Math Symbols | All Mathematical Symbols (2022)

Mathematical symbols are used to perform various operations. The symbols make it easier to refer Mathematical quantities. It is interesting to note that Mathematics is completely based on numbers and symbols. The math symbols not only refer to different quantities but also represent the relationship between two quantities. Allmathematical symbols are mainly used to perform mathematical operations under various concepts.

As we know, the full name of Maths is Mathematics. It is defined as the science of calculating, measuring, quantity, shape, and structure. It is based on logical thinking, numerical calculations, and the study of shapes. Algebra, trigonometry, geometry, and number theory are examples of mathematical dimensions, and the concept of Maths is purely dependent on numbers and symbols.

There are many symbols used in Maths that have some predefined values. To simplify the expressions, we can use those kinds of values instead of those symbols. Some of the examples are the pi symbol (π),which holds the value 22/7 or 3.14. The pi symbol is a mathematical constant which is defined as the ratio of circumference of a circle to its diameter. In Mathematics, pi symbol is also referred to as Archimedes constant. Also,e-symbol in Mathswhich holds the value e= 2.718281828….This symbol is known as e-constant or Euler’s constant. The table provided below has a list of all the common symbols in Maths with meaning and examples.

There are so many mathematical symbols that are very important to students. To understand this in an easier way, the list of mathematical symbols are noted here with definition and examples. There are numerous signs and symbols, ranging from the simple addition concept sign to the complex integration concept sign. Here, the list of mathematical symbols is provided in a tabular form, and those notations are categorized according to the concept.

List of Mathematical Symbols

  • Basic Math Symbols
  • Logic Symbols
  • Calculus and Analysis Symbols
  • Combinatorics Symbols
  • Greek Alphabets
  • Common Numeral Symbols
  • Importance
  • FAQs

Basic Mathematical Symbols With Name, Meaning and Examples

The basic mathematical symbols used in Maths help us to work with mathematical concepts in a theoretical manner. In simple words, without symbols, we cannot do maths. The mathematical signs and symbols are considered as representative of the value. The basic symbols in maths are used to express mathematical thoughts. The relationship between the sign and the value refers to the fundamental need of mathematics. With the help of symbols, certain concepts and ideas are clearly explained. Here is a list of commonly used mathematical symbols with names and meanings. Also, an example is provided to understand the usage of mathematical symbols.

SymbolSymbol Name in MathsMath Symbols MeaningExample
not equal signinequality10 ≠ 6
=equal signequality3 = 1 + 2
<strict inequalityless than7 < 10
>strict inequalitygreater than6 > 2
inequalityless than or equal tox ≤ y, means, y = x or y > x, but not vice-versa.
inequalitygreater than or equal toa ≥ b, means, a = b or a > b, but vice-versa does not hold true.
[ ]bracketscalculate expression inside first[ 2×5] + 7 = 10 + 7 = 17
( )parenthesescalculate expression inside first3 × (3 + 7) = 3× 10 = 30
minus signsubtraction5 − 2 = 3
+plus signaddition4 + 5 = 9
minus – plusboth minus and plus operations1 ∓ 4 = -3 and 5
±plus – minusboth plus and minus operations5 ± 3 = 8 and 2
×times signmultiplication4 × 3 = 12
*asteriskmultiplication2 * 3 = 6
÷division sign / obelusdivision15 ÷ 5 = 3
multiplication dotmultiplication2 ∙ 3 = 6
horizontal linedivision / fraction8/2 = 4
/division slashdivision6 ⁄ 2 = 3
modmoduloremainder calculation7 mod 3 = 1
abpowerexponent24= 16
.perioddecimal point, decimal separator4.36 = 4 +(36/100)
asquare root√a · √a = a√9 = ±3
a^bcaretexponent2 ^ 3 = 8
4√afourth root4√a·4√a·4√a·4√a = a4√16= ± 2
3√acube root3√a·3√a·3√a= a3√343 = 7
%percent1% = 1/10010% × 30 = 3
n√an-th root (radical)n√a·n√a···n times = afor n=3, n√8 = 2
ppmper-million1 ppm = 1/100000010ppm × 30 = 0.0003
per-mille1‰ = 1/1000 = 0.1%10‰ × 30 = 0.3
pptper-trillion1ppt = 10-1210ppt × 30 = 3×10-10
ppbper-billion1 ppb = 1/100000000010 ppb × 30 = 3×10-7

Maths Logic symbols With Meaning

SymbolSymbol Name in MathsMath Symbols MeaningExample
^caret / circumflexandx ^ y
·andandx · y
+plusorx + y
&ampersandandx & y
|vertical lineorx | y
reversed caretorx ∨ y
barnot – negation
x’single-quotenot – negationx’
!Exclamation marknot – negation! x
¬notnot – negation¬ x
~tildenegation~ x
circled plus / oplusexclusive or – xorx ⊕ y
equivalentif and only if (iff)p: this year has 366 days
q: this is a leap year
p ⇔ q
impliesImplicationp: a number is a multiple of 4

q: the number is even

p ⇒ q

Belong to/is an element ofSet membershipA = {1, 2, 3}
2 ∈ A
Not element ofNegation of set membershipA={1, 2, 3}
0 ∉ A
for allUniversal Quantifier2n is even ∀ n ∈ N

where N is a set of Natural Numbers

equivalentif and only if (iff)p: x is an even number

q: x is divisible by 2

(Video) Where do math symbols come from? - John David Walters

p ↔ q

there does not existNegation of existential quantifierb is not divisible by a, then ∄ n ∈ N such that b = na
there existsExistential quantifierb is divisible by a, then ∃ n ∈ N such that b = na
because / sinceBecause shorthanda = b, b = c

⇒ a = c (∵ a = b)

thereforeTherefore shorthand (Logical consequence)x + 6 = 10

∴ x = 4

Calculus and Analysis Symbol Names in Maths

In calculus, we have come across different math symbols. All mathematical symbols with names and meanings are provided here. Go through the all mathematical symbols used in calculus.

SymbolSymbol Name in MathsMath Symbols MeaningExample
εepsilonrepresents a very small number, near-zeroε → 0
limx→alimitlimit value of a functionlimx→a(3x+1)= 3 × a + 1 = 3a + 1
y derivativederivative – Lagrange’s notation(5x3)’ = 15x2
ee constant / Euler’s numbere = 2.718281828…e = lim (1+1/x)x , x→∞
y(n)nth derivativen times derivationnth derivative of 3xn = 3 n (n-1)(n-2)….(2)(1)= 3n!
y”second derivativederivative of derivative(4x3)” = 24x

\(\begin{array}{l}\frac{d^2 y}{d x^2}\end{array} \)

second derivativederivative of derivative

\(\begin{array}{l}\frac{d^2 }{d x^2}(6x^{3}+x^{2}+3x+1) = 36x + 1\end{array} \)

dy/dxderivativederivative – Leibniz’s notation

\(\begin{array}{l}\frac{d }{d x}(5x) = 5\end{array} \)

\(\begin{array}{l}\frac{d^n y}{d x^n}\end{array} \)

nth derivativen times derivation

\(\begin{array}{l}\frac{d^{n}x}{dx^{n}}(x^{n})=n!\end{array} \)

\(\begin{array}{l}\ddot{y}= \frac{d^{2} y}{dt^{2}}\end{array} \)

Second derivative of timederivative of derivativeIf y = 4t2, then

\(\begin{array}{l}\ddot{y}= \frac{d^{2}y}{dt^{2}}=4\frac{d^{2}}{dt^{2}}(t^{2})=8\end{array} \)

(Video) List of Mathematical Symbols in English | MATH Symbols Vocabulary Words

\(\begin{array}{l}\dot{y}\end{array} \)

Single derivative of timederivative by time – Newton’s notationy = 5t, then

\(\begin{array}{l}\dot{y}= \frac{dy}{dt}=5\frac{d}{dt}(t)=5\end{array} \)

D2xsecond derivativederivative of derivativey” + 2y + 1 = 0

⇒ D2y + 2Dy + 1 = 0

Dxderivativederivative – Euler’s notationdy/x – 1 = 0

⇒ Dy – 1 = 0

integralopposite to derivation∫xn dx = xn + 1/n + 1 + C

\(\begin{array}{l}\frac{\partial f(x,y)}{\partial x}\end{array} \)

partial derivativeDifferentiating a function with respect to one variable considering the other variables as constant∂(x2+y2)/∂x = 2x
triple integralintegration of the function of 3 variables

\(\begin{array}{l}\int_{1}^{2}\int_{2}^{3} \int_{0}^{1}(xyz) \:dz\;dx\;dy\end{array} \)

double integralintegration of the function of 2 variables∬(x3+y3)dx dy
closed surface integralDouble integral over a closed surfaceV (⛛.F)dV = ∯S (F.n̂) dS
closed contour / line integralLine integral over closed curveC 2/z dz
[a,b]closed interval[a,b] = {x | a ≤ x ≤ b}sin x ∈ [ – 1, 1]
closed volume integralVolume integral over a closed three-dimensional domain∰ (x2 + y2 + z2) dx dy dz
(a,b)open interval(a,b) = {x | a < x < b}f is continuous within (0, 1)
z*complex conjugatez = a+bi → z*=a-biIf z = 3 + 2i then z* = 3 – 2i
iimaginary uniti ≡ √-1z = 3 + 2i
nabla / delgradient / divergence operator∇f (x,y,z)

\(\begin{array}{l}\vec{x}\end{array} \)

vectorA quantity with magnitude and direction

\(\begin{array}{l}\overrightarrow{V}= x\hat{i}+y\hat{j}+z\hat{k}\end{array} \)

x * yconvolutionModification in a function due to the other function.y(t) = x(t) * h(t)
lemniscateinfinity symbol3x ≥ 0; x ∈ (0, ∞)
δdelta functionDirac Delta function

\(\begin{array}{l}\delta(x)=\left\{\begin{matrix}0 & if\:x\neq0 \\ \infty& if\:x=0 \\\end{matrix}\right. \end{array} \)

  • Algebra Symbols
  • Geometry Symbols
  • Probability and Statistics Symbols
  • Set Theory Symbols

Combinatorics Symbols Used in Maths

The different Combinatorics symbols used in maths concern the study of the combination of finite discrete structures. Some of the most important combinatorics symbols used in maths are as follows:

(Video) Maths Symbols | Learn Basic Math Symbols | Symbol | 2018 |


Symbol Name

Meaning or Definition



\(\begin{array}{l}^{n}P_{k}= \frac{n!}{(n-k)!}\end{array} \)

\(\begin{array}{l}^{5}P_{3}= \frac{5!}{(5-3)!} = 60\end{array} \)

n!Factorialn! = 1×2×3×…×n5! = 1×2×3×4×5 = 120

\(\begin{array}{l}^{n}C_{k}= \frac{n!}{k!(n-k)!} \end{array} \)

\(\begin{array}{l}^{5}C_{3}= \frac{5!}{3!(5-3)!}=10\end{array} \)

Greek Alphabet Letters Used in Maths

Mathematicians frequently use Greek alphabets in their work to represent the variables, constants, functions and so on. Some of the commonly used Greek symbols name in Maths are listed below:

Greek SymbolGreek Letter NameEnglish EquivalentPronunciation
Upper Case
Lower Case

Common Numeral Symbols Used in Maths

The roman numerals are used in many applications and can be seen in our real-life activities.The common numeral symbols used in Maths are as follows.

one hundred100C١٠٠ק

These are some of the most important and commonly used symbols in mathematics. It is important to get completely acquainted with all the maths symbols to be able to solve maths problems efficiently. It should be noted that without knowing maths symbols, it is extremely difficult to grasp certain concepts on a universal scale. Some of the key importance of maths symbols are summarized below.

(Video) Mathematics Symbols

Importance of Mathematical Symbols

  • Helps in denoting quantities
  • Establishes relationships between quantities
  • Helps to identify the type of operation
  • Makes reference easier
  • Maths symbols are universal and break the language barrier

Frequently Asked Questions on Math Symbols

What is the pi symbol in Maths?

The pi symbol is a mathematical constant, which is approximately equal to 3.14. The symbol of pi is π and it is a Greek alphabet. Pi is an irrational number which is defined as the ratio of circle circumference to its diameter.

What is e symbol in mathematics?

The “e” symbol in maths represents Euler’s number which is approximately equal to 2.71828…It is considered as one of the most important numbers in mathematics. It is an irrational number and it cannot be represented as a simple fraction

Write down the symbols for basic arithmetic operations.

The symbols for basic arithmetic operations are addition (+), subtraction (-), Multiplication (×), Division(÷).

Why do we use mathematical symbols?

Mathematics is a universal language and the basics of maths are the same everywhere in the universe. Mathematical symbols play a major role in this. The definition and the value of the symbols are constant. For example, the Roman letter X represents the value 10 everywhere around us.

Mention the logic symbols in maths.

The logic symbols in maths are:
AND (^)
OR (∨)
NOT (¬)
Implies (⇒)
Equivalent (⇔)
For all (∀)
There exists (∃)

(Video) Learn French Mathematical Symbols/Les symboles mathématiques

Keep visiting BYJU’S – The Learning App to get more such maths topics and concepts. Also, register at BYJU’S and download the app to access various video lessons and practice tests on different maths topics.


How many symbols are there in mathematics? ›

Using symbols to represent information makes it easier to understand mathematical expressions. We have at least 10,000+ symbols and there are some that we rarely use.

What are the 4 mathematical symbols? ›

Basic Maths Symbols
  • + plus sign / addition sign.
  • - minus sign / subtraction sign.
  • × times sign / multiplication sign.
  • ÷ OR / division sign.
  • = equals sign.
  • < less than.
  • > greater than.
  • ≠ NOT equal to.

What does this symbol mean in math ∼? ›

"∼" is one of many symbols, listed in the Wikipedia article on approximation, used to indicate that one number is approximately equal to another. Note that "approximately equal" is reflexive and symmetric but not transitive. "∼" is one of many symbols used in logic to indicate negation.

How do you read math symbols? ›

List of Mathematical Symbols in English - YouTube

What is a symbol in maths? ›

A mathematical symbol is a figure or a combination of figures that is used to represent a mathematical object, an action on mathematical objects, a relation between mathematical objects, or for structuring the other symbols that occur in a formula.

What is this symbol name? ›

This table contains special characters.
SymbolName of the symbolSimilar glyphs or concepts
&Ampersandplus sign
⟨ ⟩Angle bracketsBracket, Parenthesis, Greater-than sign, Less-than sign
' 'ApostropheQuotation mark, Guillemet, Prime, Grave
*AsteriskAsterism, Dagger
89 more rows

What is ≈ called? ›

The symbol ≈ means approximately equal to.

How do I use all symbols? ›

∀ This symbol means for all (or sometimes, for every). For example, “∀ squares D, D is a rectangle”. ∃ This symbol means there exists. For example, “∃ a horse”.

What are four sixes in maths? ›

Multiply six by four. You should already know parts of the 6 times table because they are parts of the 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 times tables. 4 x 6 = 24 5 x 6 = 30 10 x 6 = 60 Find out if you can remember them quickly and correctly.

What symbol means? ›

1. something used for or regarded as representing something else; a material object representing something, often something immaterial; emblem, token, or sign. 2. a letter, figure, or other character or mark or a combination of letters or the like used to designate something. the algebraic symbol x.

What does 3 mean? ›

The emoticon <3. means "Love." The characters < and 3 (which literally mean "less than three") form a picture of a heart on its side, which is used as an emoticon, meaning "love." For example: Sam: <3. Ali: <3.

How do you say 10 2? ›

Exponents - Powers of Ten - YouTube

What is ≈ called? ›

The symbol ≈ means approximately equal to.

What is the meaning of * in maths? ›

The symbol * is used in spreadsheets and other computer applications to indicate a multiplication, although * does have other more complex meanings in mathematics. Less commonly, multiplication may also be symbolised by a dot . or indeed by no symbol at all.

What does € mean in math? ›

∈ (mathematics) means that it is an element in the set of… For eg... x ∈ ℕ denotes that x is within the set of natural numbers. The relation "is an element of", also called set membership, is denoted by the symbol "∈". Writing {\displaystyle x\in A} x\in A means that "x is an element of A".

What does 3 mean in math? ›

In mathematics, the number 3 represents a quantity or value of 3. The whole number between 2 and 4 is 3. The number name of 3 is three.

SymbolSymbol NameMeaning / definitionExample= equals sign equality5 = 2+35 is equal to 2+3≠not equal signinequality5 ≠ 45 is not equal to 4≈approximately equalapproximation sin (0.01) ≈ 0.01, x ≈ y means x is approximately equal to y >strict inequalitygreater than5 > 45 is greater than 4

With it, you can get all the math symbols and characters you want.. These are the steps you may use to insert these symbols in Word using the Insert Symbol dialog box.. Click to select the particular Math Characters you want to insert, then click on the Insert button.. Just like on Microsoft Word and Excel, you can use the Math Symbols alt code to type them into your PowerPoint document.. Select the particular Math Symbol you wish to insert and click on the Insert button.. These are the steps you need to be able to insert the Mathematical Symbols in Microsoft PowerPoint using the Insert symbol dialog.

∠AngleUsed to denote a corner of shape∠ACB of a triangle∡Measured AngleUsed to express the value of an angle∡ACB is 45°∟Right AngleSymbol used instead of ∠ when the angle is 90°∟ABC is 90°°Degree symbolMeasure of angle20°, 180°′primearcminute, 1° = 60′α = 60°59′″double primearcsecond, 1′ = 60″α = 60°59′59″Infinite lineThe line extends at both sides infinitelyLine segmentA line from point a to point brayA line that starts from a point and keeps on goingArcArc from point A to B⊥perpendicularLines that are 90 degree from a line ⊥∥parallelLines that are parallel to each other ∥≅congruent toDenotes that the shape and size of one is equal to another∆ABC≅ ∆XYZ~Similar toSimilarity by shape but not size∆ABC~ ∆XYZΔTriangletriangle shapeΔABC~ ΔBCD| x – y |distanceDistance between two points| x – y | = 3πpiRatio between circumference and diameterC=2 .. Here is the proper set of math symbols and notations.. SymbolNameMeaningExample{}setThe symbol that encapsulates the numbers of a setA = {3,7,9,14},B = {9,12,38}∩intersectionobjects that are common to two setsA ∩ B = {9,14}∪unionObjects of two setsA ∪ B = {3,7,9,14,28}⊆subsetThe contents of one set is derived from another{9,14,28} ⊆ {9,14,28}⊂proper subset / strict subsetA is a subset of B, but A is not equal to B.. {9,14,28} ⊃ {9,14}⊅not supersetset A is not a superset of set B{9,14,28} ⊅ {9,66}‘2 A’ power setall subsets of A=equalityboth sets have the same membersA={3,9,14},B={3,9,14},A=BA c complementall the objects that do not belong to set A‘A \ B’ or ‘A – B’relative complementobjects that belong to A and not to BA = {3,9,14},B = {1,2,3},A-B = {9,14}‘A ∆ B’ or ‘A ⊖ B’symmetric differenceobjects that belong to A or B but not to their intersectionA = {3,9,14},B = {1,2,3},A ∆ B = {1,2,9,14} a ∈AElements belongs toElement of ‘a’ belong to ‘A’A={3,9,14}, 3 ∈ A x ∉Anot element ofno set membershipA={3,9,14}, 1 ∉ A( a , b )ordered paircollection of 2 elementsA×Bcartesian productset of all ordered pairs from A and B‘|A|’ or ‘#A’cardinalitythe number of elements of set AA={3,9,14}, |A|=3|barSuch thatA={x|3

Ähnlich: \bullet .. Dies ist ein Synonym für \geq .. Dies ist ein Synonym für \ge .. Dies ist ein Synonym für \leq .. Dies ist ein Synonym für \le .. \sim ∼ Ähnlich, in einer Beziehung (Beziehung).. \simeq ≃ Ähnlich oder gleich, in einer Beziehung (Beziehung).. Ähnlich: \lhd .. Ähnlich: \emptyset .

Each year the Unicode standard grows to incorporate more characters - and emojis!. This is a perfect online website to have a keyboard that had keys which were for emojis.. Well, amongst these tens-of-thousands of other characters are actually whole character sets.. Of course, many of the above fonts aren't proper character sets.. Are Math Symbols actually "font"?. The font transforms the style of the characters.. This is the reason that you can't copy and paste the text you're reading right now into a social media website.. They can use this fancy word generator for Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, etc.. The Unicode font changer provides its valued users with the ability to copy and paste text, fancy letters and texts anywhere they want without any alterations or restrictions.. Reason to use Math Symbols This is a tool that your social media presence can be transformed completely and shown to the outer world with a completely new and different look.. Often more than not, people get tired of boring fonts and texts and they want something special to make their captions stand out.. Steps to generate and use Math Symbols.. Here are the steps to generate and use Math Symbols text: ☑ Step 1: Just enter the text from the keyboard on textbox under "Input your text here".. ☑ Step 2: Now it provides you with fancy style Math Symbols Text.. ☑ Step 3: Copy and paste Math Symbols text wherever you want.

Below is the comprehensive list of Greek symbols/characters/alphabets generally used for preparing a document using LaTex.. You can try testing these Greek symbol commands directly on our online LaTeX compiler for a better understanding.. The following table provides a comprehensive list/guide of Trigonometric functions along with their LaTeX command.. You can try testing these Trigonometric functions commands directly on our online LaTeX compiler for a better understanding.. The following table provides a comprehensive list/guide of mathematical Integral symbols using an appropriate example.. You can try testing these Integral symbol commands directly on our online LaTeX compiler for a better understanding.. Below is the miscellaneous list/guide of some commonly used symbols/command while preparing a document using LaTeX.. You can try testing these symbol commands directly on our online LaTeX compiler for a better understanding.. Below is the miscellaneous list/guide of some commonly used symbols/command while preparing a document using LaTeX.. You can try testing these symbol commands directly on our online LaTeX compiler for a better understanding.

Proper math writers support two kinds of math notations: Unicode characters (accessible to any computer) and LaTeX math symbols (which have their own syntax).. However, there are probably quite a few accessible combinations that you’ve never thought were there.. The good news is you can visually find what those are by using the Keyboard Viewer.. To learn all available keyboard shortcuts to help you type mathematics:. Now click Show Keyboard Viewer from the menu bar for an interactive keyboard to appear on your screen.. Because there are more than 100,000 various Unicode characters, it’s not possible to fit them all as keyboard shortcuts — you have to use Character Viewer instead, which works in any text editor, whether native to Mac or online.. To use any of the math symbols you find, simply make sure your text editor is active and then double click on the character to paste it in.. Knowing all available shortcuts for math symbols and having the rest saved as favorites in your Character Viewer should get you 50% of the way there when it comes to writing mathematical notation.. You can even switch into the drawing view and write your equation by hand, which would then be translated into typed math symbols.. For example, here’s a LaTex equation: E &= \frac{mc^2}{\sqrt{1-\frac{v^2}{c^2}}}. Even though you can technically type it in any text editor, knowing the proper LaTeX structure isn’t easy.. ✕ Remove app banner. Once you learn how math typers and equation typers work, you’d likely need to know how to actually calculate these advanced equations in math software and ideally build graphs and other visualizations.. ✕ Remove app banner. As you can see, there are more than a few ways to type mathematics, from using keyboard shortcuts with Keyboard Viewer to pasting math symbols with Character Viewer to finding a math keyboard online to handwriting your equations with MathKey to solving maths of any complexity with PocketCAS.


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