as Larry hpi əz lri/ 49 happily /hpli/ 45 happiness /hpns/ 70, 73 hard as nails /hɑd əz nelz/ 9 hard disk /hɑd dsk/ 34 harden /hɑdən/ 60 hardness /hɑdns/ 60 hard-up /ˌhɑdp/ 74 hardware /hɑdweə/ 34 harm /hɑm/ 30 harmful /hɑmfəl/ 30 harmless /hɑmləs/ 70 hat /ht/ 83 have an affair 10

hearing aid /hərŋ ˌed/ 29 heart /hɑt/ 1, 50 heart attack /hɑt ətk/ 28, 75 heart of gold 9 heartbreak /hɑtbrek/ 50 heart’s in the right place 9 heavy /hevi/ 6, 22 heavy as lead 59

heiress /eəres/ 80 helmet /helmət/ 27 help yourself 22 hem /hem/ 27 hemisphere /hemsfə/ 52 herd /hd/ 87 here and there 77 high /ha/ 6 high and dry 77 high jump /ha dmp/ 18 high-definition /ha ˌdefnʃən/ 33 higher education /haər ˌedυkeʃən/ 14 highly /hali/ 29, 48 high-tech /ˌhatek/ 78 hip-hop /hphɒp/ 21 hiss /hs/ 56

have a go /hv ə əυ/ 93 have a good head for figures 9

historic /hstɒrk/ 25 hit n, v /ht/ 35, 100 hoarse /hɔs/ 82 hold /həυld/ 42 hold a record 18

have a head for heights 9 have a head like a sieve 9

hold on /həυld ɒn/ 67 hold your breath 47

have trouble /hv trbəl/ 60 have your cake and eat it / 48 have your head in the clouds 9

holiday /hɒləde/ 101 hollow /hɒləυ/ 59 home page /həυmped/ 2, 35 homeless /həυmləs/ 70 homework /həυmwk/ 89 honest /ɒnst/ 8, 80 honour /ɒnə/ 80 honourable /ɒnərəbəl/ 80 hood /hυd/ 27, 101 hoodie /hυdi/ 27

have your head screwed on 9 hay fever /he ˌfivə/ 75 hazardous /hzədəs/ 24 head /hed/ 38, 80, 100 head and shoulders above /hed ən ʃəυldəz əbv/ 9, 48 headphones /hedfəυnz/ 75, 84 headquarters /ˌhedkwɔtəz/ 84 head spinning 49 health /helθ/ 85 health centre /helθ sentə/ 25 health warning /helθ ˌwɔnŋ/ 99 heap /hip/ 87

hoof /huf/ 26 hopeful /həυpfəl/ 70 hopefully /həυpfəli/ 45 horns /hɔnz/ 26 host /həυst/ 21 hostility /hɒstləti/ 73

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

267

hot /hɒt/ 22, 46 hotel /həυtel/ 25 hour /aυə/ 80, 82

improbable /mprɒbəbəl/ 71 improvement /mpruvmənt/ 73 in a bad mood 49

intelligent /nteldənt/ 8 intensely (annoying) /ntentsli/ 50 intention /ntentʃən/ 73

hourly /aυəli/ 80 house /haυs/ 38

in addition /n ədʃən/ 65 in case /n kes/ 62

House of Commons /ˌhaυs əv kɒmənz/ 38

in conclusion /ˌn kənkluən/ 68 in contrast /ˌn kɒntrɑst/ 64 in credit /n kredt/ 40 in high spirits 49 in (his/her/your) thirties 7

interact /ˌntərkt/ 10, 33 interactive /ˌntərktv/ 35 interest /ntrəst/ 40 interest rate /ntrəst ret/ 40 interest-free /ntrəst fri/ 74 internal /ntnəl/ 71 Internet /ntənet/ 35 interpret /ntprt/ 33

House of Lords /ˌhaυs əv lɔdz/ 38 House of Representatives /ˌhaυs əv ˌreprzentətvz/ 38 housemate /haυsmet/ 10 housework /haυswk 89 housing estate /ˌhaυzŋ stet/ 25, 57

in particular /ˌn pətkjələ/ 95 in season 22

however /haυevə/ 62

in sum /n sm/ 68 in summary /n sməri/ 68 in the long run /n ðə lɒŋ rn/ 94 in the meantime /n ðə mintam/ 61 in the red 40, 79

hum /hm/ 56 human rights /hjumən ˌrats/ 75 humid /hjumd/ 6 humour /hjumə/ 73 hurricane hrkən/ 6, 13 hurry /hri/ 58

incident /nsdənt/ 13

hurt /ht/ 28 hurtful /htfəl/ 3

income /ŋkm/ 40, 71 income tax /ŋkm tks/ 40, 75

hydroponics /ˌhadrəυpɒnks/ 33 I mean 67

inconvenient /ˌnkənviniənt/ 32 increase n /nkris/ 80 increase v /nkris/ 80

Ice Age /as ˌed 53 ice field /as ˌfild/ 23 Icelandic /aslndk/ 5 icon /akɒn/ 34 ID /adi/ 78 idea /adə/ 73 identify /adentfa/ 29 identity the /adentəti θeft/ 2 ideology /ˌadiɒlədi/ 42 idolise /adəlaz/ 10 ill /l/ 48 illegal /liəl/ 71 illegible /ledəbəl/ 71 illiterate /ltərət/ 71 ill-mannered /ˌlmnəd/ 8 image /md/ 19 immature /ˌmətʃυə/ 71 immediate /midiət/ 61 immediately /midiətli/ 95 immoral /mɒrəl/ 71 immune system /mjun sstəm/ 30 impatient /mpeʃənt/ 71 impolite /ˌmpəlat/ 8 import v /mpɔt/ 71, 72, 80 important 48 impose /mpəυz/ 66, 72 impossible /mpɒsəbəl/ 71 impress /mpres/ 72 impression /mpreʃən/ 89 impressive /mpresv/ 32

268

in other words /n ðə wdz/ 68 in parenthesis /n pərentθəss/ 68

independence /ˌndpendənts/ 38 in-depth /ˌndepθ/ 37 indigestion /ˌnddestʃən/ 28 industrial estate /ndstriəl stet/ 25 industrialise /ndstriəlaz/ 70 inedible /nedəbəl/ 71 inevitable /nevtəbəl/ 55 inexperienced /ˌnkspəriəntst/ 71 information /ˌnfəmeʃən/ 83 inherit /nhert/ 57 inheritance tax /nhertənts ˌtks/ 40 injection /ndekʃən/ 28 injure /ndə/ 13 injustice /ndsts/ 73 innocent /nəsənt/ 8, 39 input /npυt/ 76 inquisitive /nkwzətv/ 8 insert /nst/ 33, 71 inside out /nsad aυt/ 27 insist /nsst/ 45 inspect /nspekt/ 72 inspection /nspekʃən/ 72 inspector /nspektə/ 72 inspired /nspaəd/ 43 install /nstɔl/ 33 insult v /nslt/ 80 intellectual /ˌntəlektʃuəl/ 42

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

interstate /ˌntəstet/ 101 intestine /ntestn/ 1 into the bargain / 65 introduce /ˌntrədus/ 72 introduction /ˌntrədkʃən/ 72 introverted /ˌntrəυvtd/ 8 intuition /ˌntʃuʃən/ 46 investigate /nvestet/ 37 investigation /nˌvesteʃən/ 37 investment /nvestmənt/ 73 invite /nvat/ 10 IOU /ˌaəυju/ 78 Irish /aərʃ/ 5 iron /aən/ 85 ironing board /aənŋ bɔd/ 11 irregular /rejələ/ 71 irritant /rtənt/ 50 irritation /ˌrteʃən/ 50 -ise 101 ISP /ˌaespi/ 35 issue /ʃu/ 66 Italian /tliən/ 5 itch /tʃ/ 28 item /atəm/ 86 -ize 101 jagged /dd/ 59 jail /del/ 39 jar /dɑ/ 88 javelin /dvəln/ 18 jazz /dz/ 21 jealous /deləs/ 8 jeans /dinz/ 84 jetlag /detl/ 31 jewellery 101 jewelry 101 job /dɒb 16, 2 job centre /dɒb sentə/ 25 jockey /dɒki/ 18 journalism /dnəlzəm/ 37, 70 journey /dni/ 31 judge /dd/ 16, 38 judgment /ddmənt/ 66 jug /d/ 88 jump out of your skin 49

junk food /dŋk ˌfud/ 22, 75 junk mail /dŋk ˌmel/ 2 jury /dυəri/ 39 justice /dsts/ 73 keen on /kin ɒn/ 44 keep a cool head 49 keep your chin up 49 keep your head 9 key /ki/ 9, 66, 100 key in /ki n/ 34 keyboard /kibɔd/ 21 keyhole surgery /kihəυl sdəri/ 29 kidnap /kdnp/ 39 kidney /kdni/ 1 kids /kdz/ 95 kilo /kiləυ/ 78 kind of /kand əv/ 67 kindness /kandns/ 73 kingdom /kŋdəm/ 73 knee /ni/ 80 knickers /nkəz/ 84 knife /naf/ 80 knit /nt/ 80 knob /nɒb/ 80 knock out /ˌnɒkaυt/ 18 knot /nɒt/ 80 know /nəυ/ 80 know-all /nəυɔl/ 9 knowledge /nɒld/ 83 lab /lb/ 96 labour force /lebə ˌfɔs/ 75 laces /lesz/ 27 lack /lk/ 24, 50, 55 ladies and gentlemen 77 laid-back /ˌledbk/ 8 lamb /lm/ 80 landing /lndŋ/ 11, 31 landlady /lndˌledi/ 57 landlord /lndlɔd/ 57 landscape /lndskep/ 19, 23 landslide /lndslad/ 13 laptop /lptɒp/ 34 large quantities 30

laze /lez/ 82 laziness /lezns/ 73

loathe /ləυð/ 10, 44 location /ləυkeʃən/ 37

lazy-bones /leziˌbəυnz/ 9 lead (pipe) /led/ 82 lead guitar /led tɑr/ 21 lead singer /lid sŋə/ 21, 82 lead to /lid tu/ 63 leaf /lif/ 26 leak /lik/ 12 leaps and bounds 77

lock out /ˌlɒkaυt/ 12 lodgings /lɒdŋz/ 84 lo /lɒft/ 11 log in /lɒ n/ 35 log o /lɒ ɒf/ 35 log on /lɒ ɒn/ 35 log out /lɒ aυt/ 35 long /lɒŋ/ 7, 54 long face 49

leather /leðə/ 83 leave /liv/ 57 leave cold 10

long for /lɒŋ fɔ/ 44 long jump /lɒŋ ˌdmp/ 18 long-distance /ˌlɒŋdstənts/ 18, 54, 74

lecture /lektʃə/ 15 lecture hall 15 lecture theatre 15 lecturer /lektʃərə/ 15, 16 le-handed /ˌlefthndd/ 74 le-wing /ˌleftwŋ/ 42 legal /liəl/ 70 leggings /leŋz/ 84 legislature /ledslətʃə/ 38 length /leŋkθ/ 54, 73 lengthen /leŋkθən/ 54 lengthy /leŋkθi/ 54 let down /let daυn/ 27, 94 let go of 57 let out /let aυt/ 27 level /levəl/ 30 lever /livə/ 33 liable /laəbəl/ 55 library /labrəri/ 25 lick /lk/ 47 li /lft/ 101 light /lat/ 22, 33 light as a feather 59 light at the end of the tunnel 50 light bulb /lat ˌblb/ 75 like /lak/ 36, 44, 67, 97 like a bear with a sore head 49, 97 likewise /lakwaz/ 65 limit /lmt/ 40

laser /lezə/ 78

limitation /ˌlmteʃən/ 73 line /lan/ 101

laser surgery /lezə sdəri/ 29 last /lɑst/ 53, 80 lastly /lɑstli/ 68

link lŋk/ 2, 35, 36, 100 list /lst/ 30, 35 listen /lsən/ 67, 80

last-minute /ˌlɑstmnt/ 74 late /let/ 6, 80 Latin American /ltn əmerkən/ 5

literary /ltərəri/ 19 litter /ltə/ 99 live /lav/ 82

laugh /lɑf/ 3 launch /lɔntʃ/ 17

lively /lavli/ 25 liver /lvə/ 1

law court /lɔ ˌkɔt/ 25 lay /le/ 26 lay-by /leba/ 76

LMS /ˌelemes/ 14 loads /ləυdz/ 51 loaf /ləυf/ 86

long-haired /lɒŋ heəd/ 74 long-legged /lɒŋ led/ 74 long-sleeved /lɒŋ slivd/ 27 long-standing /ˌlɒŋstndŋ/ 74 long-term /ˌlɒŋtm/ 30 long-winded /ˌlɒŋwndd/ 69 loo /lu/ 96 look /lυk/ 46 look at /lυk ət/ 94 look down on /lυk daυn ɒn/ 10 look for /lυk fɔ/ 94 look forward to /lυk fɔwəd tu/ 44, 94 look into /lυk ntə/ 94 look up to /lυk p tu/ 10, 94 looks /lυks/ 84 lose appetite 28 lose voice 28 loss /lɒs/ 53, 89 lots /lɒt/ 51 loud /laυd/ 46 love /lv/ 73, 80 loving /lvŋ/ 44 low /ləυ/ 54 lower /ləυə/ 30, 54 luck /lk/ 73 luggage /ld/ 83, 101 lump /lmp/ 28, 86 lung /lŋ/ 1 luxurious /lυəriəs/ 32 luxury goods /lkʃəri υdz/ 75 mag /m/ 96 magnificent /mnfsənt/ 25 mail /mel/ 82 mail order /ˌmelɔdə/ 75 main bedroom 11 maintain /menten/ 30, 42, 45 major /medə/ 13, 30 majority /mədɒrəti/ 38 make a living /mek ə lvŋ/ 16

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

269

make a reservation /mek ə ˌrezəveʃən/ 22 make friends /mek frendz/ 10 make head or tail of 69 make it /mek t/ 18 make love /mek lv/ 89 make music 21 make o /mek ɒf/ 89 make out /mek aυt/ 89 make up /mek p/ 10, 89 malaria /məleəriə/ 13 male /mel/ 82 manage /mnd/ 60 mandatory /mndətəri/ 55 mane /men/ 26 manhood /mnhυd/ 73 manufacture /ˌmnjəfktʃə/ 17, 29 marathon /mrəθən/ 18 marginal /mɑdnəl/ 38 market /mɑkt/ 17 market research /mɑkt rstʃ/ 17 martyrdom /mɑtədəm/ 73 Marxist /mɑksst/ 70 mash /mʃ/ 81 mask /mɑsk/ 27 mass media /ms midiə/ 37 master bedroom /mɑstə bedrυm/ 11 master’s /mɑstəz/ 15 match /mtʃ/ 27 mate /met/ 10 material /mətəriəl/ 85 maternity leave /mətnəti liv/ 16 matter /mtə/ 66 mean /min/ 8 means /minz/ 37, 84, 85 meanwhile /ˌminhwal/ 61 meat /mit/ 82 medical 29 meet /mit/ 82 melt /melt/ 6 membership /membəʃp/ 70, 73 memorable /memərəbəl/ 32 memory /meməri/ 34 memory stick /meməri ˌstk/ 34 mental /mentəl/ 30 meow /miaυ/ 81 messy-looking 7

middle-of-the-road / ˌmdələvðərəυd/ 9, 42 migrant /marənt/ 13 mild /mald/ 22, 46 mildly (irritating) /maldli/ 50 miles (better) /malz/ 48 mineral water /mnrəl wɔtə/ 75 minor /manə/ 99 minute /manjut/ 51 miserable /mzrəbəl/ 43 miserably /mzrəbli/ 45 miserly /mazəli/ 8 mislay /msle/ 3, 12 mislead /mslid/ 71 misplace /msples/ 3 mistake /mstek/ 89 mistranslate /ˌmstrnslet/ 71 misty /msti/ 6 misunderstand /ˌmsndəstnd/ 71 moan /məυn/ 81 mobile /məυbal/ 78, 96 moderate /mɒdərət/ 42 modern ballet 20

mouth 23 move /muv/ 58 MP /ˌempi/ 38 MP3 /ˌempiθri/ 21 muddle /mdəl/ 50 mug /m/ 88 muggy /mi/ 6 multilingual /ˌmltilŋwəl/ 5 multimedia /ˌmltimidiə/ 71 multinational /ˌmltinʃənəl/ 71 multiplication /ˌmltplkeʃən/ 52 multiplied by 52 multipurpose /ˌmltippəs/ 71 mumble /mmbəl/ 45 murder /mdə/ 39 murmur /mmə/ 45 muscle /msəl/ 80 muscular /mskjələ/ 7 museum /mjuziəm/ 25 musician /mjuzʃən/ 21 Muslim /mυzlm/ 42 musty /msti/ 46 mutter /mtə/ 45 naïve /naiv/ 8 napkin /npkn/ 21 nappy /npi/ 101 narrow-minded /

modernise /mɒdənaz/ 70 module /mɒdjul/ 14, 15

ˌnrəυmandd/ 54 nasty piece of work 9

molecular biology /məυlekjələ baɒlədi/ 33

national costume /nʃənəl kɒstjum/ 27

molecule /mɒlkjul/ 33

native language /netv lŋwd/ 5

momentary /məυməntəri/ 53 monarchy /mɒnəki/ 38 money /mni/ 40, 83 monitor /mɒntə/ 14 monogamous /mənɒəməs/ 71

NATO /netəυ/ 78 natural /ntʃərəl/ 13, 41 natural disaster /ntʃərəl dzɑstə/ 13

monolingual /ˌmɒnəυlŋwəl/ 5, 71 monologue /mɒnəlɒ/ 71 moo /mu/ 81 moolah 96 moral /mɒrəl/ 42 moreish /mɔrʃ/ 22 moreover /mɔrəυvə/ 65 mortgage /mɔd/ 40 mother /mðə/ 80 mother tongue /mðə tŋ/ 5, 75 motherhood /mðəhυd/ 70, 73 motive /məυtv/ 63

navigate /nvet/ 35 necessity /nəsesəti/ 55 need (for) /nid/ 55 neighbourhood /nebəhυd/ 73 nerd /nd/ 96 nervous /nvəs/ 43 nervously /nvəsli/ 45 nest /nest/ 26 net /net/ 35, 80 network /netwk/ 34, 35 never-ending /ˌnevərendŋ/ 74 nevertheless /ˌnevəðəles/ 64 new leaf /nju lif/ 94

MI6 /ˌemasks/ 78 microbiology

motor racing /məυtə resŋ/ 18 motorway /məυtəwe/ 101 mountain /maυntn/ 23

news /njuz/ 37, 83, 84 newspaper /njuzpepə/ 37, 96 next /nekst/ 68 nice figure 7

/ˌmakrəυbaɒlədi/ 71 microchip /makrəυtʃp/ 34, 71

mountaineer /ˌmaυntnə/ 18 moustache /məstɑʃ/ 7

nick /nk/ 96 noise /nɔz/ 56, 89

meter /mitə/ 80

270

microscopic /ˌmakrəskɒpk/ 71 microwave /makrəυwev/ 71 Middle Ages /mdəl edz/ 53

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

noiseless /nɔzləs/ 46 noisy /nɔzi/ 46 nominate /nɒmnet/ 38 non-meat-eater 22 North Africa /nɔθ frkə/ 5 North /nɔθ frkən/ 5 North America /nɔθ əmerkə/ 5 nosh /nɒʃ/ 96 nosy /nəυzi/ 8 not do anything for sb 10 not see eye to eye 10 note /nəυt/ 101 notice /nəυts/ 46 notification 36 novelist /nɒvəlst/ 19 now /naυ/ 67 numb /nm/ 80 number /nmbə/ 51 nursery school /nsəri skul/ 14 nuts /nts/ 30 oar /ɔ/ 18 obese /əυbis/ 7, 30 obesity /əυbisəti/ 30 object v /əbdekt/ 45

opaque /əυpek/ 41 open /əυpən/ 8, 40 open-necked /əυpən nekt/ 74

overweight /ˌəυvəwet/ 7 owing to (the fact that) /əυŋ tu/ 63

open-toed /əυpən təυd/ 74 opera /ɒpərə/ 20 opera house /ɒpərə haυs/ 25 operate on /ɒpəret ɒn/ 28, 29

owl /aυl/ 26 owner /əυnə/ 57 ownership /əυnəʃp/ 73 ozone depletion /əυzəυn dpliʃən/ 24

operation /ˌɒpəreʃən/ 28, 93 operator /ɒpəretə/ 70 oppress /əpres/ 72 oppression /əpreʃən/ 72 oppressor /əpresə/ 72 optimistic /ˌɒptmstk/ 8 optional /ɒpʃənəl/ 55 ordeal /ɔdil/ 100 order book /ɔdə bυk/ 17 organ /ɔən/ 33 organic /ɔnk/ 22, 24 original ərdənəl/ 8, 19 ought /ɔt/ 80 our /aυə/ 80, 82 oust /aυst/ 100 out and about /aυt ən əbaυt/ 77 out of breath /aυt əv breθ/ 47

pace /pes/ 58 pacemaker /pesˌmekə/ 29 pacifist /psfst/ 42 pack /pk/ 87, 88 package holiday /pkd hɒləde/ 32, 75 packed /pkt/ 25 packet /pkt/ 88 paddle /pdəl/ 18 page /ped/ 35 pail /pel/ 82 pain /pen/ 28, 82 pain in the neck 9, 79 pair /peə/ 27, 82, 87 pale /pel/ 82 palm /pɑm/ 80

obligation /ˌɒbleʃən/ 55, 60 obligatory /əblətəri/ 55 oblige /əblad/ 55 observe /əbzv/ 46 obsessive /əbsesv/ 42

out of this world /aυt əv ðs wld/ 48

pan /pn/ 88 pane /pen/ 82

out of touch /aυt əv ttʃ/ 2 outbreak /aυtbrek/ 76 outcome /aυtkm/ 63, 76

obstinate /ɒbstnət/ 8 octagon 52 octagonal /ɒktənəl/ 52

outgoings /ˌaυtəυŋz/ 40 outlet /aυtlet/ 76 outlook /aυtlυk/ 76

pants /pnts/ 84, 101 pantyhose /pntihəυz/ 101 paper /pepə/ 85, 96 pare /peə/ 82 parents-in-law peərənts n lɔ/ 10 park /pɑk/ 80

odd /ɒd/ 8, 42 odd-ball /ɒdbɔl/ 9 odds and ends /ɒdz ən enz/ 77 oence /əfents/ 39 oender /əfendə/ 39

outrageous /ˌaυtredəs/ 70 outset /aυtset/ 76 outskirts /aυtskts/ 25, 84 oval /əυvəl/ 52 over the moon /əυvə ðə mun/ 79

parking lot /pɑkŋ ˌlɒt/ 101 parking meter /pɑkŋˌmitə/ 25 Parliament /pɑləmənt/ 38

o-peak /ˌɒfpik/ 74 ospring /ɒfsprŋ/ 95 oil /ɔl/ 83 (the) old bill 96

over the top /ˌəυvəðətɒp/ 9 overalls /əυvərɔlz/ 84 overcast /əυvəkɑst/ 6

partner /pɑtnə/ 10 partnership /pɑtnəʃp/ 70, 73

on board /ɒnbɔd/ 31 on campus 15 on cloud nine 49 on demand 37

overcooked /ˌəυvəkυkt/ 22 overcrowding /ˌəυvəkraυdŋ/ 24 overdo /ˌəυvədu/ 71 overdone /ˌəυvədn/ 22 overdra /əυvədrɑft/ 40

parliamentary /ˌpɑləmentəri/ 38 part and parcel 77

part-time /ˌpɑttam/ 74 party /pɑti/ 38 pass (an exam) /pɑs/ 14 pass (a verdict) 39 passage /psd/ 19 passionate /pʃənət/ 44 passive /psv/ 70 password /pɑswd/ 2, 35

on strike /ɒn strak/ 16 on the ball 48

overdrawn /ˌəυvədrɔn/ 40 overeat /ˌəυvərit/ 71

on the other hand /ɒn ði ðə hnd/ 64, 67

overfishing /ˌəυvəfʃŋ/ 24 overleaf /ˌəυvəlif/ 68 overpopulated

pat /pt/ 46

/ˌəυvəpɒpjəletd/ 24 overpopulation

patter /ptə/ 56 pavement /pevmənt/ 101 paw /pɔ/ 26

on time /ɒn tam/ 31 on top form 49 on top of the world 49 onion /njən/ 85 online banking /ˌɒnlan bŋkŋ/ 40 online gaming ˌɒnlan emŋ/ 35

/ˌəυvəˌpɒpjəleʃən/ 24 oversleep /ˌəυvəslip/ 71 overtired /ˌəυvətaəd/ 71

paternity leave /pətnəti ˌliv/ 16 patio /ptiəυ/ 11

pay (a fine) /pe/ 39 pay (a subscription) 37

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

271

payee /pei/ 70 payment /pemənt/ 40 PC /ˌpisi/ 34 peace and quiet 77 peacock /pikɒk/ 26 peak /pik/ 23 peal /pil/ 82 peculiar /pkjuliə/ 8 pedestrian crossing /pdestriən krɒsŋ/ 75 peel /pil/ 82 peeler /pilə/ 11 peer /pə/ 46 penalty /penəlti/ 99 peninsula /pənnsjələ/ 23 pentagon /pentəən/ 52 pentagonal /pentənəl/ 52

pick out /ˌpk aυt/ 21 pick up 28

portrait /pɔtrət/ 19 position /pəzʃən/ 66 possession /pəzeʃən/ 57

picturesque /ˌpktʃəresk/ 25, 32 piece /pis/ 86 pigeon /pdən/ 26

possibility /ˌpɒsəbləti/ 55 post /pəυst/ 2, 36 postgraduate

pig-headed /ˌphedd/ 8 pile /pal/ 87 PIN /pn/ 78

/ˌpəυstrduət/ 15, 71 post-impressionist

pinstriped /pnstrapt/ 27 pitch /ptʃ/ 32 plaice /ples/ 82 plain /plen/ 23, 27 plaster /plɑstə/ 28 plastic /plstk/ 83 play by ear 21 playlist /plelst/ 21

/ˌpəυstmpreʃənst/ 71 postpone /pəυstpəυn/ 72 post-war /ˌpəυstwɔ/ 71 pot /pɒt/ 19, 88 potato /pətetəυ/ 85 potential /pəυtentʃəl/ 17 potter /pɒtə/ 19 pottery /pɒtəri/ 19 pour down /pɔ daυn/ 6 pour oil on troubled waters 50

people /pipəl/ 85 pepper /pepə/ 85 per /p/ 82 perfect /pfkt/ 41

plea /pli/ 100 plead /plid/ 39 pledge /pled/ 100 pliers /plaəz/ 84

perform /pəfɔm/ 2 performance /pəfɔməns/ 20 performing art /pəfɔmŋ ɑt/ 19

plod /plɒd/ 58 plot /plɒt/ 19 ploy /plɔ/ 100

praise /prez/ 48 pray /pre/ 82 precise /prsas/ 41

perfumed /pəfjumd/ 46 permissive /pəmsv/ 8 permit n /pmt/ 80, 99 permit v /pəmt/ 80 personal /psənəl/ 42, 38

plug /pl/ 34 plumber /plmə/ 16 plump /plmp/ 7 plus /pls/ 65 pneumatic /njumtk/ 80

preconceived /ˌprikənsivd/ 71 pre-judge /ˌpridd/ 71 premises /premsəz/ 84

personal computer /psənəl kəmpjutə/ 34

pocket money /pɒkt mni/ 75 podcast /pɒdkɑst/ 37 point /pɔnt/ 50, 66

presenter /przentə/ 37 President 38

personality /ˌpsənləti/ 7 personnel /ˌpsənel/ 99 perspiration /ˌpspəreʃən/ 47 perspire /pəspaə/ 47 pessimistic /ˌpesmstk/ 8 petal /petəl/ 26 petrol /petrəl/ 101 phase /fez/ 53, 82 PhD /ˌpietʃdi/ 15 philosophy /flɒsəfi/ 42 phone /fəυn/ 96 phone charger /fəυn tʃɑdə/ 11 photo /fəυtəυ/ 36 photo frame /fəυtəυ ˌfrem/ 33 photograph /fəυtərɑf/ 80 photographer /fətɒrəfə/ 80 physical /fzkəl/ 30 physicist /fzsst/ 70 physics /fzks/ 84 physiotherapist /ˌfziəυθerəpst/ 16 pianist /piənst/ 70 piano /pjɑnəυ/ 2 pick /pk/ 26 pick and choose 77

272

pick holes 48

point of view /ˌpɔnt əv vju/ 42 poke /pəυk/ 46 poke your nose into 79 polar ice cap /ˌpəυlər as kp/ 24 Pole /pəυl/ 5 pole vault /pəυlvɔlt/ 18 poles apart /pəυlz əpɑt/ 64 police station /pəlis steʃən/ 25 policy /pɒləsi/ 38 polished /pɒlʃt/ 59 politeness /pəlatns/ 73 politician /ˌpɒltʃən/ 38 poll /pəυl/ 100 pollen /pɒlən/ 28 polling day 38 polling station /pəυlŋ steʃən/ 38 pollution /pəluʃən/ 24, 70 pool /pul/ 18 popular /pɒpjələ/ 37 popularity /ˌpɒpjəlrəti/ 73 population /ˌpɒpjəleʃən/ 23, 25 pop-up /pɒpp/ 2 porch /pɔtʃ/ 11

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

poverty /pɒvəti/ 83, 86 power cut /paυə kt/ 12 practice /prkts/ 2, 82

premonition /ˌpremənʃən/ 46 present (with) 57

presidential /ˌprezdentʃəl/ 38 press /pres/ 33, 46 pretty (thick) /prti/ 41 pretty as a picture 32 previously /priviəsli/ 61 pre-war /ˌpriwɔ/ 71 prey /pre/ 82 prickly /prkli/ 59 prim and proper /prm ən prɒpə/ 77 Prime Minister /pram mnstə/ 38 principle /prnsəpəl/ 73 printout /prntaυt/ 76 prior to /praə tu/ 61 priority /praɒrəti/ 17 prison /przən/ 39 privacy settings 36 private /pravət/ 36 probable /prɒbəbəl/ 55 probe /prəυb/ 100 problem /prɒbləm/ 33, 66 proceeds /prəυsidz/ 84 process /prəυses/ 30 processed /prəυsest/ 22, 30 produce /prədus/ 2, 72

product /prɒdkt/ 2 production /prədkʃən/ 20 productive /prədktv/ 2, 70

purr /p/ 82 pushy /pυʃi/ 8 put across /pυt əkrɒs/ 92 put away /pυt əwe/ 92 put down /pυt daυn/ 92 put forward /pυt fɔwəd/ 17, 92 put in /put n/ 92 put in a nutshell 69

rate /ret/ 36, 58 rather /rðə/ 43 rave /rev/ 20

profit /prɒft/ 17, 89 programme /prəυrm/ 15, 37 progress n /prəυres/ 14, 80 progress v /prəres/ 80 prohibited /prəυhbtd/ 99 project /prɒdekt/ 14 projector /prədektə/ 70 promote /prəməυt/ 20 promotion /prəməυʃən/ 70 prompt /prɒmpt/ 63

put o /pυt ɒf/ 92 put on /pυtɒn/ 92 put on standby 31

readable /ridəbəl/ 70 readies /redi/ 96 readiness /redns/ 70 realise /rəlaz/ 60 really /rəli/ 43, 48

proof /pruf/ 39 proprietor /prəpraətə/ 57 prosecute /prɒskjut/ 39, 99

putrid /pjutrd/ 46 put-up job /pυtp dɒb/ 92 pyjamas /pdɑməz/ 27 pyramid 52

productivity /ˌprɒdktvəti/ 70 profession /prəfeʃən/ 16 professor /prəfesə/ 14 profile /prəυfal/ 36 profile picture 36

put out /pυt aυt/ 92 put two and two together /pυt tu ən tu təeðə/ 92 put up /pυt p/ 31, 92 put up with /pυt p wð/ 92 put your foot down /pυt jə fυt daυn/ 92

rays /rez/ 82 reach /ritʃ/ 18, 60 react /rikt/ 33, 80 reaction /rikʃən/ 66 read music 21

rearrange /ˌriərend/ 71 reason /rizən/ 63, 72 reasonably (good) /rizənəbli/ 41 receding /rsidŋ/ 7 receipt /rsit/ 80 receive /rsiv/ 37, 80 receptionist /rsepʃənst/ 16

protect /prətekt/ 24

pyramidal /prmdəl/ 52 quack /kwk/ 96

recession /rseʃən/ 17, 72 recipe /respi/ 80 reckon /rekən/ 42 recover /rkvə/ 27

protest /prəυtest/ 80 proud /praυd/ 49

qualify /kwɒlfa/ 18 quality /kwɒləti/ 37

rectangle /rektŋəl/ 1, 52 rectangular /rektŋjələ/ 52

proverb /prɒvb/ 98 provide /prəvad/ 57 provide s.o. with sth /prəvad smwn wð smθŋ/ 95

quantity /kwɒntəti/ 30 quarrelsome /kwɒrəlsəm/ 8 queue /kju/ 101

recycling /ˌrisaklŋ/ 24 reddish /redʃ/ 70 red-haired /redheəd/ 7, 74

quick-witted /ˌkwkwtd/ 74 quid /kwd/ 96 quiet /kwaət/ 46 quit /kwt/ 100 quite /kwat/ 43, 44 R&B /ɑrəndbi/ 21

reduce /rdus/ 24, 30, 99 reduction /rdkʃən/ 70, 72 refer (s.o. to sth) /rf/ 68

R and R /ˌɑrəndɑ/ 77 rabies /rebiz/ 13 race relations /res rleʃənz/ 75 rack and ruin 77

refugee /ˌrefjυdi/ 13 refusal /rfjuzəl/ 70 regain /ren/ 71 regional group 2

racket /rkt/ 18, 56 radar /redɑ/ 78

registry oice /redstri ɒfs/ 25 regret /rret/ 95

radical /rdkəl/ 42 radio station /rediəυ steʃən/ 25 radius /rediəs/ 52

reign /ren/ 80 rein /ren/ 80, 82

prospect /prɒspekt/ 72 prosthetic 29

provided /prəυvadd/ 62 provoke /prəvəυk/ 63 PS 78 pseudo-intellectual /sjudəυ ˌntəlektʃuəl/ 71 pseudonym /sjudənm/ 80 psychiatry /sakaətri/ 80 psychic /sakk/ 80 psychology /sakɒlədi/ 80 PTO 78 public /pblk/ 36, 87 public relations oicer /pblk rleʃənz ɒfsə/ 16 public school /pblk skul/ 14 publication /ˌpblkeʃən/ 19 publishing /pblʃŋ/ 16 pudding /pυdŋ/ 22 pu /pf/ 86 pull /pυl/ 33 pull a fast one /pυl ə fɑst wn/ 79

rage /red/ 73 rain /ren/ 6, 82 rainforest /renˌfɒrst/ 24 raise money 40 RAM /rm/ 34 random access memory 34

referee /ˌrefəri/ 18 re-fill /ˌrifl/ 22 refrain /rfren/ 99

reinforce /ˌrinfɔs/ 80 reject /rdekt/ 80 relationship /rleʃənʃp/ 73 relaxed /rlkst/ 8 release /rlis/ 2, 39 reliable /rlaəbəl/ 8 religious /rldəs/ 42

pungent /pndənt/ 46 punishment /pnʃmənt/ 37 purchase /ptʃəs/ 95

range /rend/ 87 rant and rave 77 rap /rp/ 21

remote /rməυt/ 32 remote control /rməυt kəntrəυl/ 11

purify /pjυərfa/ 70 purpose /ppəs/ 63

rapid /rpd/ 29 rash /rʃ/ 28

renew /rnju/ 71 repay /rpe/ 71

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

273

repayment /rpemənt/ 38 repel /rpel/ 44 replace /rples/ 71 replacement /rplesmənt/ 70, 73 representative /ˌreprzentətv/ 38 reproduction /ˌriprədkʃən/ 19 republic /rpblk/ 38 requirement /rkwaəmənt/ 55, 62 research /rstʃ/ 15, 83 researcher /rstʃə/ 16 reserve /rzv/ 24 residence /rezdəns/ 95

rubber /rbə/ 101 rude /rud/ 8 ruin /run/ 12 rule /rul/ 38 rumble /rmbəl/ 47, 56, 86 run /rn/ 31, 34, 38, 53, 58

screenplay /skrinple/ 20 script /skrpt/ 20 scruy /skrfi/ 7 scuba /skubə/ 78 scuba diving /skubə ˌdavŋ/ 18 sculptor /sklptə/ 19 sculpture /sklptʃə/ 19 seal /sil/ 26

run-down /ˌrndaυn/ 25, 74 rural /rυərəl/ 2 rush /rʃ/ 58

search engine /stʃ ˌendn/ 35 seasick /sisk/ 31 seasickness /sisknəs/ 31 seat /sit/ 31, 38 second floor /sekənd flɔ/ 101 second language /sekənd lŋwd/ 5

rustle /rsəl/ 56 sack /sk 16, 88 SAD 78

secondly /sekəndli/ 68 seconds /sekəndz/ 22 secure /skjυə/ 60

rest room /restrυm/ 101 restaurant /restrɒnt/ 25 result /rzlt/ 63

sadistic /sədstk/ 8 sadly /sdli/ 45 sadness /sdns/ 70

security /skjυərəti/ 2 see 46

retirement /rtaəmənt/ 16, 73 revert /rvt/ 72

sail /sel/ 31, 58, 82 salmon /smən/ 80 salt /sɒlt/ 85

seek /sik/ 95 select 38

residential /ˌrezdentʃəl/ 25 resit /ˌrist/ 14 resolution /ˌrezəluʃən/ 66 respect /rspekt/ 72 response /rspɒns/ 66 rest and recreation 77

review /rvju/ 19, 20 revolted /rvəυltd/ 44 rewrite /ˌrirat/ 71 riddle /rdəl/ 100 ridge /rd/ 23 right /rat/ 67, 82

run down /ˌrndaυn/ 48 run out (of) /rn aυt(əv)/ 12, 94 run over /rn əυvə/ 94

salty /sɔlti/ 22, 46 sarnie /sɑni/ 96 satellite /stəlat/ 37 satnav /stnv/ 33, 78 savings account /sevŋz əkaυnt/ 40

right angle /ratˌŋəl/ 52 right-wing /ˌratwŋ/ 42 ring /rŋ/ 56 RIP 78

savoury /sevəri/ 22 say when 22

rise /raz/ 30 risk /rsk/ 17, 30 rite /rat/ 82 riveting /rvətŋ/ 3 roadworks /rəυdwks/ 75 roar /rɔ/ 56, 81 rob /rɒb/ 39 robbery /rɒbəri/ 39 robotic /rəυbɒtk/ 29 rod /rɒd/ 18 roe /rəυ/ 82

Scandinavia /ˌskndneviə/ 5 Scandinavian /ˌskndneviən/ 5 scanner /sknə/ 29, 34 scarcity /skeəsəti/ 70 scared out of your wits 49 scared sti 49

roll out /rəυlaυt/ 17 root /rut/ 26 rosy-cheeked /rəυzi tʃikt/ 74 rotate /rəυtet/ 33 rough /rf/ 31, 59 rough and ready /ˌrfəndredi/ 77 round /raυnd/ 18 round the bend 9 round trip /raυnd trp/ 101 round-faced /raυnd fest/ 7 round-neck /raυnd nek/ 27

274

row /rəυ/ 82, 87 row /raυ/ 82 RSVP 78

scales /skelz/ 84 scandal /skndəl/ 37

scene /sin/ 20, 39, 82 scented /sentd/ 46 scholarship 15 school /skul/ 25 school-leaving age /skul livŋ ed/ 14 science /saənts/ 80 science fiction /saənts fkʃən/ 75 scientist /saəntst/ 16 sci-fi /saˌfa/ 78 scissors /szəz/ 84 score /skɔ/ 20 scores 51 Scotch tape /skɒtʃ tep/ 101 scream /skrim/ 45 screech /skritʃ/ 56

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

see through /siθru/ 94

self-assured /ˌselfəʃυəd/ 8 self-catering /ˌselfketərŋ/ 32 self-centred /ˌselfsentəd/ 74 self-contained /ˌselfkəntend/ 11 self-control /ˌselfkəntrəυl/ 75 self-important /ˌselfmpɔtənt/ 8 sell /sel/ 17 sellotape /seləυtep/ 101 semi-circle /semiˌskəl/ 52 semi-circular /ˌsemiskjələ/ 71 semi-detached /ˌsemidttʃt/ 11, 71 semi-final /ˌsemifanəl/ 18, 71 seminar /semnɑ/ 15 Senate /sent/ 38 send /send/ 36 sender /sendə/ 70 sensation /senseʃən/ 37 sense /sents/ 73 sensible /sentsəbəl/ 8 sensitive /sentstv/ 8 sensitivity /ˌsentstvəti/ 73 sentence /sentənts/ 39 series /səriz/ 19, 84 serve /sv/ 39, 99 server /svə/ 35 set /set/ 20, 87 set a record /set ə rkɔd/ 18, 92 set aside /set əsad/ 92 set fire to sth /set faə tə smŋ/ 92 set foot in /set fυt n/ 92 set free /set fri/ 92

set menu /set menju/ 22 set o /set ɒf/ 92 set out /set aυt/ 92

silky /slki/ 59 silly /sli/ 8 simile /smli/ 97

set up /set p/ 92 setting /setŋ/ 19 set-up /setp/ 76 severe /svə/ 6, 41 severely /svəli/ 31 sew /səυ/ 82

simple /smpəl/ 8

shady /ʃedi/ 59 shake /ʃek/ 13, 47 shake in your boots/shoes 49 shake-up /ʃekp/ 76 shallow /ʃləυ/ 54 share /ʃeər/ 10, 36 shark /ʃɑk/ 26 sharp /ʃɑp/ 8, 30 shears /ʃəz/ 84 shed /ʃed/ 11 shiwork /ʃftwk/ 16 shine /ʃan/ 56 shiny /ʃani/ 59 shiver /ʃvə/ 28, 47 shoal /ʃəυl/ 87 shoot /ʃut/ 37 shopli /ʃɒplft/ 39 shore /ʃɔ/ 23 short story /ˌʃɔt stɔri/ 19 shortage /ʃɔtd/ 55 shortcut /ʃɔtkt/ 54 shorten /ʃɔtən/ 54 shorts /ʃɔts/ 84 short-term /ˌʃɔttm/ 30 should /ʃυd/ 80 shoulder /ʃəυldə/ 28 shout /ʃaυt/ 45 show /ʃəυ/ 20, 37, 95 shower /ʃaυwə/ 6, 86 showjumping /ʃəυdmpŋ/ 19 shrewd /ʃrud/ 8 shriek /ʃrik/ 45 shrink n /ʃrŋk/ 96 sick and tired /sk ən taəd/ 43 sick leave /sk ˌliv/ 16 sickly /skli/ 22 sickness /skns/ 28 side /sad/ 52 side dish /saddʃ/ 22 sidewalk /sadwɔk/ 101 sigh /sa/ 47 sight /sat/ 46, 73, 82, 93 sign up /san p/ 2 significant /snfkənt/ 51 silent /salənt/ 46

social network /səυʃəl netwk/ 2 social networking site /səυʃəl

simultaneously /ˌsməlteniəsli/ 61 since /snts/ 63 sincere /snsə/ 8 singer /sŋə/ 21 single /sŋəl/ 101 sink or swim 77 sit an exam /ˌst n zm/ 14 sit up /st p/ 50 sitcom /stkɒm/ 37 site /sat/ 82 situation /ˌstjueʃən/ 66 sixth form college 14

netwkŋ ˌsat/ 35 socialist /səυʃəlst/ 42 socket /sɒkt/ 11 soen /sɒfən/ 80 soware /sɒftweə/ 33, 83 soil /sɔl/ 33 sole /səυl/ 27, 82 solid /sɒld/ 41, 59 solidify /səldfa/ 41 solution /səluʃən/ 66 sombre /sɒmbə/ 31, 56 sonar /səυnɑ/ 78 sooner or later 77 sophisticated /səfstketd/ 29

skating rink /sketŋˌrŋk/ 25 skilled worker /skld wkə/ 16

sore throat /ˌsɔ θrəυt/ 28 sorry /sɒri/ 80

skin /skn/ 7 skinny /skni/ 7

sort of /sɔt ɒv/ 67 soul /səυl/ 82 sound /saυnd/ 46, 56

skip /skp/ 14

sound barrier /saυnd briə/ 75 soundtrack /saυndtrk/ 21 sour /saυə/ 22, 46

sky-blue /ˌskablu/ 74 Skype /skap/ 36 sleek /slik/ 59 sleeve /sliv/ 27 sleeveless /slivləs/ 27

source /sɔs/ 23, 30 South America /saυθ əmerkə/ 5

slice /slas/ 86 slim /slm/ 7 slippers /slpəz/ 27 slippery /slpəri/ 59 slow /sləυ/ 12, 30 slowly but surely 77

Southern Africa /sðən frkə/ 5 Southern African /sðən frkən/ 5 sow /səυ/ 82

slum /slm/ 24 sly /sla/ 8 small talk /smɔl tɔk/ 69 smart /smɑt/ 7 smartphone /smɑtfəυn/ 33 smash /smʃ/ 12, 81 smell /smel/ 46

Spaniard /spnjəd/ 5 spark o /spɑk ɒf/ 63 sparkle /spɑkəl/ 56 sparse /spɑs/ 59 speak your mind 69

spacious /speʃəs/ 25 spaghetti /spəeti/ 83, 84 spam /spm/ 2

smo /smɒ/ 24 smooth /smuð/ 59 smoothly 31 smuggle /sməl/ 39 snail /snel/ 26 snatch /sntʃ/ 46 sneeze /sniz/ 47 snooker /snukə/ 18 snore /snɔ/ 47 snowboarding /snəυbɔdŋ/ 18 so /səυ/ 82 so on /səυ ɒn/ 65 soap /səυp/ 37

special /speʃəl/ 22 species /spiʃiz/ 24 spectacles /spektəkəlz/ 29, 84 spectator /spektetə/ 18 speed /spid/ 58, 73 spell /spel/ 53, 86 sphere /sfə/ 52 spherical /sferkəl/ 52 spicy /spasi/ 22, 46 spill /spl/ 12 spiral /sparəl/ 52 spit out /spt aυt/ 81 splash /splʃ/ 81 sponsor /spɒntsə/ 57 sports /spɔts/ 18, 37

so-called /ˌsəυkɔld/ 74 sociable /səυʃəbəl/ 8

sports centre /spɔts sentə/ 25 spot /spɒt/ 28, 86

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

275

spotted /spɒtd/ 27 sprain /spren/ 28 spray /spre/ 81

store /stɔ/ 34 storm /stɔm/ 80 stout /staυt/ 7

sum /sm/ 82 sum up /sm p/ 68 summit /smt/ 23

spread /spred/ 13, 54 spreadsheet /spredʃit/ 34 sprinkle /sprŋkəl/ 81 sprinter /sprntə/ 18 spud /spd/ 96 spurt /spt/ 81

straight /stret/ 7 stream /strim/ 21, 23, 37 streets ahead 48

sunburn /snbn/ 28 sunburnt /sn.bnd/ 7

squaddie /skwɒdi/ 96 square /skweə/ 52 squash player 18

strength /streŋkθ/ 73 stress /stres/ 29 stressed /strest/ 28 stressed out /strest aυt/ 8 stressful /stresfυl/ 29 stretch /stretʃ/ 54

stack /stk/ 87 sta /stɑf/ 15, 87 stage /sted/ 20, 53

strife /straf/ 100 striped /strapt/ 27 stroke /strəυk/ 28, 46, 86

stain /sten/ 12 stairs /steəz/ 84

strong /strɒŋ/ 6, 41, 42 structure /strktʃə/ 33 strum /strm/ 2

stake /stek/ 82 stammer /stmə/ 45 stand /stnd/ 38 standstill /stndstl/ 93 stapler /steplə/ 70 stardom /stɑdəm/ 73 stare /steə/ 46 start /stɑt/ 12 start the ball rolling 69 starter /stɑtə/ 22 starve /stɑv/ 13 state /stet/ 86 stationary /steʃənəri/ 95 statue /sttʃu/ 19 status /stetəs/ 36 steady /stedi/ 10, 40 steak /stek/ 82 steal /stil/ 37 steering wheel /stərŋ ˌwil/ 75 stem /stem/ 26 stem cell research /stem ˌsel rstʃ/ 33 stem from /stem frɒm/ 63 stick /stk/ 18 sti /stf/ 17, 41 stifling /staflŋ/ 6 still /stl/ 67 still life /stl laf/ 19 stingy /stndi/ 8 stinking /stŋkŋ/ 46 stir /st/ 58 stir things up 50 stocky /stɒki/ 7 stodgy /stɒdi/ 22 stomach /stmək/ 1 stone /stəυn/ 83 Stone Age /stəυn ˌed/ 53 stop /stɒp/ 12, 93

276

sunglasses suntanned superfood supervisor

/snˌlɑsz/ 75 /sntnd/ 74 /supəfud/ 30 /supəvazə/ 16, 70

supply /spla/ 3, 57 support /səpɔt/ 57, 72 supposing /səpəυz/ 62 surf the Internet /sf ði ntənet/ 2, 35 surface /sfs/ 59 surrounding /səraυndŋ/ 32 survivor /səvavə/ 13

stubborn /stbən/ 8 stuck /stk/ 31

suspect n /sspekt/ 39, 80 suspect v /səspekt/ 39, 42, 80 swallow /swɒləυ/ 47

stuck-up /ˌstkp/ 74 student loan 15 student society 15 student union 15

swarm /swɔm/ 87 sway /swe/ 58 sweat /swet/ 47 Swede /swid/ 5

studio /stjudiəυ/ 11 studio flat /stjudiəυ flt/ 11

sweep /swip/ 13 sweep under the carpet 50

stu /stf/ 85 stunning /stnŋ/ 7, 32 stupid /stjupd/ 8

sweet /swit/ 22, 46 sweets /swits/ 101 sweet-smelling /swit smelŋ/ 46 swell with pride 49

sturdy /stdi/ 41 stutter /sttə/ 45 subdivision /ˌsbdvən/ 71 submarine /ˌsbmərin/ 71 submit /səbmt/ 14, 15 subscribe /səbskrab/ 35, 36, 37 subsequently /sbskwəntli/ 61 substance /sbstənts/ 23 substantial /səbstntʃəl/ 51 subtitles /sbˌtatəlz/ 37 subtle /stəl/ 80 subtraction /səbtrkʃən/ 52 suburbs /sbbz/ 25 subway /sbwe/ 71, 101 succeed /səksid/ 60 success /səkses/ 60, 89 successful /səksesfəl/ 60 successfully /səksesfəli/ 60 suck /sk/ 47 suede /swed/ 27 suer /sfə/ 13, 28, 31 sugar-free /ʃυə fri/ 74 sugary /ʃυəri/ 22 suggest /sədest/ 3 suggestion /sədestʃən/ 89 suit /sut/ 27

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

swerve /swv/ 58 swimmer /swmə/ 18 swimming pool /swmŋ ˌpul/ 25 swimming trunks /swmŋ ˌtrŋks/ 84 Swiss /sws/ 5 sword /sɔd/ 80 sync /sŋk/ 21 synchronise /sŋkrənaz/ 21 table mat /tebəlmt/ 11 tablet /tblət/ 28 tablet (computer) /tblət/ 33, 34 tabloid /tblɔd/ 37 tag /t/ 10, 36 tail /tel/ 26 take a back seat 50 take a deep breath /tek ə dip breθ/ 47 take a risk /tek ə rsk/ 90 take advantage of /tek ədvɑntd ɒv/ 90 take aer /tek ɑftə/ 90 take an exam /tek n zm/ 14 take back /tek bk/ 90 take control /tek kəntrəυl/ 90

take everything as it comes 49 take in /tek n/ 27, 90 take it or leave it /ˌtektɔlivt/ 77 take notice 50 take o /tek ɒf/ 90 take on /tek ɒn/ 16, 90 take over /ˌtek əυvə/ 90 take place /tek ples/ 90 take s.o./sth for granted /tek smwn/smθŋ fɔ rɑntd/ 90 take the biscuit 48, 79 take the bull by the horns 50 take up /tek p/ 27, 90 take-away /tekəwe/ 25 takeover /tekˌəυvə/ 76 talented /tləntd/ 8, 21 talk /tɔk/ 80 talk at cross-purposes 69 talk behind sb’s back 69 talk down to s.o. /ˌtɔk daυn tə smwn/ 69 talk rubbish 69 talk sense 69 talk shop 69 talk show /tɔk ʃəυ/ 37 talking point /tɔkŋ ˌpɔnt/ 69 talks /tɔks/ 100 tallish /tɔlʃ/ 7 tan /tn/ 7 tap /tp/ 46 target /tɑt/ 60, 92 tart /tɑt/ 80 tartan /tɑtən/ 27 taste /test/ 21, 46 tasteful /testfəl/ 46 tasteless /testləs/ 22, 46 tasty /testi/ 22, 46 taxi rank /tksi rŋk/ 25 tea /ti/ 85 tea bag /ti b/ 75 teacher /titʃə/ 80 teacher’s pet /titʃəz pet/ 9 teacher-training college /titʃə trenŋ kɒld/ 14

temptation /tempteʃən/ 73 tenant /tenənt/ 57 tennis courts /tens kɔts/ 25 tennis player /tens pleə/ 18 ten-pin bowling /ten pn bəυlŋ/ 18 tense /tents/ 8 tension /tentʃən/ 86 tent /tent/ 31 term /tm/ 38 terminal /tmnəl/ 30 terrace /ters/ 11 terraced /terst/ 11 terrify /terəfa/ 70 terrifying /terəfaŋ/ 32 terrorism /terərzəm/ 39 terrorist /terərst/ 70 texture /tekstʃə/ 59 Thai /ta/ 5 thankful /θŋkfəl/ 43 thaw /θɔ/ 6 The Antarctic /ði ntɑktk/ 5 The Arctic /ði ɑktk/ 5 The Atlantic /ði ətlntk/ 5 the BBC /ðə ˌbibisi/ 78 The Caribbean /ðə ˌkrbiən/ 5 the CIA /ðə ˌsiae/ 78 The Commonwealth /ðə kɒmənwelθ/ 5 The EU /ði ˌiju/ 5, 78 The European Union /ðə ˌjυərəpiən junjən/ 5 The Far East /ðə fɑr ist/ 5 the FBI 78 The Indian Ocean /ði ndiən əυʃən/ 5 the media 37 The Mediterranean

there /ðeə/ 82 thereaer /ˌðeərɑftə/ 61 thermal /θməl/ 23 thermometer /θəmɒmtə/ 29 thesis /θiss/ 15 they’re /ðeə/ 82 thick /θk/ 8, 59 thin /θn/ 59 thin-faced /θn fest/ 7 thin-lipped /θn lpt/ 74 things are looking up 49 third language 5 thirdly /θdli/ 68 thirtyish /θtiʃ/ 7 thorn /θɔn/ 26 thought /θɔt/ 73 threat /θret/ 100 threaten /θretən/ 45 threw /θru/ 82 thriy /θrfti/ 8 thrilled /θrld/ 43 through /θru/ 82 throughout /θruaυt/ 61 throw (a pot) /θrəυ/ 19 throw a wobbly 49 thud /θd/ 56 tide /tad/ 50 tight corner 50 tight-fisted /ˌtatfstd/ 8 tight-fitting /ˌtat ftŋ/ 74 tights /tats/ 84, 101 time /tam/ 53, 85 time o /tam ɒf/ 39 time-consuming /tamkənˌsjumŋ/ 74 timeless /tamləs/ 53 timeline 36

/ðə ˌmedtəreniən/ 5 The Middle East /ðə mdəl ist/ 5 The Netherlands /ðə neðələndz/ 5 The Pacific /ðə pəsfk/ 5 The Philippines /ðə flpinz/ 5

times /tamz/ 52 tin /tn/ 88 tin opener /tn əυpənə/ 75 tiny /tani/ 51 tire /taə/ 82

The UAE /ðə ˌjuei/ 5 The UK /ðə ˌjuke/ 5 The United Arab Emirates

to and fro /ˌtuəndfrəυ/ 2, 77 to boot 65

/ðə junatd rəb emrəts/ 5

toe /təυ/ 82 toilet /tɔlət/ 101

team /tim/ 80, 87 teaspoonful /tispunfυl/ 28 tech /tek/ 96 tee /ti/ 82

The United Kingdom /ðə junatd kŋdəm/ 5

telepathy /tlepəθi/ 46 telephone /telfəυn/ 80 telephony /tlefəni/ 80 televise /telvaz/ 37

The United States /ðə junatd stets/ 5

toilet roll /tɔlət ˌrəυl/ 11 tomb /tum/ 80 tongs /tɒŋz/ 84 tons /tns/ 51

The US(A) /ðə jues(e)/ 5 theatre /θətə/ 20, 25

tool /tul/ 29 top of the class 9

the /θeft/ 37 their /ðeə/ 82 theory /θəri/ 33

topic /tɒpk/ 66

telly /teli/ 96 temperature /temprətʃə/ 28

top-notch /ˌtɒpnɒtʃ/ 46 top-secret /ˌtɒp sikrət/ 74

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

277

torch /tɔtʃ/ 101 tornado /tɔnedəυ/ 13 torrential rain /tərentʃəl ren/ 6 total /təυtəl/ 51 totally /təυtəli/ 51 touch /ttʃ/ 46 tough /tf/ 41 tow /təυ/ 82 town /taυn/ 25 Town Hall 25 track /trk/ 2, 21 trade /tred/ 16 trademark /tredmɑk/ 75 traditional /trədʃənəl/ 33, 42 traic jam /trfk ˌdm/ 24 traic lights /trfk ˌlats/ 75, 84 traic system /trfk sstəm/ 25 trained /trend/ 21

two-faced /ˌtufest/ 74 typhoid /tafɔd/ 13 typhoon /tafun/ 13 typist /tapst/ 70 tyre /taə/ 82 unaccompanied /ˌnəkmpənid/ 99 unattractive /ˌnətrktv/ 7 unauthorised /nɔθərazd/ 99 unbend /nbend/ 71 uncertainty /nstənti/ 86

update n, v /pdet/ 36 upgrade /pred/ 34 upload /pləυd/ 2, 36 upset adj, v /pset/ 8, 43, 80 upset n /pset/ 80 upshot /pʃɒt/ 63 urban /bən/ 2 urge /d/ 45 use /juz/ 82, 95 use /jus/ 82 used to have 7 useful /jusfəl/ 70 useless /jusləs/ 70 username /juzənem/ 35 utilise /jutlaz/ 33, 95 utility room /jutləti ˌrum/ 11 utter /tə/ 51

transfer n /trnsf/ 80 transfer v /trnsf/ 40 transparent /trntsprənt/ 41

unconventional /ˌnkənventʃənəl/ 8 under the weather 49

utterly /təli/ 51 vacation /vəkeʃən/ 101 valley /vli/ 23

undercooked /ˌndəkυkt/ 22, 71

vast /vɑst/ 29, 51

transport n /trnspɔt/ 83, 80 transport v /trnspɔt/ 72, 80

underdone /ˌndədn/ 22 underfoot /ˌndəfυt/ 59 undergraduate 15

VAT /ˌvi e ti/ 40 vegan /viən/ 22 vegetables /vedtəbəlz/ 80

underground /ndəraυnd/ 101 underpants /ndəpnts/ 84, 101

vegetarian /ˌvedteəriən/ 42 vehicle /vəkəl/ 99 velocity /vlɒsəti/ 58 venue /venju/ 20 verdict /vdkt/ 39 very (time/moment) 61

trash /trʃ/ 101 travel /trvəl/ 31, 58 treat /trit/ 29 tremble /trembəl/ 28, 47 trespasser /trespəsə/ 99 trial /traəl/ 39 triangle 52 triangular /traŋjələ/ 52 tributary /trbjətəri/ 23 trip /trp/ 12, 31 trivial /trviəl/ 41 trivialise /trviəlaz/ 41 trophy /trəυfi/ 18

undershirt /ndəʃt/ 101 underused /ˌndəjuzd/ 71 underworked /ˌndəwkt/ 71 undo /ndu/ 34, 71 undress /ndres/ 71 unfair /nfeə/ 71 unfold /nfəυld/ 71 unfriend /ˌnfrend/ 2, 10 uni /juni/ 78 union representative /junjən

vest /vest/ 101 vet /vet/ 96 victim /vktm/ 13, 39 view /vju/ 36, 42, 66, 93 viewer /vjuə/ 20 villa /vlə/ 11 violinist /vaəlnst/ 70 virtual reality /vtʃuəl riləti/ 35 virus /vaərəs/ 28, 34 vision /vən/ 29 vitamin /vtəmn/ 30

tropical ?trɒp?kəl 6 tropical storm /trɒpkəl stɔm/ 13 trousers /traυzəz/ 84, 101 truck /trk/ 101 trunk /trŋk/ 26, 101

ˌreprzentətv/ 16 unique /junik/ 32

trunks /trŋks/ 84

unlock /nlɒk/ 71 unnatural /nntʃərəl/ 71 unprincipled /nprntsəpəld/ 8 unripe /nrap/ 22 unskilled worker /nskld wkə/ 16 unspoilt /nspɔlt/ 32

vivid /vvd/ 41, 59 VLE 14

tune /tʃun/ 21 turbulence 31

untidy-looking /ntadi lυkŋ/ 7 untie /nta/ 71 until /əntl/ 95

volcano /vɒlkenəυ/ 13, 23 vote /vəυt/ 38

Turk /tk/ 5 turn down /tn daυn/ 94 turn out /tn aυt/ 94

unusually (strong) /njuəli/ 41 unveil /nvel/ 71 unwrap /nrp/ 71

turn up /tn p/ 94 turning point 50

unzip /nzp/ 71

trustworthy /trstˌwði/ 8 try /tra/ 39 try on /tra ɒn/ 27 tub /tb/ 88 tube /tʃub/ 86, 88, 96 tuition fee 15

278

turnover /tnˌəυvə/ 76 tutor /tʃutə/ 15 tutorial /tʃutɔriəl/ 15 tweet /twit/ 37, 81 tweezers /twizəz/ 84 twig /tw/ 26 twinkle /twŋkəl/ 56 twist /twst/ 12

university /ˌjunvsəti/ 14, 25 unless /ənles/ 62 unload /nləυd/ 71

up and down /ˌpənddaυn/ 77

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

V-neck /vinek/ 27 voice mail /vɔsmel/ 75 voice technology /vɔs teknɒlədi/ 33

vow /vaυ/ 100 voyage /vɔjd/ 31 waist /west/ 82 waistcoat /westkəυt/ 101 wait /wet/ 82 walkout /wɔkaυt/ 76

wander /wɒndə/ 80 war /wɔ 13, 89 wardrobe /wɔdrəυb/ 101

wheelchair /wiltʃeə/ 28 wheeze /wiz/ 81 When! /wen/ 22

warm-hearted /ˌwɔmhɑtd/ 74 warmth /wɔmpθ/ 73 wash /wɒʃ/ 101

whereabouts /ˌweərəbaυts/ 84 wherever /weərevə/ 62 whether /weðə/ 82 whichever /wtʃevə/ 62 whine /wan/ 82 whiskers /wskəz/ 26 whisper /wspə/ 45 whistle /wsəl/ 80, 81 white /wat/ 7 whizz /wz/ 81

wash up /ˌwɒʃ p/ 101 washable /wɒʃəbəl/ 70 waste /west/ 24, 82 water /wɔtə/ 80 water pollution /wɔtə pəluʃən/ 24 waterfall /wɔtəfɔl/ 23 wavy /wevi/ 7 wavy-haired /wevi heəd/ 74 way out /ˌweaυt/ 66 (a) way with 48 WC /ˌdbəljusi/ 101 weak /wik/ 41, 82 weakness /wiknəs/ 70, 73 wealth /welθ/ 83 weather /weðə/ 82, 83 weather forecast /weðə fɔkɑst/ 37 (the) Web 35 webcam /webkm/ 35 website /websat/ 35 wed /wed/ 100 week /wik/ 82 weight /wet/ 59, 82 weird /wəd/ 8, 42 welfare state /welfeə stet/ 75 well /wel/ 67 well-built /ˌwelblt/ 7 well-dressed /wel drest/ 7, 74 well-o /ˌwelɒf/ 74 whale /wel/ 26 what if 62 what’s more 65 what’s on (at) 20 wheel /wil/ 33

WHO /ˌdbəljuˌetʃəυ/ 78 whoever /huevə/ 62 wholemeal /həυlmil/ 30 wholly /həυli/ 51 wide /wad/ 54 widen /wadən/ 54 width /wtθ/ 54, 73 wi-fi /wafa/ 35

wood /wυd/ 83 woollen /wυlən/ 27 (a) word in edgeways 69 word-processing /wdˌprəυsesŋ/ 34 work /wk/ 12, 16, 85 work nine-to-five 16 work of art /ˌwk əv ɑt/ 19 work shis 16 workaholic /ˌwkəhɒlk/ 16 worked-up /wkt p/ 8 workout /wkaυt/ 76 workshop /wkʃɒp/ 14 world /wld/ 2 world’s worst 48 World Wide Web /wldwad web/ 35 world-famous /ˌwldfeməs/ 74 worldwide /ˌwldwad/ 24 worm /wm/ 26 worn-out /ˌwɔnaυt/ 74 would /wυd/ 80, 82 wound /wund/ 82 wounded /wundd/ 13 wound up /waυnd p/ 8

wiki /wki/ 35 win 2 wind /wand/ 82 wind /wnd/ 6, 82 winding /wandŋ/ 32 windscreen /wndskrin/ 75 windscreen wiper /wndskrin

wrap up (the discussion) /rp p/ 69 wrinkles /rŋkəlz/ 7 wrist 28 wrong end of the stick 69, 79

ˌwapə/ 75 windsurfing /wndsfŋ/ 18 wine /wan/ 82 wine and dine 77

X-ray /eksre/ 29 yacht /jɒt/ 30 yard /jɑd/ 101 yawn /jɔn/ 47

wing /wŋ/ 26 wink /wŋk/ 47 wireless /waələs/ 35 wisdom /wzdəm/ 73 witness /wtnəs/ 39, 46 womanhood /wυmənhυd/ 73 womb /wum/ 80

yawning (gap) /jɔnŋ/ 64 yearn for /jn fɔ/ 44 you know /jənəυ/ 67 you see /jəsi/ 67 youth hostel /juθ hɒstəl/ 25, 32, 75 zebra crossing /zebrə krɒsŋ/ 101 zip /zp/ 27

English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate

279

Acknowledgements The authors & publishers acknowledge the following sources of copyright material & are grateful for the permissions granted. While every eort has been made, it has not always been possible to identify the sources of all the material used, or to trace all copyright holders. If any omissions are brought to our notice, we will be happy to include the appropriate acknowledgements on reprinting & in the next update to the digital edition, as applicable. The publishers are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright photographs & material. Key: B = Below, BL = Below Le, BR = Below Right, BC = Below Centre, C = Centre, CL = Centre Le, CR = Centre Right, L = Le, R = Right, T = Top, TR = Top Right, TL = Top Le. Photographs All the photographs are sourced from GettyImages. p. 15: M G Therin Weise/Photographer’s Choice RF; p. 18 (TL): Anton Petrus/ Moment; p. 18 (TR): Adam Burton/AWL Images; p. 18 (BL): Dave Reede/All Canada Photos; p. 18 (BR): Luca OrsiniEyeEm/EyeEm; p. 18 (Ex 6.b): Marco Simoni/AWL Images; p. 19 (Ex 6.2.1): Gary Williams/Hulton Archive; p. 19 (Ex 6.2.2): Je J Mitchell/Getty Images News; p. 19 (Ex 6.2.3): Martin Barraud/Caiaimage; p. 19 (Ex 6.2.4): Claver Carroll/Photolibrary; p. 20 (photo 1): Mike Harrington/Stone; p. 20 (photo 2): Dougal Waters/ DigitalVision; p. 20 (photo 3), p. 152 & p. 184 (B): Jose Luis Pelaez Inc/Blend Images; p. 20 (photo 4): PhotoAlto/Frederic Cirou/PhotoAlto Agency RF Collections; p. 20 (photo 5): Nick Dolding/Stone; p. 20 (photo 6): J Shepherd/Photographer’s Choice RF; p. 20 (photo 7): Glowimages; p. 20 (photo 8): PhotoAlto/Odilon Dimier/PhotoAlto Agency RF Collections; p. 28 (photo 1) & p. 61 (Ex 27.4.5): Image Source; p. 28 (photo 2): Ralph125/ iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 28 (photo 3): georgeclerk/E+; p. 28 (photo 4): pamspix/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 30 (photo 1): Rubberball/Mike Kemp/ Brand X Pictures; p. 30 (photo 2): photo division/Radius Images; p. 30 (photo 3): Jupiterimages/PHOTOS.com/Getty Images Plus; p. 30 (photo 4): OutSaider/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 32 (earthquake): VCGStringer/Getty Images News; p. 32 (flood): Christopher Furlong/Getty Images News; p. 32 (drought): Chris SternEyeEm/EyeEm; p. 32 (volcano): Sebastián Crespo Photography/Moment; p. 34 (T), p. 116 (T) & p. 168 (BC): Chris Ryan/OJO+; p. 34 (B): Echo/Juice Images; p. 36 (BL): asiseeit/E+; p. 36 (BC), p. 44 (BR), p. 60 (badge), p. 60 (slippers) & p. 63 (Ex 28.4.c): Peter Dazeley/ Photographer’s Choice; p. 36 (BR): Compassionate Eye Foundation/Martin Barraud/Taxi; p. 36 (TL): Tony Shi Photography/Moment; p. 36 (T) & p. 100 (T): ullstein bild; p. 36 (TR) & p. 130: monkeybusinessimages/iStock/Getty Images Plus; p. 39 (Ex 16.4.1): Cultura RM Exclusive/Tim MacPherson/ Cultura Exclusive; p. 39 (Ex 16.4.2): Michael Kelley/Stone; p. 39 (Ex 16.4.3): Wavebreakmedia Ltd/Wavebreak MediaGetty Images Plus; p. 39 (Ex 16.4.4): simazoran/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 39 (Ex 16.4.5): gzorgz/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 39 (Ex 16.4.6): Erik Dreyer/Stone; p. 40: Caiaimage/Chris Cross; p. 44 (T): pagadesign/E+; p. 44 (BL): James Darell/DigitalVision; p. 45 (Ex 19.2.1): DEAA. DAGLI ORTI/De Agostini Picture Library; p. 45 (Ex 19.2.2): mitza/E+; p. 45 (Ex 19.2.3): Don Farrall/DigitalVision; p. 45 (Ex 19.2.4): akaplummer/E+; p. 46: Jupiterimages/Photolibrary; p. 48 (T): fmajor/E+; p. 48 (B): PeopleImages/E+; p. 49: Yuri Arcurs; p. 50: Bloomberg/Bloomberg; p. 54: Marcaux/Photographer’s Choice RF; p. 56: Richard Cumminsrobertharding/robertharding; p. 57: Ruth Tomlinson/robertharding/robertharding; p. 58 (frog): Gerhard Schulz/Photographer’s Choice; p. 58 (owl): Les Stocker/Oxford Scientific; p. 58 (whale): Fleetham Dave/Perspectives; p. 58 (fox): Life On White/Photographer’s Choice; p. 58 (snail): Iride PierettiEyeEm/EyeEm; p. 58 (shark): DEAC. RIVES/De Agostini; p. 58 (crab): David Bishop Inc./Photolibrary; p. 58 (bat): Panoramic Images/Panoramic Images; p. 58 (pigeon): Life On White/Stockbyte; p. 58 (worm) & p. 209 (torch): Dorling Kindersley; p. 58 (peacock): cynoclub/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 58 (deer): Per-Gunnar Ostby/Oxford Scientific; p. 58 (seal), p. 168 (cow), p. 168 (bird) & p. 169 (goat): GlobalP/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 59 (tulip): Cora Niele/Photolibrary; p. 59 (maple leaf): mihalec/iStock/Getty Images Plus; p. 59 (pyjama): madtwinsis/E+; p. 60 (bikini): Creative Crop/Photodisc; p. 60 (bra): Kai_Wong/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 60 (belt) & p. 177 (paper): Andy Crawford/Dorling Kindersley; p. 60 (shoe): Sjo/E+; p. 60 (zip): prmustafa/ iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 60 (helmet): Vincenzo Lombardo/Photographer’s Choice RF; p. 60 (hoodie): Jitalia17/E+; p. 60 (pinstriped): ClaudioVentrella/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 60 (spotted): Howard Shooter/ Dorling Kindersley; p. 60 (plain): NaokiKim/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 60 (striped): Malsveta/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 60 (checked): hudiemm/E+; p. 60 (flowery): monaMonash/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 60 (tartan): Steve Gorton/Dorling Kindersley; p. 61 (Ex 27.4.1): Michael Blann/Stone; p. 61 (Ex 27.4.2): BJIBlue Jean Images; p. 61 (Ex 27.4.3): PhotoGraphyKM/E+; p. 61 (Ex 27.4.4): Creativeye99/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 63 (Ex 28.4.a): PetarSet/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 63 (Ex 28.4.b): Richard Ross/The Image Bank; p. 63 (Ex 28.4.d): robeo/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 63 (Ex 28.4.e):

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Pedro antonio Salaverría calahorra/HemeraGetty Images Plus; p. 63 (Ex 28.4.f): ironstealth/iStock/Getty Images Plus; p. 64 (photo 1): thumb/ iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 64 (photo 2): albert mollon/Moment; p. 64 (photo 3): RichLegg/E+; p. 64 (photo 4): David S. Holloway/Getty Images News; p. 64 (photo 5): Ociacia/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 65 (Ex 29.3.1): AndreyPopov/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 65 (Ex 29.3.2): Tetra Images; p. 65 (Ex 29.3.3): Marcin Smirnow/HemeraGetty Images Plus; p. 65 (Ex 29.3.4): deepblue4you/E+; p. 65 (Ex 29.3.6): stevedangers/E+; p. 66: Daniel Hurst Photography/Moment; p. 70 (T): wweagle/E+; p. 70 (B): Rickson Liebano/ Moment; p. 72 (smartphone): UmbertoPantalone/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 72 (tablet): Jerey Coolidge/DigitalVision; p. 72 (television): AndrewJohnson/iStock/Getty Images Plus; p. 72 (camcorder): lleerogers/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 72 (satnav): Tony Cordoza/Photographer’s Choice RF; p. 72 (photo frame): petekarici/iStock/Getty Images Plus; p. 74: NKS_Imagery/E+; p. 75 (scanner): JackF/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 75 (spreadsheet): jasantiso/E+; p. 75 (laptop): scanrail/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 75 (memory stick): Krasyuk/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 75 (computer): f9photos/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 75 (delete icon): ARNICAart/iStock/ Getty Images Plus; p. 75 (cursor): srdjan111/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 75 (tablet): Oleksiy Maksymenko/All Canada Photos; p. 75 (microchip): grafvision/iStock/Getty Images Plus; p. 76 (T): apostol_8/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 76 (B): Datacra Co Ltd; p. 78 (T): xavierarnau/E+; p. 78 (B): Patricia Doyle/Photographer’s Choice; p. 82 (T): kropic/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 82 (B): Laurie Noble/The Image Bank; p. 88 (TL): SKrow/E+; p. 88 (TR): nabihariahi/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 88 (BL): Tim Ridley/Dorling Kindersley; p. 88 (BR): habrda/iStockGetty Images Plus; p. 94: Westend61; p. 100 (TL): Nico Hermann; p. 100 (TR): shorrocks/E+; p. 100 (wink): Purestock; p. 100 (grin): John Harrelson/Getty Images Sport; p. 100 (sweat): JEWEL SAMAD/AFP; p. 100 (frown): Rainer Holz/Westend61; p. 100 (shiver): PhotoObjects.net/PhotoObjects.net/Getty Images Plus; p. 101 (blushing): Tuan Tran/Moment; p. 101 (snoring): Rubberball/Mike Kemp; p. 101 (sneezing): Bernhard Lang/The Image Bank; p. 101 (yawning): Terry Vine/ Blend Images; p. 101 (winking): Fabrice LEROUGE/ONOKY; p. 103 (Ex 48.1.1): Bambu Productions/Iconica; p. 103 (Ex 48.1.2): Durkin Photography/ Moment; p. 103 (Ex 48.1.3): Sergey_Peterman/iStock/Getty Images Plus; p. 103 (Ex 48.1.4): Carl Pendle/Photographer’s Choice; p. 103 (Ex 48.1.5): Jamie Grill/The Image Bank; p. 104 (T): Colin Hawkins/Cultura; p. 104 (C): K-King Photography Media Co. Ltd/DigitalVision; p. 104 (B): Kevin Mackintosh/The Image Bank; p. 116 (B): DNY59/E+; p. 118: ansonsaw/ E+; p. 120 (T): Johan Mrd/Folio; p. 120 (B): Ikonoklast_Fotografie/iStock/ Getty Images Plus; p. 124 (TL): Klaus Tiedge/Blend Images; p. 124 (TR): Herve Gyssels/Photononstop; p. 124 (BL): Sjo/iStock/Getty Images Plus; p. 124 (BR): Gary John Norman/The Image Bank; p. 136: Atsushi Yamada/ Taxi Japan; p. 137 (Ex 65.4.1): Paolo_Toanin/iStock/Getty Images Plus; p. 137 (Ex 65.4.2): Michele Constantini/PhotoAlto Agency RF Collections; p. 137 (Ex 65.4.3): Dave King/Dorling Kindersley; p. 137 (Ex 65.4.4): ZenShui/ Michele Constantini/PhotoAlto Agency RF Collections; p. 138: asiseeit/ iStock/Getty Images Plus; p. 141: RuslanDashinsky/E+; p. 143: g-stockstudio/iStock/Getty Images Plus; p. 147 (stapler): Ryan McVay/Photodisc; p. 147 (hanger): Spiderstock/E+; p. 147 (sharpner) & p. 209 (sellotape): stockcam/E+; p. 147 (projector): elfinima/E+; p. 147 (tin opener): joakimbkk/ E+; p. 168 (cat): DEA/D. ROBOTTI/De Agostini; p. 168 (lion): Michael Duva/ The Image Bank; p. 168 (bee): Geo Brightling/Dorling Kindersley; p. 168 (BL): DreamPictures/The Image Bank; p. 168 (BR): Jo Lee/Photolibrary; p. 169 (chicken): Burazin/Photographer’s Choice; p. 169 (snake): Simon Murrell/Cultura; p. 172 (luggage): Howard Kingsnorth/The Image Bank; p. 172 (accommodation): Tobias Titz; p. 172 (money): SEBASTIAN KAULITZKI/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY/Science Photo Library; p. 172 (information): goldhafen/E+; p. 172 (transport): John Snelling/Photolibrary; p. 177 (cake): mvp64/iStock/Getty Images Plus; p. 177 (iron): indigolotos/ iStock/Getty Images Plus; p. 177 (pepper): Floortje/E+; p. 177 (chocolates): Ian O’Leary/Dorling Kindersley; p. 177 (rubber): kemie/E+; p. 177 (glass): Steve Wisbauer/Stockbyte; p. 184 (T): Blend Images - KidStock/Brand X Pictures; p. 189: Nick David/Taxi; p. 195: Emma Innocenti/Photodisc; p. 199: kadmy/iStock/Getty Images Plus; p. 200 (bat): Ewen Charlton/Moment; p. 200 (rake): ZargonDesign/E+; p. 200 (hay): Nigel Pavitt/AWL Images; p. 200 (mouse): Andreas Von Einsiedel/Dorling Kindersley; p. 209 (wardrobe): photobac/iStock/Getty Images Plus; p. 209 (curtains): Ben Richardson/ Photonica; p. 209 (lorry): vitpho/iStock/Getty Images Plus; p. 209 (li): Bernard Jaubert/Photographer’s Choice RF; p. 209 (vest): SanneBerg/ iStock/Getty Images Plus; p. 209 (baby): dml5050/iStock/Getty Images Plus. Illustrations Pablo Gallego (Beehive Illustration), John Goodwin (Eye Candy Illustration), John Lund (Beehive Illustration), Katie Mac (NB Illustration), Martina (KJA Artists), Miguel Diaz Rivas (Advocate Art), Norbert Sipos (Beehive Illustration), Kate Charlesworth, Amanda MacPhail and Vicky Woodgate. Designed and typeset by QBS.

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