Geometry terms and definitions (2022)

What is Geometry?

Geometry is the branch of mathematics that deals with shapes, angles, dimensions and sizes of a variety of things we see in everyday life. In other words, Geometry is the study of different types of shapes, figures and sizes in Maths or real life. We get to learn about a lot many things in geometry such as lines, angles, transformations, symmetries and similarities. Due to its vast coverage, there are so many terms in geometry that often we need to refer to various books for the same. How about organising all the important terms in geometry in one place? Let us list down some important terms and definitions in geometry

Below is the list containing some important terms and definitions in geometry along with their graphical representations –

Point and Lines

Point

A point is an exact location in space. It has no dimensions.

Geometry terms and definitions (1)

Line

A line is a collection of points along a straight path that extends endlessly in both directions.

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Line Segment

A line segment is a part of a line having two endpoints.

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The length of this line segment will be denoted as AB.

Ray

A ray is a part of the line segment that has only one endpoint.

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The above ray will be read as ray CD. It is important to note here that the endpoint of the ray is always the first letter.

Parallel Lines

Parallel lines are the lines that do not intersect or meet each other at any point in a plane. They are always parallel and are equidistant from each other. Parallel lines are non-intersecting lines. Symbolically, two parallel lines l and m are written as l || m.

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Perpendicular Lines

Perpendicular lines are formed when two lines meet each other at the right angle or 90 degrees. Below if we have an example of perpendicular lines, where AB ⊥ XY

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Intersecting Lines

Two or more lines that share exactly one common point are called intersecting lines. This common point exists on all these lines and is called the point of intersection.

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Transversal

A transversal is defined as a line intersecting two or more given lines in a plane at different points.

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Angles

When two rays combine with a common endpoint and the angle is formed.

Parts of an Angle

Vertex – Vertex is the point where the arms meet.

Arms – Arms are the two straight line segments from a vertex.

Angle – If a ray is rotated about its endpoint, the measure of its rotation is called the angle between its initial and final position.

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Right Angle

An angle whose measure is ninety degrees (90°) is known as a right angle and it is larger than an acute angle. In other words, when the arms of the angle are perpendicular to each other they form a right angle.

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Acute Angle

An angle whose measure is more than zero degrees 0° and less than ninety degrees 90° is known as an acute angle.

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Obtuse Angle

An angle whose measure is more than ninety degrees (90°) and less than one hundred and eighty degrees (180°) is called the obtuse angle. An obtuse angle measures between ninety degrees (90°) to one hundred and eighty degrees (180°).

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Straight angle

The angle if the arms of the angle are in an opposite direction to each other is known as the straight angle. In other words, the type of angle that measures 180 degrees (180°) is called a straight angle.

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Reflex angle

An angle whose measure is more than one hundred and eighty degrees (180°) and less than three hundred and sixty degrees (360°) is called the reflex angle.

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Complete Angle

If both the arms of the angle overlap each other then they form an angle that measures three hundred and sixty degrees is known as a complete angle. In other words, the type of angle that measures or equals to three hundred and sixty degrees (360°) is known as a complete angle.

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Complementary angles

When the sum of two angles is 90°, then the angles are known as complementary angles. In other words, if two angles add up to form a right angle, then these angles are referred to as complementary angles.

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Supplementary Angles

When the sum of two angles is 180°, then the angles are known as supplementary angles. In other words, if two angles add up, to form a straight angle, then those angles are referred to as supplementary angles.

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Triangles

The word triangle is made from two words – “tri” which means three and “angle”. Hence, a triangle can be defined as a closed figure that has three vertices, three sides, and three angles. The following figure illustrates a triangle ABC –

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Triangles Based on Sides

Scalene Triangle

A triangle is said to be a scalene triangle if none of its sides is equal. If none of the sides is equal, then the angles are not equal to each other.

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Isosceles Triangle

A triangle is said to be an Isosceles triangle if its two sides are equal. If two sides are equal, then the angles opposite to these sides are also equal.

For example, in the following triangle, AB = AC. Therefore ∆ABC is an Isosceles triangle.

∠B = ∠C

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Equilateral Triangle

A triangle is said to be an equilateral triangle if all its sides are equal. Also, if all the three sides are equal in a triangle, the three angles are equal.

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Triangles Based on Angles

Acute Angled Triangle

An acute triangle is a triangle whose all three interior angles are acute. In other words, if all interior angles are less than 90 degrees, then it is an acute-angled triangle.

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Right Angled Triangle

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A triangle is said to be a right angled triangle if one of the angles of the triangle is a right angle, i.e. 90o. Suppose, we have a triangle, ABC where △ABC = 90o. Then such a triangle is called a right angled triangle which would be of a shape similar to the below figure.

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Obtuse Angled Triangle

Obtuse triangles are those in which one of the three interior angles has a measure greater than 90 degrees. In other words, if one of the angles in a triangle is an obtuse angle, then the triangle is called an obtuse-angled triangle.

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Circle

Circular Region – The part of the circle that consists of the circle and its interior is called the circular region.

Chord of a Circle – A line segment joining any two points on a circle is called a chord of the circle.

Circumference of a Circle – The perimeter of a circle is called the circumference of the circle. The ratio of the circumference of a circle and its diameter is always constant.

Concentric Circles – Circles having the same centre but with different radii are said to be concentric circles. Following is an example of concentric circles –

Arc of a Circle:An arc of a circle is referred to as a curve that is a part or portion of its circumference. Acute central angles will always produce minor arcs and small sectors. When the central angle formed by the two radii is 90o, the sector is called a quadrant because the total circle comprises four quadrants or fourths. When the two radii form a 180o or half the circle, the sector is called a semicircle and has a major arc.

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Segment in a Circle:The area enclosed by the chord and the corresponding arc in a circle is called a segment. There are two types of segments – minor segment, and major segment.

Sector of a Circle:The sector of a circle is defined as the area enclosed by two radii and the corresponding arc in a circle. There are two types of sectors, minor sector, and major sector.

2 – Dimensional Shapes

Vertex – The meeting point of a pair of sides of a polygon is called its vertex. For example, the shapes such as cube and cuboid are 3-dimensional shapes. For example, in the below figure, ABCD, the vertices are A, B, C and D.

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Side – The line joining two vertices is called a side. For example, in the above polygon, ABCD, AB is one of the sides of the polygon.

Adjacent Sides – Any two sides of a polygon having a common endpoint are called its adjacent sides. For example, in the given polygon ABCD, the four adjacent pairs of sides are ( AB, BC ), ( BC, CD ), ( CD, DA ) and ( DA, AB ).

Square

A square is a quadrilateral that has four equal sides and four right angles.

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Rectangle

A rectangle is a type of quadrilateral that has equal opposite sides and four right angles.

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Parallelogram

Aparallelogramis a quadrilateral in which both pairs of opposite sides are parallel.

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Trapezium

A trapezium is a quadrilateral in which one pair of opposite sides is parallel.

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Rhombus

A rhombus is a quadrilateral with four equal sides.

3 – Dimensional Shapes

3 Dimensional shapes or 3D shapes are the shapes that have all three dimensions, i.e. length, breadth and height. The room of a house is a common example of a 3 d shape. Let us understand some of these shapes in detail. Some common terms used to define the 3D shapes are –

Faces – A face refers to any single flat surface of a 3D shape.

Edges – An edge is a line segment on the boundary joining one vertex (corner point) to another. It is similar to the sides we have in 2D shapes.

Vertices – The meeting point of a pair of sides of a polygon is called its vertex.

Let us now understand some of the common 3D shapes –

Cuboid

A 3D shape having six rectangular faces is called a cuboid. Ex a matchbox, a brick, a book etc. In other words, it is an extension of a rectangle in a 3D plane.

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Below we have a general diagram of a cuboid

A cuboid has 6 rectangular faces, out of which the opposite sides are identical.

A cuboid has 12 eddges

A cuboid has 8 vertices

Cube

A cuboid whose length, breadth and height are equal is called a cube. Examples of a cube are sugar cubes, cheese cubes and ice cubes. In other words, it is an extension of a square in a 3D plane.

Below we have a general diagram of a cube

A cube has 6 rectangular faces, out of which all are identical.

A cube has 12 edges

A cube has 8 vertices

Cylinder

A cylinder is a solid with two congruent circles joined by a curved surface.

Below we have a general diagram of a Cylinder

A cylinder has one curved surface and two flat faces.

A cylinder has two curved edges.

A cylinder has no vertices.

Cone

A circular cone has a circular base that is connected by a curved surface to its vertex. A cone is called a right circular cone if the line from its vertex to the centre of the base is perpendicular to the base. An ice-cream cone is an example of a cone

Below we have a general diagram of a Cone

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A cone has one flat face and one curved surface.

A cone has one curved edge.

A cone has one vertex.

Sphere

A sphere is a solid formed by all those points in space that are at the same distance from a fixed point called the centre. In other words, it is an extension of a circle in a 3D plane.

Below we have a general diagram of a Sphere

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A cone has one curved surface.

A cone has no edge.

A cone has no vertex.

Prism

A prism is a solid whose side faces are parallelograms and whose ends (bases) are congruent parallel rectilinear figures. A prism is a polyhedron that has two congruent and parallel polygons as bases. The rest of the faces are rectangles.

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Base of a Prism – The end on which a prism may be supposed to stand is called the base of the prism.

Height of a Prism – The perpendicular distance between the ends of a prism is called the height of a prism.

Principal axis of a Prism – The straight line joining the centres of the ends of a prism is called the axis of the prism.

Length of a Prism – The length of a Prism is a portion of the axis that lies between the parallel ends.

Lateral faces – All faces other than the bases of a prism are called its lateral faces

Lateral edges – The lines of intersection of the lateral faces of a prism are called the lateral edges of a prism.

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Polyhedron

A solid shape bounded by polygons is called a polyhedron.

Rectangular Prism

A rectangular prism is a polyhedron with two congruent and parallel bases. Some of the real-life examples of a rectangular prism are rooms, notebooks, geometry boxes etc. Following is the general representation of a rectangular prism.

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Oblique Rectangular Prism

An oblique rectangular prism is a prism in which all the angles are not right angles. This means that a rectangular prism is a prism in which bases are not perpendicular to each other which is why it is called the oblique rectangular prism. In simple words, in an oblique rectangular prism, bases are not aligned one directly above the other. Following is the general representation of an oblique rectangular prism.

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Right Rectangular Prism

A prism with rectangular bases is called a rectangular prism. In other words, a rectangular prism in which bases are perpendicular to each other is called the right rectangular prism. Following is the general representation of a right rectangular prism.

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Right Triangular Prism – A right prism is called a right triangular prism if its ends are triangles. In other words, a triangular prism is called a right triangular prism if its lateral edges are perpendicular to its ends.

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Quadrilateral Prism

If the number of sides in the rectilinear figure forming the ends or the bases is 4, it is called a quadrilateral prism.

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Pentagonal Prism

If the number of sides in the rectilinear figure forming the ends or the bases is 5, it is called a pentagonal prism.

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Hexagonal Prism

If the number of sides in the rectilinear figure forming the ends or the bases is 6, it is called a hexagonal prism.

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Pyramid

A pyramid is a polyhedron whose base is a polygon of any number of sides and other faces are triangles with the common vertex if all corners of a polygon are joined to a point not lying in its plane we get a pyramid. In other words, a pyramid is a solid whose base is a plane rectilinear figure and whose side faces are triangles having a common vertex, called the vertex of the pyramid.

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Vertex – The common vertex of the triangular faces of a pyramid is called the vertex of the pyramid.

Height – The height of a pyramid is the length of the perpendicular from the vertex to the base. In other words, The length of the perpendicular drawn from the vertex of a pyramid to its base is called the height of the pyramid.

Axis – The axis of a pyramid is a straight line joining the vertex to the central point of the base.

Lateral edges – The edges through the vertex of a pyramid are known as its lateral edges.

Lateral faces – The side faces of a pyramid are known as its lateral faces.

Platonic Solids

A platonic solid is a polyhedron. It is interesting as well as surprising to know that there are exactly five platonic solids. These five platonic solids are tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, icosahedron, and dodecahedron.

Tetrahedron – Polyhedron or metallic solid whose faces are congruent equilateral Triangles is called the tetrahedron.

Octahedron – The platonic solid which has four equilateral triangles meeting at each vertex is known as the octahedron.

Dodecahedron – A platonic solid can have every face as a pentagon is known as a dodecahedron. In a Dodecahedron, three pentagons meet at every vertex.

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FAQs

What is the 10 geometric terms? ›

What are the basic terms of geometry? ›

Point, line, line segment, ray, right angle, acute angle, obtuse angle, and straight angle are common geometric terms.

What are some words in geometry that are hard to define? ›

There are, however, three words in geometry that are not formally defined. These words are point, line and plane, and are referred to as the "three undefined terms of geometry".

What are the 8 types of geometry? ›

For information on specific branches of geometry, see Euclidean geometry, analytic geometry, projective geometry, differential geometry, non-Euclidean geometries, and topology.

What are the 3 basic terms in geometry? ›

Answer: The basic geometrical concepts are dependent on three basic concepts. They are the point, line and plane.

What is a geometry word for J? ›

Jordan Curve - a simple closed curve. Jordan Matrix - a matrix whose diagonal elements are all equal (and nonzero) and whose elements above the principal diagonal are equal to 1, but all other elements are 0. Joule - a unit of energy or work. Julia Set - the set of all the points for a function of the form Z^2+C.

What is the most basic concept in geometry? ›

The most basic geometric idea is a point, which has no dimensions. A point is simply a location on the plane. It is represented by a dot.

What does ∆ mean in geometry? ›

Uppercase delta (Δ) at most times means “change” or “the change” in maths. Consider an example, in which a variable x stands for the movement of an object. So, “Δx” means “the change in movement.” Scientists make use of this mathematical meaning of delta in various branches of science.

What is the 3 undefined terms in geometry? ›

In geometry, point, line, and plane are considered undefined terms because they are only explained using examples and descriptions.

What is a math word that starts with Z? ›

Z-Intercept - the point at which a line crosses the z-axis. Zenith - the highest point, peak. Zero Divisors - nonzero elements of a ring whose product is 0. Zero Element - the element 0 is a zero element of a group if a+0=a and 0+a=a for all elements a.

What is a math word that starts with G? ›

Online Math Dictionary: G
gallongeodesic domeGeometry
Golden RatioGolden Rectanglegram
greater thangreatest common divisor

What geometry word starts with F? ›

List Of Words That Start With F. Face Angle - the plane angle formed by adjacent edges of a polygonal angle in space.

What are the 9 basic shapes? ›

9.1 Introduction
  • rectangles (rectangle, including optional rounded corners)
  • circles.
  • ellipses.
  • lines.
  • polylines.
  • polygons.
Apr 13, 2005

Who invented zero in world? ›

"Zero and its operation are first defined by [Hindu astronomer and mathematician] Brahmagupta in 628," said Gobets. He developed a symbol for zero: a dot underneath numbers.

What are the 5 basic shapes? ›

They have length and width, such as a circle, square, triangle, or rectangle. Three-dimensional (3D) shapes have length, width, and height. These include spheres, circular cylinders, cubes, and rectangular prisms.

What starts with AK in math? ›

Kilo means "a thousand of." A kilowatt is 1000 watts and is a unit of measure for electrical power. Kilo means "a thousand of." A kite is a quadrilateral that has two sets of adjacent sides that are the same length (congruent) and one set of opposites angles that are congruent.

What math term starts with E? ›

Math Words That Start With E ⭐ Equation, Element, Empty Set.

What geometry word starts with N? ›

Nonagon - a nine sided polygon. Nonagonal Number - a number of the form n(7n-5)/2.

How do you label shapes in geometry? ›

In a closed shape, such as in our example, mathematical convention states that the letters must always be in order in a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction. Our shape can be described 'ABCDE', but it would be incorrect to label the vertices so that the shape was 'ADBEC' for example.

What type of angle is 11? ›

acute angle-an angle between 0 and 90 degrees. right angle-an 90 degree angle. obtuse angle-an angle between 90 and 180 degrees.

How are lines represented and named? ›

A line has infinite length, zero width, and zero height. Any two points on the line name it. The symbol ↔ written on top of two letters is used to denote that line. A line may also be named by one small letter (Figure 2).

What does ≅ Mean in math? ›

≅ (mathematics) Approximately equal to.

What are the geometry symbols? ›

Geometry Symbol Chart
SymbolSymbol NameMeaning/definition of the Symbols
Δtriangletriangle shape
~similaritysame shapes, not the same size
πpi constantπ = 3.141592654… is the ratio between the circumference and diameter of a circle
|x–y|distancedistance between points x and y
13 more rows
Dec 19, 2020

What does ∧ mean in math? ›

∧ is (most often) the mathematical symbol for logical conjunction, which is equivalent to the AND operator you're used to. Similarly ∨ is (most often) logical disjunction, which would be equivalent to the OR operator.

Is a point a geometric term? ›

A point in geometry is a location. It has no size i.e. no width, no length and no depth. A point is shown by a dot.

What is geometry and examples? ›

The definition of geometry is a branch of math that focuses on the measurement and relationship of lines, angles, surfaces, solids and points. An example of geometry is the calculation of a triangle's angles.

What is geometric math? ›

Put even more simply, geometry is a type of math that deals with points, lines, shapes, and surfaces. When you hear “geometry,” thoughts of shapes, area, and volume probably come to mind—and that is precisely what geometry is! Geometry, just like algebra, is built on a mathematical ruleset.

What is the symbol in geometry? ›

Table of symbols in geometry:
SymbolSymbol NameMeaning / definition
congruent toequivalence of geometric shapes and size
~similaritysame shapes, not same size
Δtriangletriangle shape
|x-y|distancedistance between points x and y
19 more rows

If the sides and angles of one triangle are equal to the corresponding sides and angles of each other triangle.. The line has many points.. If three or more points are on a same line, then the points are called collinear points.. The angle bisector of any triangle is the line segment which bisects an angle of a triangle Here AD is the angle bisector of triangle ABC.anglebisector.GIF. This point is called intersection point or point of intersection. Take any two points on the circle.

equilateral triangle a triangle in which all three angles are equal in measure and all three sides have the same length.. isosceles triangle a triangle having two equal sides (and thus two equal angles across from those sides).. right angle an angle whose measure is equal to 90°.. tangent to a circle a line, line segment, or ray that touches a circle at one point (cannot go within the circle).. vertex the point at which two rays meet and form an angle, or the point at which two sides meet in a polygon.

Consider the following concept: Acute Alternate Interior Angles.. “Acute” in geometry describes an angle that measures less than 90 degrees, or is smaller than a “right angle”.. For instance, “interior angles” would mean “inside angles”.. In this example, if we were looking for Acute Alternate Interior Angles, we would see we are looking for Angles that are smaller than 90 degrees, create a pattern of “every other one”, are found on the inside of a plane that has more than four angles (because they are “inside of something”, which cannot be created with only two lines).. Plane: The bases for most geometry terms.. As in a line segment is a part of the line itself.

If A is an acute angle in a right angle triangle, then the cosine of A is defined as the length of the side adjacent to angle A, divided by the length of the hypotenuse of the triangle.. In a right angle triangle, the side of the triangle that is opposite to the right angle, is called the hypotenuse.. Side-angle-side (SAS) congruence states that if any two sides of a triangle are equal in length to two sides of another triangle, and the angles between each pair of sides have the same measure, then the two triangles are congruent; that is, they have the same shape and size.. If angle A is an acute angle in a right angle triangle, the sine of A is the length of the side opposite to angle A, divided by the length of the hypotenuse of the triangle.. If angle A is an acute angle in a right angle triangle, the tangent of A is the length of the side opposite to angle A, divided by the length of the side adjacent to angle A.

Two angles that are formed by two lines and a transversal and lie between the two lines on the same side of the transversal.. Exterior Angle Theorem The measure of an exterior angle is equal to the sum of the measures of the two remote interior angles.. That is, lines, a line segment and an angle in a coordinate plane.. Perpendicular Lines Lines that intersect to form right angles Point of Concurrency A point where three or more lines intersect.. SAS If two sides and the included angle of one triangle are congruent to the corresponding two sides and the included angle of another triangle, of the angle.. When exterior alternate angles are equal, parallelogram, we must consider the case that the line segments or rays were actually lines that extend infinitely in both directions.. Remote Interior Angle An interior angle that is not adjacent to a given exterior angle.. In geometry, line segments, the concept of a line is closely tied to the way the geometry is described.. Midpoint of Line Segment: The midpoint of a line segment divides the segment into TWO segments of equal length.. Perpendicular Line: Perpendicular lines are lines that meet or cross to form a right angle.. The definition of geometry is a branch of math that focuses on the measurement and relationship of lines, parallel lines, and astronomy and arithmetic from Phœnicia.. If a transversal intersects two lines such that corresponding angles are congruent, if two lines are intersected by a transversal such that interior angles on the same side of the transversal are supplementary, I face many students who are totally lost in terms of angles.. The pictures and geometry terms in geometry, though only have lines that results for example pictures to the centroid measure of angles will not intersect.. By two angles of course covers terms are equal measures and geometry definitions of our creative ways to measure angles of the same plane figure formed by these pictures.. This free online basic geometry course covers terms, lines, the parallel property of the lines may not be mentioned in the problem statement and the lines may seem to be parallel to each other; but they may be not.

All Around Symbol. Indicates that a tolerance applies to surfaces all around the part.. The symbol is placed above the dimension.. Is used to indicate that a dimension applies to the depth of a feature.. Also, a positional tolerance may be used to control the location of a spherical feature relative to other features of a part.. The symbol for spherical diameter precedes the size dimension of the feature and the positional tolerance value, to indicate a spherical tolerance zone.. A condition where an element of a surface or an axis is a straight line.

Datum Axis - the datum axis is the theoretically exact centerline of the datum cylinder as established by the extremities or contacting points of the actual datum feature cylindrical surface or the axis formed at the intersection of two datum planes.. ISO 1101. Datum Reference Plane - is a set of three mutually perpendicular datum planes or axis established from the simulated datum in contact with datum surfaces or features and used as a basis for dimensions for designs, manufacture, and inspection measurement.. Least Material Boundary (LMB) - This term implies that the condition of a datum feature of size wherein it contains the least (minimum) amount of material for the stated limits of size; examples, largest hole size and smallest shaft size.. Least Material Condition (LMC) - This term implies that the condition of a feature of size wherein it contains the least (minimum) amount of material for the stated limits of size; examples, largest hole size and smallest shaft size.. Least Material Size LMS - Condition a feature of size where the least amount of material is present for stated limits of size.. For shafts (external feature of size) LMVS = LMS - Geometrical Tolerance For hole (internal feature of size) LMVS = LMS + Geometrical Tolerance.. Maximum Material Boundary: (MMB) Maximum material condition is that condition of a part datum feature wherein it contains the maximum amount of material within the stated limits of size.. Maximum Material Condition: (MMC) Maximum material condition is that condition of a part feature wherein it contains the maximum amount of material within the stated limits of size.. Maximum Material Size MMS - Condition of a feature of size where the maximum amount of material is present for stated limits of size.. ISO 1101. Modifier - A modifier is the term used to describe the application of MMC, LMC Free State, Projected Tolerance Zone, or Common Feature modifiers to an applied tolerance or datum feature.. A modifier alters the applicability of the specified datum or feature by restricting the application to a specific condition and allowing a variable tolerance boundary under specific conditions. Nominal Size - The nominal size is the stated designation which is used for the purpose of general identification, examples: 1.400, .050 .. Regardless of Feature Size - (RFS) - This is the condition where the stated tolerance limits must be met irrespective of as built feature size or location.. Size Tolerance - A size tolerance states how far individual features may vary from the desired size.

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